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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 624411, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090416

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is wreaking havoc around the world. To get the world back on track, hundreds of vaccines are under development. A deeper understanding of how the immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2 re-infection will certainly help. Studies have highlighted various aspects of T cell response in resolving acute infection and preventing re-infections. Lung resident memory T (TRM) cells are sentinels in the secondary immune response. They are mostly differentiated from effector T cells, construct specific niches and stay permanently in lung tissues. If the infection recurs, locally activated lung TRM cells can elicit rapid immune response against invading pathogens. In addition, they can significantly limit tumor growth or lead to pathologic immune responses. Vaccines targeting TRM cells are under development, with the hope to induce stable and highly reactive lung TRM cells through mucosal administration or "prime-and-pull" strategy. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in lung TRM cell generation and maintenance, explore their roles in different diseases and discuss how these cells may guide the development of future vaccines targeting infectious disease, cancer, and pathologic immune response.

2.
Psychology Research and Behavior Management ; 14:41-47, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1088826

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the psychological impact of cases of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) on medical staff of Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital Methods: The 287 online questionnaires were distributed to medical staff working at Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital, comprising three main sections and 17 questions: basic information, current departmental position, and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) The threshold for emotional distress was defined to be a total score of 4 on the GHQ-12 and above Results: A total of 255 members of medical staff participating in this study presented an emotional distress rate of 17% Members who were male, aged 50– 59, married with children, positioned as doctors, and in administration were the population with the highest rate of emotional distress Furthermore, the severity of emotional distress among those under 30 was significantly lower than those aged 30– 39 and 50– 59 Doctors and other occupations shared a lower level of satisfaction on routine activities compared with nurses, so did staff in the administration compared with those who were working in screening or logistic departments Besides, males and staff of the confirmation department had more difficulty in concentrating than females and those of the screening department, respectively Conclusion: Medical staff working at Xiaotangshan Hospital underwent relatively low levels of emotional distress thanks to sufficient medical and psychological preparations However, special attention should be paid to those who were male, married with children, senior, doctors, in administration, and in the confirmation department

4.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4386

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe clin efficacy of Lung-toxin dispelling formula Number1 treating patients of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) type severe/type extremely severe, and summarize experiences of diagnosis and treatment Method: We collected and analyzed clin informations of patients of COVID-19 type severe/type extremely severe, treated with Lung-toxin Dispelling Formula Number1, who were hospitalized in Central hospital in Zhumadian and the First affiliated hospital of Henan University of traditional Chinese medicine from 31st Jan to 27th Feb Result: All patients had pos epidemiol history, major symptoms were fever, cough, tachypnea, weakness and sore heavy muscles, combined with bad appetite and diarrhea The average age was 59y, median time from onset to getting worse was 9 days, ground glass opacity, lamellar, nodular high d shadow were mostly displayed in both lungs Lesions progressed faster After treatment with Lung-toxin Dispelling Formula Number1 combined with western medicine, the average time of PCR-NAD-test from pos to neg was 16 days, the average hospitalization days were 20 days, all patients were cured and discharged Conclusion: Lung-toxin Dispelling Formula Number1 had certain clin efficiency in treating patients of COVID-19 type severe/type extremely severe, further large sample clin verification is needed

5.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4354

ABSTRACT

The present study relates to anal of medical cases of corona virus disease 2019 treated with traditional Chinese medicine Haoqin Qingdan decoction Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which broke out in Wuhan, is highly contagious, and belongs to the category of "damp toxin epidemic" in traditional Chinese medicine In this study, Haoqin Qingdan decoction was used to clear dampness and heat, reconcile Shaoyang channel and reach Sanjiao channel, detoxify the dampness fever epidemic toxin, and block the toxin inside, with a good efficacy This prescription focuses on smoothing the Shaoyang gallbladder channel and Sanjiao channel, and regards the spleen and stomach as the acquired essence In the prescription, Erchen decoction reconciles the spleen and stomach, elevates clear qi and lower turbid qi;Radix Bupleuri is added to increase its detoxification function;and Radix Paeoniae Rubra is added to circulate the blood and prevent pathogen from the blood When the condition improves, Sweet Wormwood Herb and talc are often withdrawn, and Codonopsis is added to nourish the spleen and stomach, to strengthen the healthy qi and eliminate evil Based on the cases of COVID-19 treated in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, this paper summarized some experience of applying Haoqin Qingdan decoction

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e044028, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and externally validate a COVID-19 mortality risk prediction algorithm. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Five designated tertiary hospitals for COVID-19 in Hubei province, China. PARTICIPANTS: We routinely collected medical data of 1364 confirmed adult patients with COVID-19 between 8 January and 19 March 2020. Among them, 1088 patients from two designated hospitals in Wuhan were used to develop the prognostic model, and 276 patients from three hospitals outside Wuhan were used for external validation. All patients were followed up for a maximal of 60 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: The model discrimination was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and Somers' D test, and calibration was examined by the calibration plot. Decision curve analysis was conducted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 60 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: The full model included seven predictors of age, respiratory failure, white cell count, lymphocytes, platelets, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase. The simple model contained five indicators of age, respiratory failure, coronary heart disease, renal failure and heart failure. After cross-validation, the AUC statistics based on derivation cohort were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.96 to 0.97) for the full model and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89 to 0.95) for the simple model. The AUC statistics based on the external validation cohort were 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96 to 0.98) for the full model and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.96) for the simple model. Good calibration accuracy of these two models was found in the derivation and validation cohort. CONCLUSION: The prediction models showed good model performance in identifying patients with COVID-19 with a high risk of death in 60 days. It may be useful for acute risk classification. WEB CALCULATOR: We provided a freely accessible web calculator (https://www.whuyijia.com/).


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Risk Assessment/methods , /therapy , China/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate/trends
7.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 1938-1947, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the effective prevention and control of COVID-19 in China, the number of cured cases has increased significantly. Further monitoring of the disease prognosis and effective control of the "relapse" of the epidemic has become the next focus of work. This study analysed the clinical prognosis of discharged COVID-19 patients by monitoring their SAR-CoV-2 nucleic acid status, which provided a theoretical basis for medical institutions to formulate discharge standards and follow-up management for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included 13 discharged COVID-19 patients who were quarantined for 4 weeks at home. The patient's daily clinical signs were recorded and sputum and faecal specimens were regularly sent for detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. RESULTS: The time between initial symptoms and meeting discharge criteria was 18 to 44 days with an average of 25 ± 6 days. The faecal samples of two patients still tested positive after meeting the discharge criteria and the sputum samples of four patients returned positive 5 to 14 days after discharge. The rate of the recurring positive test result in samples from the respiratory system was 31% (4/13). CONCLUSION: Under the present discharge criteria, the high presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in faecal and respiratory samples of discharged COVID-19 patients indicates potential infectivity. Therefore, we suggest that faecal virus nucleic acid should be tested as a routine monitoring index for COVID-19 and a negative result be added to the criteria. Simultaneously, we should strengthen the regular follow-up of discharged patients with continuous monitoring of the recurrence of viral nucleic acid.

8.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23644, 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate laboratory markers for COVID-19 progression in patients with different medical conditions. METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective study of 836 cases in Hubei. To avoid the collinearity among the indicators, principal component analysis (PCA) followed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to obtain an overview of laboratory assessments. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were respectively used to explore risk factors associated with disease severity and mortality. Survival analysis was performed in patients with the most common comorbidities. RESULTS: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and prealbumin were associated with disease severity in patients with or without comorbidities, indicated by both PCA/PLS-DA and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The mortality risk was associated with age, LDH, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and lymphopenia in patients with comorbidities. CRP was a risk factor associated with short-term mortality in patients with hypertension, but not liver diseases; additionally, D-dimer was a risk factor for death in patients with liver diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Lactate dehydrogenase was a reliable predictor associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality in patients with different medical conditions. Laboratory biomarkers for mortality risk were not identical in patients with comorbidities, suggesting multiple pathophysiological mechanisms following COVID-19 infection.

9.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853981

ABSTRACT

Background: A recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), which began in Wuhan, China, with a high level of human-to-human transmission has been reported. There are limited data available on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hematological malignancies with more than 60 days of follow-up. This study describes the clinical characteristics, including multiple recurrences of COVID-19, in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) during 69 days of follow-up. Case Presentation: A 72-year-old female was admitted to hospital isolation after being infected with COVID-19 as part of a family cluster on January 30, 2020. Apart from SARS-Cov-2 virus infection, laboratory results revealed lymphocytosis of uncertain etiology and abnormal distribution of T lymphocytes. On blood smears, small blue lymphocytes with scant cytoplasm were observed, and the presence of high levels of circulating clonal B cells was also demonstrated by flow cytometry. The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 and CLL. Among her family members, she had the highest viral loads and the fastest progression on lung injury and developed severe pneumonia. Serological results showed she had both 2019-nCoV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies; however, only IgG antibodies were detected in her husband's plasma. Results: A combination regimen of antiviral therapy and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the early stage seemed to be effective for treating CLL and SARS-Cov-2 infection. Because of the low humoral immune response, the CLL patient could not effectively clear the SARS-Cov-2 infection and suffered from recurrence twice during the 69-day follow-up. Conclusion: In CLL, a neoplastic antigen-specific B-cell clone proliferates, and the progeny cells accumulate and outgrow other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. Considering the low humoral immune response and ineffective clearance of SARS-Cov-2 in CLL patients, the follow-up and home quarantine period should be extended. We need further studies to clarify suspending or continuing CLL therapy during COVID infection. For those patients who are prone to progression to severe disease, administering humoral immunity therapies can help to prevent disease progression and quickly meet the cure criteria.

10.
Phytomedicine ; 81: 153367, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are limited by suboptimal efficacy. METHODS: From January 30, 2020 to March 23, 2020, we conducted a non-randomised controlled trial, in which all adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were assigned to three groups non-randomly and given supportive treatments: Group A, Lopinavir-Ritonavir; Group B, Huashi Baidu Formula (a Chinese medicineformula made by the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences to treat COVID-19, which is now in the clinical trial period) and Lopinavir-Ritonavir; and Group C, Huashi Baidu Formula. The use of antibiotics, antiviruses, and corticosteroids was permitted in Group A and B. Traditional Chinese medicine injections were permitted in Group C. The primary outcomes were clinical remission time (interval from admission to the first time the patient tested negatively for novel coronavirus or an obvious improvement was observed from chest CT) and clinical remission rate (number of patients whose clinical time was within 16 days/total number of patients). RESULTS: A total of 60 adult patients with COVID-19 were enrolled at sites in Wuhan, China, and the sample size of each group was 20. In Groups A, B and C, the clinical remission rates were 95.0%%(19/20), 100.0%%(20/20) and 100.0%%(20/20), respectively. Compared with Groups A and B, the clinical remission time of Group C was significantly shorter (5.9 days vs. 10.8 days, p < 0.05; 5.9 days vs. 9.7 days, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference among Groups A, B, and C in terms of the time taken to be released from quarantine. The clinical biochemical indicators and safety indexes showed no significant differences among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Lopinavir-Ritonavir has some efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19, and the Huashi Baidu Formula might enhance this effect to an extent. In addition, superiority was displayed in the treatment of COVID-19 through a combination of the Huashi Baidu Formula and traditional Chinese medicine injection. In future, well-designed prospective double-blinded randomised control trials are required to confirm our findings.

11.
Journal of Third Military Medical University ; 42(06):539-544, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-833506

ABSTRACT

2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-COV-2 virus, and lacks specifically effective treatment till now Its clinical manifestations and the concerning studies at home and abroad have shown that viral sepsis caused by SARS-COV-2 virus has typical characteristics of pathophysiology of sepsis, that is, early cytokine storm and subsequent immunosuppression stage At present, although great attention has been paid to the treatment and clinical research on cytokine storm, the later stage of immunosuppression is neglected Patients' lower immunity, secondary infection and multiple organ failure are quite common, and all these lead to rapid deterioration and even death Therefore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the investigation and treatment of sepsis immunosuppression stage caused by COVID-19, and to study the drugs with bidirectional immune regulation such as artesunate so as order to reduce the mortality of patients with severe or critical COVID-19 What's more, we strongly recommend that chloroquine phosphate should be used with great caution for severe and critical patients

12.
Veterinary Microbiology ; 24462, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-827805

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused, and continues to cause, severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide The pathogenic mechanism and immune regulatory interactions between PEDV and the host remain largely unknown In this study, the interaction between autophagy and PEDV replication in intestinal porcine epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells was investigated The effects of the structural and nonstructural proteins of PEDV on the autophagy process and the autophagy-related signaling pathways were also examined The results shown that PEDV replication increased the autophagy flux in IPEC-J2 cells, and that autophagy was beneficial to PEDV replication, which may be one of the reasons for the rapid damage to intestinal epithelial cells and the enhanced virulence of PEDV in both newborn piglets and finishing pigs When autophagy was pharmacologically induced by rapamycin, PEDV replication increased from 8 510sup5/sup TCIDsub50/sub/mL to 8 810sup6/sup TCIDsub50/sub/mL in IPEC-J2 cells When autophagy was pharmacologically suppressed by hydroxychloroquine, PEDV replication decreased from 8 510sup5/sup TCIDsub50/sub/mL to 7 910sup4/sup TCIDsub50/sub/mL To identify which PEDV proteins were the key inducers of autophagy, all 4 structural proteins and 17 nonstructural proteins of PEDV were eukaryotic expressed It was found that the nonstructural protein 6 (nsp6) and ORF3 of PEDV were able to induce significant autophagy in IPEC-J2 cells, but the other proteins were unable to induce autophagy It was indicated that nsp6-induced autophagy mainly occurred via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway The results accelerate the understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of PEDV infection and provide new insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies

13.
Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition ; 104(2):637-644, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-826338

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of Anemoside B4 (AB4), Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), Notoginsenoside R1 (SR1), Saikosaponin A (SSA) and Saikosaponin D (SSD) on piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) A total of 132 completely healthy piglets were randomly divided into 22 groups consisting of six animals each Control piglets were intramuscularly injected with 2 ml of PRRSV (NJGC strain) solution containing 106 TCID50 virus/ml For low‐, middle‐ and high‐dose saponin treatment groups, the piglets were initially administrated with the same volume of PRRSV solution, followed by intraperitoneal injection with AB4, PNS, SR1, SSA or SSD at 1, 5 or 10 mg/kg b w on day 3 The piglets in drug control group were intraperitoneally injected with 10 mg/kg b w of each saponin without prior PRRS challenge, while those in blank control group were injected with the same amount of normal saline The results indicated that all the five saponin components could decrease the incidence and severity of PRRSV‐induced immunopathological damages, including the elevated body temperature, weight loss, anaemia and internal inflammation Moreover, the saponin components could enhance protein absorption and immune responses Taken together, this study reveals that the saponin components are effective against PRRSV infection and strengthen the immune system and thus may serve as potential antiviral therapeutic agents [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use This abstract may be abridged No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract (Copyright applies to all Abstracts )

14.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808504

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic coronaviruses represent a major threat to global public health. Here, using a recombinant reporter virus-based compound screening approach, we identified several small-molecule inhibitors that potently block the replication of the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Two compounds, nitazoxanide and JIB-04 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells with an EC 50 of 4.90 µM and 0.69 µM, respectively, with specificity indices of greater than 150. Both inhibitors had in vitro antiviral activity in multiple cell types against some DNA and RNA viruses, including porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus. In an in vivo porcine model of coronavirus infection, administration of JIB-04 reduced virus infection and associated tissue pathology, which resulted in improved body weight gain and survival. These results highlight the potential utility of nitazoxanide and JIB-04 as antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 and other viral pathogens.

15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 130, 2020 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has spread all around the world. Italy is one of the worst affected countries in Europe. Although there is a trend of relief, the epidemic situation hasn't stabilized yet. This study aims to investigate the dynamics of the disease spread in Italy and provide some suggestions on containing the epidemic. METHODS: We compared Italy's status at the outbreak stage and control measures with Guangdong Province in China by data observation and analysis. A modified autonomous SEIR model was used to study the COVID-19 epidemic and transmission potential during the early stage of the outbreak in Italy. We also utilized a time-dependent dynamic model to study the future disease dynamics in Italy. The impact of various non-pharmaceutical control measures on epidemic was investigated through uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The comparison of specific measures implemented in the two places and the time when the measures were initiated shows that the initial prevention and control actions in Italy were not sufficiently timely and effective. We estimated parameter values based on available cumulative data and calculated the basic reproduction number to be 4.32 before the national lockdown in Italy. Based on the estimated parameter values, we performed numerical simulations to predict the epidemic trend and evaluate the impact of contact limitation, detection and diagnosis, and individual behavior change due to media coverage on the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS: Italy was in a severe epidemic status and the control measures were not sufficiently timely and effective in the beginning. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, including contact restrictions and improvement of case recognition, play an important role in containing the COVID-19 epidemic. The effect of individual behavior changes due to media update of the outbreak cannot be ignored. For policy-makers, early and strict blockade measures, fast detection and improving media publicity are key to containing the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence
16.
EMBO Rep ; : e50308-e50308, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-662381

ABSTRACT

The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is essential for the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their function in immune homeostasis Previous studies have shown that in natural Tregs (nTregs), FOXP3 can be regulated by polyubiquitination and deubiquitination However, the molecular players active in this pathway, especially those modulating FOXP3 by deubiquitination in the distinct induced Treg (iTreg) lineage, remain unclear Here, we identify the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 44 (USP44) as a novel deubiquitinase for FOXP3 USP44 interacts with and stabilizes FOXP3 by removing K48-linked ubiquitin modifications Notably, TGF-ß induces USP44 expression during iTreg differentiation USP44 co-operates with USP7 to stabilize and deubiquitinate FOXP3 Tregs genetically lacking USP44 are less effective than their wild-type counterparts, both in vitro and in multiple in vivo models of inflammatory disease and cancer These findings suggest that USP44 plays an important role in the post-translational regulation of Treg function and is thus a potential therapeutic target for tolerance-breaking anti-cancer immunotherapy

17.
Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue ; 32(8):922-927, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-760965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effect of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine on common type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Henan Province METHODS: A prospective single arm clinical study was performed Patients with common type of COVID-19 admitted to seven designated hospitals for COVID-19 in Henan Province from January 25th to February 26th, 2020 were enrolled, and treated with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine The negative transformation of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) nucleic acid, disease outcome, hospital stay, clinical symptoms and signs scores, and chest imaging performance were observed RESULTS: Totally 86 cases were included in the analysis, including 48 males (55 8%), aged 43 5 (35 0, 53 3) years old, 24 patients (27 9%) with previous medical history Fifty-eight patients were primarily diagnosed COVID-19 and 28 patients were transferred The 2019-nCoV nucleic acid of 86 cases (100%) turned negative, and the median time of turning negative was 10 (7, 14) days Eighty-six cases (100%) were discharged from hospital, and none turned into the severe type;the average length of hospital stay was (13 8±5 6) days The scores of fever, cough, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and fatigue decreased with the treatment time, and the scores of 7 days and 14 days after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment [fever (points): 0 (0, 0), 0 (0, 0) vs 1 (0, 1);cough (points): 1 (0, 1), 0 (0, 1) vs 1 (0, 2);chest tightness (points): 0 (0, 0), 0 (0, 0) vs 0 (0, 1);shortness of breath (points): 0 (0, 0), 0 (0, 0) vs 0 (0, 1);fatigue (points): 0 (0, 1), 0 (0, 1) vs 1 (0, 1);all P < 0 05] The improvement rate of X ray and CT image was 42 9% (12/28) and 81 0% (64/79), respectively CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine has good curative effect on common type of COVID-19 in 7 designated hospitals of Henan Province It can improve the clinical symptoms, promote the absorption of pulmonary inflammation, and to some extent control the progress of disease and shorten the time of turning negative of virus nucleic acid and hospital stay

18.
Health Policy Technol ; 9(4): 447-453, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733828

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has disrupted not only the health sector but also justice systems. Courts around the world have had to respond quickly to the challenges presented by the pandemic and the associated social distancing restrictions. This has created significant challenges for the justice system and such challenges are likely to be further compounded in the post-pandemic era as there is a 'tsunami' of COVID-19-related disputes predicted. Methods: This study will examine how global court responses have transitioned from being primarily traditional, face-to-face proceedings to online court processes (as supported by internet technology). By adopting a comparative approach, we will analyse how some countries have adapted to this shift to online mode while also maintaining a focus on access to justice. Results: We argue that online modes of dispute resolution, often referred to as Online Dispute Resolution (ODR), can promote resolution while facilitating social distancing in this new COVID-era. The rapid shift from traditional court processes to an online mode has further assisted the public, lawyers and experts to access the justice system in some jurisdictions, even during the crisis. In light of the scale of recent changes, there have been concerns about the capacity of courts to adopt newer technologies as well as issues relating to the impact of a new online model of justice, particularly in terms of the barriers for more vulnerable members of society. Further, the use of disruptive technologies in some courts have posed questions around whether outcomes generated by these innovations reflect the meaning of 'justice' in its traditional sense. Conclusions: This article argues that courts should embrace newer technologies that support court services while being mindful of possible tech-related issues that can impact on justice objectives. We argue that by placing further emphasis on alternative dispute resolution methods and ODR into the future, this might offset the likely tsunami of COVID-related litigation which would enable courts, hospitals, medical professionals and patients to settle disputes in a just, equitable and more efficient manner.

19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717333

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has rapidly spread to 216 countries and territories since first outbreak in December of 2019, posing a substantial economic losses and extraordinary threats to the public health worldwide. Although bats have been suggested as the natural host of SARS-CoV-2, transmission chains of this virus, role of animals during cross-species transmission, and future concerns remain unclear. Diverse animal coronaviruses have extensively been studied since the discovery of avian coronavirus in 1930s. The current article comprehensively reviews and discusses the current understanding about animal coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 for their emergence, transmission, zoonotic potential, alteration of tissue/host tropism, evolution, status of vaccines and surveillance. This study aims at providing guidance for control of COVID-19 and preventative strategies for possible future outbreaks of zoonotic coronavirus via cross-species transmission.

20.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 68, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In China, mothers with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 pneumonia are recommended to stop breastfeeding. However, the evidence to support this guidance is lacking. There have been relatively few cases reported about direct breastfeeding an infant by a mother with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the safety of breastfeeding and the possible protective effects of breast milk on infants. CASE PRESENTATION: This report analyzes the case of a mother who continued breastfeeding her 13 month-old child when both were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was determined in maternal serum, breast milk, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and feces, and in infant serum, NP swabs and feces. IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were assessed in maternal serum and breast milk and in infant serum. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was not detected in the breast milk, and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in the mother's serum and milk. CONCLUSIONS: The present case further confirms that the possibility of mother-to-child transmission about SARS-CoV-2 via breast milk alone was very small, and breast milk is safe for direct feeding of infants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Breast Feeding , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Milk, Human/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
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