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1.
J Virol ; : e0003822, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788914

ABSTRACT

Due to the limitation of human studies with respect to individual difference or the accessibility of fresh tissue samples, how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in pathological complications in lung, the main site of infection, is still incompletely understood. Therefore, physiologically relevant animal models under realistic SARS-CoV-2 infection conditions would be helpful to our understanding of dysregulated inflammation response in lung in the context of targeted therapeutics. Here, we characterized the single-cell landscape in lung and spleen upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in an acute severe disease mouse model that replicates human symptoms, including severe lung pathology and lymphopenia. We showed a reduction of lymphocyte populations and an increase of neutrophils in lung and then demonstrated the key role of neutrophil-mediated lung immunopathology in both mice and humans. Under severe conditions, neutrophils recruited by a chemokine-driven positive feedback produced elevated "fatal signature" proinflammatory genes and pathways related to neutrophil activation or releasing of granular content. In addition, we identified a new Cd177high cluster that is undergoing respiratory burst and Stfahigh cluster cells that may dampen antigen presentation upon infection. We also revealed the devastating effect of overactivated neutrophil by showing the highly enriched neutrophil extracellular traps in lung and a dampened B-cell function in either lung or spleen that may be attributed to arginine consumption by neutrophil. The current study helped our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia and warranted the concept of neutrophil-targeting therapeutics in COVID-19 treatment. IMPORTANCE We demonstrated the single-cell landscape in lung and spleen upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in an acute severe disease mouse model that replicated human symptoms, including severe lung pathology and lymphopenia. Our comprehensive study revealed the key role of neutrophil-mediated lung immunopathology in SARS-CoV-2-induced severe pneumonia, which not only helped our understanding of COVID-19 but also warranted the concept of neutrophil targeting therapeutics in COVID-19 treatment.

2.
J Virol ; : e0016922, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765080

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 are highly pathogenic to humans and have caused pandemics in 2003 and 2019, respectively. Genetically diverse SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been detected or isolated from bats, and some of these viruses have been demonstrated to utilize human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor and to have the potential to spill over to humans. A pan-sarbecovirus vaccine that provides protection against SARSr-CoV infection is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against recombinant SARSr-CoVs carrying two different spike proteins (named rWIV1 and rRsSHC014S, respectively). Although serum neutralizing assays showed limited cross-reactivity between the three viruses, the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provided full protection against SARS-CoV-2 and rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 transgenic mice. Passive transfer of SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated mouse sera provided low protection for rWIV1 but not for rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 mice. A specific cellular immune response induced by WIV1 membrane protein peptides was detected in the vaccinated animals, which may explain the cross-protection of the inactivated vaccine. This study shows the possibility of developing a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine against SARSr-CoVs for future preparedness. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity of SARSr-CoVs in wildlife and their potential risk of cross-species infection highlight the necessity of developing wide-spectrum vaccines against infection of various SARSr-CoVs. In this study, we tested the protective efficacy of the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (IAV) against two SARSr-CoVs with different spike proteins in human ACE2 transgenic mice. We demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 IAV provides full protection against rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S. The T-cell response stimulated by the M protein may account for the cross protection against heterogeneous SARSr-CoVs. Our findings suggest the feasibility of the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines, which can be a strategy of preparedness for future outbreaks caused by novel SARSr-CoVs from wildlife.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 83, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740428

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 induced marked lymphopenia in severe patients with COVID-19. However, whether lymphocytes are targets of viral infection is yet to be determined, although SARS-CoV-2 RNA or antigen has been identified in T cells from patients. Here, we confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen could be detected in patient peripheral blood cells (PBCs) or postmortem lung T cells, and the infectious virus could also be detected from viral antigen-positive PBCs. We next prove that SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes, preferably activated CD4 + T cells in vitro. Upon infection, viral RNA, subgenomic RNA, viral protein or viral particle can be detected in the T cells. Furthermore, we show that the infection is spike-ACE2/TMPRSS2-independent through using ACE2 knockdown or receptor blocking experiments. Next, we demonstrate that viral antigen-positive T cells from patient undergone pronounced apoptosis. In vitro infection of T cells induced cell death that is likely in mitochondria ROS-HIF-1a-dependent pathways. Finally, we demonstrated that LFA-1, the protein exclusively expresses in multiple leukocytes, is more likely the entry molecule that mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection in T cells, compared to a list of other known receptors. Collectively, this work confirmed a SARS-CoV-2 infection of T cells, in a spike-ACE2-independent manner, which shed novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-induced lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Vero Cells
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318163

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been recorded in different countries across the globe. The virus is highly contagious, hence early detection, isolation, and quarantine of infected patients will play an important role in containing the viral spread. Diagnosis in a mobile lab can aid to find infected patients in time. Here, we develop a field-deployable diagnostic workflow that can reliably detect COVID-19. Instruments used in this workflow could easily fit in a mobile cabin hospital and also be installed in the community. Different steps from sample inactivation to detection were optimized to find the fastest steps and portable instruments in detection of COVID-19. Each step was compared to that of the normal laboratory diagnosis set-up. From the results, our proposed workflow (80 min) was two times faster compared to that of the normal laboratory workflow (183 min) and a maximum of 32 samples could be detected at each run. Additionally, we showed that using 1% Rewocid WK-30 could inactivate the novel coronavirus directly without affecting the overall detection results. Comparison of our workflow using an in-house assay to that of a commercially acquired assay produced highly reliable results. From the 250 hospital samples tested, there was a high concordance 247/250 (98.8%) between the two assays. The in-house assay sensitivity and specificity were 116/116 (100%) and 131/134 (97.8%) compared to that of the commercial assay. Based on these results, we believe that our workflow is fast, reliable, adaptable and most importantly, field deployable.

6.
Virol Sin ; 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648554

ABSTRACT

The nationwide COVID-19 epidemic ended in 2020, a few months after its outbreak in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. Most COVID-19 cases occurred in Hubei Province, with a few local outbreaks in other provinces of China. A few studies have reported the early SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in several large cities or provinces of China. However, information regarding the early epidemics in small and medium-sized cities, where there are still traditionally large families and community culture is more strongly maintained and thus, transmission profiles may differ, is limited. In this study, we characterized 60 newly sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Anyang as a representative of small and medium-sized Chinese cities, compared them with more than 400 reference genomes from the early outbreak, and studied the SARS-CoV-2 transmission profiles. Genomic epidemiology revealed multiple SARS-CoV-2 introductions in Anyang and a large-scale expansion of the epidemic because of the large family size. Moreover, our study revealed two transmission patterns in a single outbreak, which were attributed to different social activities. We observed the complete dynamic process of single-nucleotide polymorphism development during community transmission and found that intrahost variant analysis was an effective approach to studying cluster infections. In summary, our study provided new SARS-CoV-2 transmission profiles representative of small and medium-sized Chinese cities as well as information on the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 strains during the early COVID-19 epidemic in China.

7.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572660

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 generally raise antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 following infection, and the antibody level is positively correlated to the severity of disease. Whether the viral antibodies exacerbate COVID-19 through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is still not fully understood. Here, we conducted in vitro assessment of whether convalescent serum enhanced SARS-CoV-2 infection or induced excessive immune responses in immune cells. Our data revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection of primary B cells, macrophages and monocytes, which express variable levels of FcγR, could be enhanced by convalescent serum from COVID-19 patients. We also determined the factors associated with ADE, and found which showed a time-dependent but not viral-dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the ADE effect is not associated with the neutralizing titer or RBD antibody level when testing serum samples collected from different patients. However, it is higher in a medium level than low or high dilutions in a given sample that showed ADE effect, which is similar to dengue. Finally, we demonstrated more viral genes or dysregulated host immune gene expression under ADE conditions compared to the no-serum infection group. Collectively, our study provides insight into the understanding of an association of high viral antibody titer and severe lung pathology in severe patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Leukocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Virus Replication/immunology
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572678

ABSTRACT

The administration of COVID-19 vaccines is the primary strategy used to prevent further infections by COVID-19, especially in people living with HIV (PLWH), who are at increased risk for severe symptoms and mortality. However, the vaccine hesitancy, safety, and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines among PLWH have not been fully characterized. We estimated vaccine hesitancy and status of COVID-19 vaccination in Chinese PLWH, explored the safety and impact on antiviral therapy (ART) efficacy and compared the immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine between PLWH and healthy controls (HC). In total, 27.5% (104/378) of PLWH hesitated to take the vaccine. The barriers included concerns about safety and efficacy, and physician counselling might help patients overcome this vaccine hesitancy. A COVID-19 vaccination did not cause severe side effects and had no negative impact on CD4+ T cell counts and HIV RNA viral load. Comparable spike receptor binding domain IgG titer were elicited in PLWH and HC after a second dose of the CoronaVac vaccine, but antibody responses were lower in poor immunological responders (CD4+ T cell counts < 350 cells/µL) compared with immunological responders (CD4+ T cell counts ≥ 350 cells/µL). These data showed that PLWH have comparable safety and immune response following inactivated COVID-19 vaccination compared with HC, but the poor immunological response in PLWH is associated with impaired humoral response.

9.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441884

ABSTRACT

Bats have been identified as natural reservoirs of a variety of coronaviruses. They harbor at least 19 of the 33 defined species of alpha- and betacoronaviruses. Previously, the bat coronavirus HKU10 was found in two bat species of different suborders, Rousettus leschenaultia and Hipposideros pomona, in south China. However, its geographic distribution and evolution history are not fully investigated. Here, we screened this viral species by a nested reverse transcriptase PCR in our archived samples collected over 10 years from 25 provinces of China and one province of Laos. From 8004 bat fecal samples, 26 were found to be positive for bat coronavirus HKU10 (BtCoV HKU10). New habitats of BtCoV HKU10 were found in the Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hainan Provinces of China, and Louang Namtha Province in Laos. In addition to H. pomona, BtCoV HKU10 variants were found circulating in Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Hipposideros larvatus. We sequenced full-length genomes of 17 newly discovered BtCoV HKU10 strains and compared them with previously published sequences. Our results revealed a much higher genetic diversity of BtCoV HKU10, particularly in spike genes and accessory genes. Besides the two previously reported lineages, we found six novel lineages in their new habitats, three of which were located in Yunnan province. The genotypes of these viruses are closely related to sampling locations based on polyproteins, and correlated to bat species based on spike genes. Combining phylogenetic analysis, selective pressure, and molecular-clock calculation, we demonstrated that Yunnan bats harbor a gene pool of BtCoV HKU10, with H. pomona as a natural reservoir. The cell tropism test using spike-pseudotyped lentivirus system showed that BtCoV HKU10 could enter cells from human and bat, suggesting a potential interspecies spillover. Continuous studies on these bat coronaviruses will expand our understanding of the evolution and genetic diversity of coronaviruses, and provide a prewarning of potential zoonotic diseases from bats.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Base Sequence/genetics , Biological Evolution , China , Chiroptera/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Viral Proteins/genetics
10.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383493

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) of bat origin have caused two pandemics in this century. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV both originated from bats, and it is highly likely that bat coronaviruses will cause future outbreaks. Active surveillance is both urgent and essential to predict and mitigate the emergence of these viruses in humans. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently the preferred methodology for virus discovery to ensure unbiased sequencing of bat CoVs, considering their high genetic diversity. However, unbiased NGS is an expensive methodology and is prone to missing low-abundance CoV sequences due to the high background level of nonviral sequences present in surveillance field samples. Here, we employ a capture-based NGS approach using baits targeting most of the CoV species. Using this technology, we effectively reduced sequencing costs by increasing the sensitivity of detection. We discovered nine full genomes of bat CoVs in this study and revealed great genetic diversity for eight of them.IMPORTANCE Active surveillance is both urgent and essential to predict and mitigate the emergence of bat-origin CoV in humans and livestock. However, great genetic diversity increases the chance of homologous recombination among CoVs. Performing targeted PCR, a common practice for many surveillance studies, would not reflect this diversity. NGS, on the other hand, is an expensive methodology and is prone to missing low-abundance CoV sequences. Here, we employ a capture-based NGS approach using baits targeting all CoVs. Our work demonstrates that targeted, cost-effective, large-scale, genome-level surveillance of bat CoVs is now highly feasible.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Animals , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1527, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this research, the factors that influence the self-precautionary behavior during the pandemic are explored with the combination of social support and a risk perception attitude framework. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among 429 members to collect information on demographic data, social support, perceptions of outbreak risk, health self-efficacy, and self-precautionary behaviors with the guide of the Social Support Scale, the COVID-19 Risk Perception Scale, the Health Self-Efficacy Scale and the Self-precautionary Behavior Scale. RESULTS: The research shows that among the three dimensions of social support, both objective support and support utilization negatively predict risk perception, while subjective support positively predicts health self-efficacy; health self-efficacy and risk perception significantly predict self-precautionary behavior; the relationship between risk perception and self-precautionary behavior is significantly moderated by health self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The combined influence of social capital and risk perception attitudinal frameworks on self-precautionary behavior is highlighted in this study, with the relationship between the public's risk perception, health self-efficacy, and self-precautionary behavior intentions examined against the background of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These findings contribute to understanding the impact of social capital factors on risk perception and health self-efficacy, which provides insight into the current status and influencing factors of the public's precautionary behavior and facilitates early intervention during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1507-1514, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310873

ABSTRACT

Severe respiratory disease coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been the most devastating disease COVID-19 in the century. One of the unsolved scientific questions of SARS-CoV-2 is the animal origin of this virus. Bats and pangolins are recognized as the most probable reservoir hosts that harbour highly similar SARS-CoV-2 related viruses (SARSr-CoV-2). This study identified a novel lineage of SARSr-CoVs, including RaTG15 and seven other viruses, from bats at the same location where we found RaTG13 in 2015. Although RaTG15 and the related viruses share 97.2% amino acid sequence identities with SARS-CoV-2 in the conserved ORF1b region, it only shows less than 77.6% nucleotide identity to all known SARSr-CoVs at the genome level, thus forming a distinct lineage in the Sarbecovirus phylogenetic tree. We found that the RaTG15 receptor-binding domain (RBD) can bind to ACE2 from Rhinolophus affinis, Malayan pangolin, and use it as an entry receptor, except for ACE2 from humans. However, it contains a short deletion and has different key residues responsible for ACE2 binding. In addition, we showed that none of the known viruses in bat SARSr-CoV-2 lineage discovered uses human ACE2 as efficiently as the pangolin-derived SARSr-CoV-2 or some viruses in the SARSr-CoV-1 lineage. Therefore, further systematic and longitudinal studies in bats are needed to prevent future spillover events caused by SARSr-CoVs or to understand the origin of SARS-CoV-2 better.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Cell Lineage , Chiroptera/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Animals , Host Specificity , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/classification
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 905-912, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191602

ABSTRACT

Without an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the build-up of herd immunity through natural infection has been suggested as a means to control COVID-19. Although population immunity is typically estimated by the serological investigation of recovered patients, humoral immunity in asymptomatic subjects has not been well studied, although they represent a large proportion of all SARS-CoV-2 infection cases. In this study, we conducted a serosurvey of asymptomatic infections among food workers and performed serological and cellular response analyses of asymptomatic subjects in Wuhan, the original epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our data showed that up to 5.91% of the food workers carried SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies asymptomatically; however, in 90.4% of them, the antibody level declined over a 2-week period. IgM and IgG antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, were significantly lower in asymptomatic subjects than in recovered symptomatic patients with similar disease courses. Furthermore, the asymptomatic subjects showed lymphopenia and a prominent decrease in the B-cell population, as well as a low frequency of antibody-secreting cells and a low cytokine response. These factors probably contributed to the low and unsustained antibody levels in asymptomatic subjects. Our results show that asymptomatic subjects are likely to be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, and neither the proportion of population immunity nor the breadth of immune responses is sufficient for herd immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , China/epidemiology , Convalescence , Cytokines/blood , Disease Susceptibility , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Food Handling , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin M/biosynthesis , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/etiology , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sputum/virology
18.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 103, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 210,000 medical workers have fought against the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei in China since December 2019. However, the prevalence of mental health problems in frontline medical staff after fighting COVID-19 is still unknown. METHODS: Medical workers in Wuhan and other cities in Hubei Province were invited to participate a cross-sectional and convenience sampling online survey, which assessed the prevalence of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RESULTS: A total of 1,091 responses (33% male and 67% female) were valid for statistical analysis. The prevalence was anxiety 53%, insomnia 79%, depression 56%, and PTSD 11%. Healthcare workers in Wuhan were more likely to face risks of anxiety (56% vs. 52%, P = 0.03) and PTSD (15% vs. 9%, P = 0.03) than those in other cities of Hubei. In terms of educational attainment, those with doctoral and masters' (D/M) degrees may experience more anxiety (median of 7.0, [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-8.5] vs. median 5.0 [IQR 5.0-8.0], P = 0.02) and PTSD (median 26.0 [IQR 19.5-33.0] vs. median 23.0 [IQR 19.0-31.0], P = 0.04) than those with lower educational degrees. CONCLUSIONS: The mental problems were an important issue for the healthcare workers after COVID-19. Thus, an early intervention on such mental problems is necessary for healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Prevalence , Psychometrics , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
J Virol ; 94(20)2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024213

ABSTRACT

The Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus), reservoir host of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), carries many bat SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs) with high genetic diversity, particularly in the spike gene. Despite these variations, some bat SARSr-CoVs can utilize the orthologs of the human SARS-CoV receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), for entry. It is speculated that the interaction between bat ACE2 and SARSr-CoV spike proteins drives diversity. Here, we identified a series of R. sinicus ACE2 variants with some polymorphic sites involved in the interaction with the SARS-CoV spike protein. Pseudoviruses or SARSr-CoVs carrying different spike proteins showed different infection efficiencies in cells transiently expressing bat ACE2 variants. Consistent results were observed by binding affinity assays between SARS-CoV and SARSr-CoV spike proteins and receptor molecules from bats and humans. All tested bat SARSr-CoV spike proteins had a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to bat ACE2, although they showed a 10-fold lower binding affinity to human ACE2 compared with that of their SARS-CoV counterpart. Structure modeling revealed that the difference in binding affinity between spike and ACE2 might be caused by the alteration of some key residues in the interface of these two molecules. Molecular evolution analysis indicates that some key residues were under positive selection. These results suggest that the SARSr-CoV spike protein and R. sinicus ACE2 may have coevolved over time and experienced selection pressure from each other, triggering the evolutionary arms race dynamics.IMPORTANCE Evolutionary arms race dynamics shape the diversity of viruses and their receptors. Identification of key residues which are involved in interspecies transmission is important to predict potential pathogen spillover from wildlife to humans. Previously, we have identified genetically diverse SARSr-CoVs in Chinese horseshoe bats. Here, we show the highly polymorphic ACE2 in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. These ACE2 variants support SARS-CoV and SARSr-CoV infection but with different binding affinities to different spike proteins. The higher binding affinity of SARSr-CoV spike to human ACE2 suggests that these viruses have the capacity for spillover to humans. The positive selection of residues at the interface between ACE2 and SARSr-CoV spike protein suggests long-term and ongoing coevolutionary dynamics between them. Continued surveillance of this group of viruses in bats is necessary for the prevention of the next SARS-like disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Coevolution , Chiroptera/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Binding Sites , Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , HeLa Cells , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4355

ABSTRACT

Some patients with corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) experienced a severe exacerbation of the disease due to the occurrence of inflammatory storm during the development of the disease. They are complicated with acute respiratory distress, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and other serious complications, with a poor prognosis and a high mortality. For the inflammation storm, western medicine mostly adopts glucocorticoids, nutritional support, artificial ventilation assistance and other measures at present. The development of artificial liver, blood purification therapy, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and other technologies have also reduced the mortality of patients to some extent. However, due to the high requirements for equipment, the measures have not yet been widely carried out. From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the basic pathogenesis of COVID-19 is epidemic toxin invasion, lung and spleen being affected by pathogens, damaging vital Qi, and pathol. properties involving dampness, heat, poison, stasis and deficiency. At the stage of inflammation storm, the pathogens are abundant, while the vital qi is deficient;and the pathogens occlude the lung, and disturb the heart and mind, and blood stasis and toxicity are combined with Qi-Yin deficiency. In severe cases, even both Yin and Yang exhaustion occurs. At present, a number of studies have shown that a variety of Chinese herbal medicines have multi-target immunomodulatory effects on viral pneumonia and cytokine storm. TCM participates in the whole process of the occurrence and development of the inflammation storm, mainly eliminating pathogens in the early stage, controlling inflammation and blocking the occurrence of the inflammation storm;eliminating pathogens and strengthening the body resistance to eliminate the pathol. products of the inflammation storm, and promoting the dissipation and absorption of inflammation in the middle stage;and saving lives in the late stage by benefiting Qi and relieving depletion, and restoring yang and rescuing from collapse. On the basis of the pathophysiol. mechanism of COVID-19 inflammation storm and the theory of TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment, this paper summarized the pharmacol. studies on the intervention on inflammatory storm with relevant Chinese herbal medicine, Chinese medicine prescriptions and Chinese medicine preparations, and discussed the intervention measures of traditional Chinese medicine in different development stages of inflammatory storm, in the expectation of providing the guidance for clin. treatment.

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