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1.
China Tropical Medicine ; 22(9):811-815, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2164283

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the impacts of vaccination with inactivated SARS-COV-2 vaccine on the clinical manifestations and serological responses of COVID-19 patients infected by Delta and Alpha variants. Methods Clinical and experimental data of 341 confirmed SARS-COV-2 patients were collected from The Eighth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University May 1- September 30, 2021. The subjects were divided into Delta and Alpha variant group according to virus variants, and were divided into vaccinated group and unvaccinated group according to whether they had received inactivated COVID-19 vaccine or not. The clinical manifestations and serological responses of patients with Delta and Alpha variant, and vaccinated and unvaccinated patients with Delta and Alpha variants were compared. Results Totally 253 patients were infected with Delta variant (103 vaccinated and 150 unvaccinated patients), and 88 patients were infected with Alpha variant (21 vaccinated and 67 unvaccinated patients). The proportion of asymptomatic infection in Delta variants group was significantly lower than that in Alpha variants group (P<0.01). Delta variant group of vaccination rates and vaccine breakthrough infection rate was 40.7% (103/253) and 22.9% (58/253), were higher than Alpha variant group was 23.9% (21/88) and 8.0% (7/88), difference was statistically significant (χ2= 8.009, 9.484, P<0.01). The proportion of cough and fever in Delta variant group was higher than that in Alpha variant group (both P<0.01), the peak viral load was higher than that of Alpha variant group (P<0.01), the virus duration was longer than that of Alpha variant group (P<0.01), the levels of SAA, CRP and IFN were higher than those of Alpha variant group (all P<0.05), CD4+T cell count was lower than that of Alpha variant group (P<0.05), IgG and IgM levels were lower than those of Alpha variant group (both P<0.01). The proportion of moderate COVID-19 in the vaccinated group was lower than that in the unvaccinated group (P<0.01). In these two variants, the peak viral load of vaccinated group was lower than that of the unvaccinated group (both P<0.01), the duration of virus was shorter than that of unvaccinated group (both P<0.01). The levels of SAA, CRP and IL-6 in the vaccinated group were lower than those in the unvaccinated group (all P<0.05), CD4+T cell level was higher than that of unvaccinated group (both P<0.05), IgG and IgM level were higher than those in unvaccinated group (both P<0.05). Conclusions Delta variant can lead to higher viral load and more severe disease course, which is associated with vaccine breakthrough infection. Inactivated vaccines for COVID-19 can reduce severe illness and death by reducing viral load, disease duration and inflammatory response through humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. © 2022 The authors.

2.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13(s2) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2163855

ABSTRACT

Deaths from COVID-19 are increasing in patients with comorbidities. One of the most common comorbidities is diabetes mellitus. The researchers wanted to see how having diabetes affected the mortality rate of COVID-19 participants. This investigation is a case control observational analytical study. Different types of people, called "cases," and "controls," complete the research sample. Each group had 68 responders, for a grand total of 136. Medical records from COVID-19 patients treated at Airlangga University Hospital, Surabaya, between March 2020 and September 2021 serve as the study's secondary data source. The purpose of this study's data analysis is to calculate an odds ratio. Patients with COVID-19 with concomitant diabetes mellitus had an increased risk of death, and this risk increased with age, gender, and COVID-19 symptoms. In contrast, education, occupation, and laboratory results were not significantly related to mortality among COVID-19 individuals with concomitant diabetes mellitus (GDA status). The results of this study show that COVID-19 patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of death if they are over the age of 65, if they are male, and if they have severe symptoms. Copyright © the Author(s),2022.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2163167

ABSTRACT

Background: Using daily monitoring of environmental surfaces and personal protective equipment (PPE), we found an increase in environmental contamination since August 18, 2021, in a designated hospital for COVID-19 patients in China, which may lead to an increased risk of exposure to medical staff. Methods: To investigate the cause of increased environmental contamination and effect of our intervention, we obtained environmental samples at pre-intervention (August 18–21, 2021) and post-intervention (August 22–28, 2021) from six infection isolation rooms with windows for ventilation and other auxiliary areas at 105 and 129 sites before routine daily cleaning, respectively. In addition, we obtained PPE samples from 98 medical staff exiting the patient rooms/contaminated areas at 482 sites. Between August 22 and 24, 2021, we took measures to reduce environmental contamination based on sampling and inspection results. Findings: At pre-intervention, the positivity rates for contamination of environmental surfaces and PPE samples were significantly higher for critical patients (37.21 and 27.86%, respectively) than severely ill patients (25.00 and 12.50%, respectively) and moderately ill patients (0.00 and 0.00%, respectively) (Pearson's Chi-square: χ2 = 15.560, p = 0.000;Fisher's exact test: χ2 = 9.358, p = 0.007). Therefore, we inferred that the source of contamination of environmental surfaces and PPE was mainly the room of critically ill patients, likely through the hands of medical staff to the potentially contaminated areas. A critically ill patient had emergency tracheal intubation and rescue on August 18, 2021, due to worsened patient condition. The ventilator tube used for first aid did not match the ventilator, and the ventilator tube fell off multiple times on August 18–21, 2021, which may explain the increased contamination of environmental surfaces and PPE from critically ill patients, as well as lead to indirect contamination of potentially contaminated areas. The contamination positivity rates of environmental surfaces and PPE were reduced by replacing the appropriate ventilator catheter, limiting the number of people entering the isolation room simultaneously, increasing the frequency of environmental disinfection, standardizing the undressing process, setting up undressing monitoring posts to supervise the undressing process, and preventing the spread of virus infections in the hospital during an epidemic. Conclusions: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was spread on object surfaces in isolation rooms mainly by touch, and the contamination of environmental surfaces and PPE was greater in rooms of patients with greater disease severity and higher surface touch frequency. Therefore, strict protective measures for medical staff, frequent environmental cleaning for isolation rooms, and compliance with mask wearing by patients when conditions permit should be advised to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread in hospitals.

4.
Front Psychol ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2163111

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led higher education institutions to transition to online learning. The present study was designed to investigate students' self-regulated learning strategies on academic performance in online learning. We analyzed the differences in college students' self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies according to their grade point average (GPA). The study included 1,163 students at a distance education university in China. Two online questionnaires were used to determine online SRL strategies. GPA scores were obtained from the university exam database to determine academic performance. The analysis showed that there are great differences between different self-regulated strategies and between different students when accepting the online learning. The analysis also showed that self-evaluation, metacognitive self-regulation, and effort regulation were positive predictors of academic progress, besides, self-evaluation and effort regulation had mutual influence effect on the improvement of GPA in online learning. These data will help teachers, education policymakers, and education administrators adopt and implement online learning services to improve students' academic performance.

5.
Journal of Alzheimers Disease Reports ; 6(1):733-737, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2162925

ABSTRACT

Persons living with dementia and their caregivers are among society's most vulnerable, a condition exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This national survey was conducted with dementia caregivers in the US. Primary outcomes targeted pandemic-related changes in cognitive, behavioral, and motors systems. 113 dementia caregivers from 30 US states completed the survey. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on persons living with dementia and their caregivers is substantial in comparison to society at large. A marked public health and preventative role signals opportunity for practitioners to fill the void and prepare for future public health emergencies.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13):8-16, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162894

ABSTRACT

Early warning and response surveillance (EWARS) systems were widely used during the early COVID-19 response. Evaluating the effectiveness of EWARS systems is critical to ensuring global health security. We describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) global COVID-19 EWARS (CDC EWARS) system and the resources CDC used to gather, manage, and analyze publicly available data during the prepandemic period. We evaluated data quality and validity by measuring reporting completeness and compared these with data from Johns Hopkins University, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and indicator-based data from the World Health Organization. CDC EWARS was integral in guiding CDC's early COVID-19 response but was labor-intensive and became less informative as case-level data decreased and the pandemic evolved. However, CDC EWARS data were similar to those reported by other organizations, confirming the validity of each system and suggesting collaboration could improve EWARS systems during future pandemics.

7.
Trials [Electronic Resource] ; 23(1):1013, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy behaviors of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients are closely related to the occurrence of major heart events, which increases the readmission rate and brings a heavy economic burden to families and society. Therefore, it is necessary for health care workers to take active preventive and therapeutic measures to keep or establish healthy behaviors of patients. Positive psychological intervention has been proved to be effective, but it has not been reported in the field of CHD in China. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of positive event recording based on positive psychology on the healthy behaviors, readmission rate, and anxiety of patients with CHD, in order to provide new ideas for the development of secondary prevention strategies for CHD.

8.
Virol J ; 19(1):212, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162392

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variants, has posed unprecedented challenges worldwide. Existing vaccines have limited effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Therefore, novel vaccines to match mutated viral lineages by providing long-term protective immunity are urgently needed. We designed a recombinant adeno-associated virus 5 (rAAV5)-based vaccine (rAAV-COVID-19) by using the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD-plus) sequence with both single-stranded (ssAAV5) and self-complementary (scAAV5) delivery vectors and found that it provides excellent protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. A single-dose vaccination in mice induced a robust immune response;induced neutralizing antibody (NA) titers were maintained at a peak level of over 1:1024 more than a year post-injection and were accompanied by functional T-cell responses. Importantly, both ssAAV- and scAAV-based RBD-plus vaccines produced high levels of serum NAs against the circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta. A SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge showed that the ssAAV5-RBD-plus vaccine protected both young and old mice from SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Whole genome sequencing demonstrated that AAV vector DNA sequences were not found in the genomes of vaccinated mice one year after vaccination, demonstrating vaccine safety. These results suggest that the rAAV5-based vaccine is safe and effective against SARS-CoV-2 and several variants as it provides long-term protective immunity. This novel vaccine has a significant potential for development into a human prophylactic vaccination to help end the global pandemic.

9.
Malaria Journal ; 21(1):381, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Imported malaria cases remains a key health concern, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Providing accurate health information is important to improving people's awareness of malaria. WeChat is an excellent social media tool for health information dissemination, especially during the pandemic. This study explored the effect of malaria knowledge dissemination via a WeChat public account.

10.
Microbiology Spectrum ; : e0387222, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161815

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a continuously evolving pathogen, causes severe diarrhea in piglets, with high mortality rates. To prevent or mitigate the disease, it is common practice to develop live or inactivated PEDV vaccines based on cell-adapted viral variants. Propagating wild-type PEDV in cultured cells is, however, often challenging due to the lack of knowledge about the requirements for the cell adaptation of PEDV. In the present study, by using the RNA-targeted reverse genetic system for PEDV to apply S protein swapping followed by the rescue of the recombinant viruses, three key amino acid mutations in the S protein, A605E, E633Q, and R891G, were identified, which enable attenuated PEDV strain DR13 (DR13att) to efficiently and productively infect Vero cells, in contrast to the parental DR13 strain (DR13par). The former two key mutations reside inside and in the vicinity of the receptor binding domain (RBD), respectively, while the latter occurs at the N-terminal end of the fusion peptide (FP). Besides the three key mutations, other mutations in the S protein further enhanced the infection efficiency of the recombinant viruses. We hypothesize that the three mutations changed PEDV tropism by altering the S2' cleavage site and the RBD structure. This study provides basic molecular insight into cell adaptation by PEDV, which is also relevant for vaccine design. IMPORTANCE Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a lethal pathogen for newborn piglets, and an efficient vaccine is needed urgently. However, propagating wild-type PEDV in cultured cells for vaccine development is still challenging due to the lack of knowledge about the mechanism of the cell adaptation of PEDV. In this study, we found that three amino acid mutations, A605E, E633Q, and R891G, in the spike protein of the Vero cell-adapted PEDV strain DR13att were critical for its cell adaptation. After analyzing the mutation sites in the spike protein, we hypothesize that the cell adaptation of DR13att was achieved by altering the S2' cleavage site and the RBD structure. This study provides new molecular insight into the mechanism of PEDV culture adaptation and new strategies for PEDV vaccine design.

11.
Cell Discov ; 8(1):131, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2160195

ABSTRACT

The immunity of patients who recover from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be long lasting but persist at a lower level. Thus, recovered patients still need to be vaccinated to prevent reinfection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or its mutated variants. Here, we report that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine can stimulate immunity in recovered patients to maintain high levels of anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) and anti-nucleocapsid protein (NP) antibody titers within 9 months, and high neutralizing activity against the prototype, Delta, and Omicron strains was observed. Nevertheless, the antibody response decreased over time, and the Omicron variant exhibited more pronounced resistance to neutralization than the prototype and Delta strains. Moreover, the intensity of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4(+) T cell response was also increased in recovered patients who received COVID-19 vaccines. Overall, the repeated antigen exposure provided by inactivated COVID-19 vaccination greatly boosted both the potency and breadth of the humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, effectively protecting recovered individuals from reinfection by circulating SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

12.
Appl Soft Comput ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2158460

ABSTRACT

When COVID-19 suddenly broke out, the epidemic areas are short of basic emergency relief which need to be transported from surrounding areas. To make transportation both time-efficient and cost-effective, we consider a multimodal hub-and-spoke transportation network for emergency relief schedules. Firstly, we establish a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model considering multi-type emergency relief and multimodal transportation. The model is a bi-objective one that aims at minimizing both transportation time consumption and transportation costs. Due to its NP-hardness, devising an efficient algorithm to cope with such a problem is challenging. This study thus employs and redesigns Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) to tackle it. To benchmark our algorithm, a real-world case is tested with three solution methods which include other two state-of-the-art meta-heuristics. Results indicate that the customized GWO can solve such a problem in a reasonable time with higher accuracy. The research could provide significant practical management insights for related government departments and transportation companies on designing an effective transportation network for emergency relief schedules when faced with the unexpected COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Canadian Journal of Public Health Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155922

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodology and key findings of British Columbia's (BC) COVID-19 SPEAK surveys, developed to understand the experiences, knowledge, and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on British Columbians.

14.
Journal of Nursing Research ; 06:06, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasingly frequent global disasters such as coronavirus disease 2019 pose a threat to human health and life. The World Health Organization has called on countries to formulate detailed plans to prepare for disasters. It is critical to investigate and evaluate the disaster preparedness of nurses.

15.
Multinational Finance Journal ; 25(3-4):151-161, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2147225

ABSTRACT

Argentina’s 2020 debt restructuring was the second largest sovereign restructuring in history, after Greece’s in 2012. The sovereign’s latest default was triggered by extending maturities on short-term debt in August 2019, followed by another postponement of short-term debt payments in December 2019 and long-term debt payments in February 2020. In August 2019, the government also announced its intention to restructure its long-term debt. This article compares Argentina’s sovereign debt crisis with prior sovereign bond defaults and sets forth Moody’s view that significant challenges result in Argentina’s creditworthiness remaining weak even after the debt restructuring and despite sizeable losses for investors. These challenges include Argentina’s large share of foreign-currency debt amid its dependence on external foreign-exchange financing and limited domestic funding options, and subdued economic prospects as the coronavirus pandemic deepened the country’s multi-year recession and also affected Argentina’s main trading partners. © Multinational Finance Society, a nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.

16.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis Conference ; 6(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128150

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with COVID-19 during hospitalization and in the post-discharge setting has been reported with wide variability. Many studies have short follow-up, reported the early phase of the pandemic, or did not report bleeding or anticoagulant dosing. Aim(s): We determined the incidence of symptomatic VTE and bleeding in patients admitted to hospital for COVID-19 and their 3-month risk of VTE post-discharge. Method(s): All patients admitted for COVID-19 at 5 regional hospitals were identified between January 1 and December 31, 2020. Data were collected from their hospital admission and for a minimum of 3 months post-discharge. Re-admissions during this period were considered as post-discharge data of the index admission. Standard thromboprophylaxis for critical care and ward patients were enoxaparin 30 mg twice daily or 40 mg once daily. Post-discharge thromboprophylaxis was not given. Patient consent was waived by the institutional research ethics board. Result(s): A total of 565 patients were included. Baseline demographics are reported in Table 1. Median length-of- stay was 9.0 days (range 5-131). 178 patients (31.5%) required critical care support and 79 patients (14%) died during index admission. 25 patients (4.4%) had VTE during hospitalization, of which 17 occurred within first 2 weeks and none occurred in those on therapeutic anticoagulation. There were no fatal bleeds. 5 patients (0.88%) developed critical site bleeding. Patient characteristics, anticoagulant use and bleeding rates during hospitalization are reported in Table 2. Among 486 discharged patients, median length of follow-up was 163 days (range 3-600): 63.5% had at least 90 days of follow-up data and 18.7% were lost to follow-up. 5 patients (1.3%) had symptomatic VTE diagnosed within 3 months after discharge. Conclusion(s): The in-hospital incidence of VTE in COVID-19 was lower but post-discharge incidence was higher than other studies. Therapeutic anticoagulation appeared protective against symptomatic VTE. (Table Presented).

17.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 34(5):607-611, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2126222

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020 has posed a great challenge to global public health resources. Since there are no specific antiviral drugs at present, convalescent plasma (CP) from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 is one of the specific biologic therapies being considered to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Preliminary studies have shown that the CP containing high titer neutralizing antibody against SARS-CoV-2 is safe and promising in blocking viral replication and improving patients'clinical symptoms. In this article, we briefly summarize the application of CP in treatment of COVID-19, and explores possible action mechanism, relevant clinical research and possible influencing factors of clinical effect, which may be helpful to the rational application of CP in treatment of COVID-19. Copyright © 2021 Changchun Institute of Biological Products. All rights reserved.

18.
Manufacturing Letters ; 33:835-842, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2112252

ABSTRACT

In a world where demand and supply can change instantaneously as demonstrated by the recent coronavirus pandemic, it is very important for our production lines to be able to handle abrupt changes very effectively. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are designed to be able to ramp production up and down quickly to make this possible. In this paper, we propose a novel data-enabled method of modelling an FMS using mobile multi-skilled robots and evaluate its dynamic performance. We use permanent production loss as the performance metric and derive expressions for its evaluation and attribution and validate them using ctwo case studies. (C) 2022 Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

19.
Chinese Journal of New Drugs ; 31(21):2082-2089, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2111997

ABSTRACT

The research, development and application of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine play an important role against the global pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. There are 11 candidate vaccines that have been issued for emergency use list (EUL) by WHO, which have been shown effective protection with safety against infection, severe diseases and death in clinical trials and real world. They have become powerful weapons for human beings to prevent infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In this paper, the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines were briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2022, Chinese Journal of New Drugs Co. Ltd. All right reserved.

20.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 35(3):293-298 and 303, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2102632

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a sample panel for detection of severe acute respiratory symptom coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen and apply to the development and quality evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 antigen colloidal gold test cassettes. Methods A sample panel for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen was established using 12 kinds of bulks of inactivated non-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine as negative controls, while two batches (Bl and B2) of bulks of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Bl, B2) and one batch (SI) of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 culture as positive controls. Bl was used as a positive control to evaluate the colloidal gold test cassettes from four manufacturers (A, B, C and D), and to monitor the development process of cassette from manufacturer A to improve its sensitivity. The negative sample panel was used to evaluate the specificity of colloidal gold test cassettes from five manufacturers (A, C, E, F and G), while positive sample panel (B2, SI and recombinant N protein) to evaluate the sensitivity. Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 culture SI was deter-mined with the commercial SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection kit, and the result was compared with that by the colloidal gold test cassette from manufacturer A. Results N protein was determined as the main epitope of SARS-CoV-2 antigen by evaluation with positive control. The colloidal gold test cassettes from manufacturer A showed a sensitivity of 1 : 2 x 103to B1. The colloidal gold test cassettes from five manufacturers showed no cross reactions with inactivated non-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, indicating a high specificity. The sensitivity of colloidal gold test cassette from manufacturer A was 106to B2 and 1 : 2 x 107to S1. However, the sensitivities of colloidal gold test cassettes from manufacturers E, F and were more than 1 : 103to B2 and 1 : 104- 1 : 105to SI, and that from manufacturer C was 1 : 104to B2 and 1 : 106to SI. The sensitivity of colloidal gold test cassette from manufacturer A was 100 pg/mL, while those from the other four manufacturers were 10 pg/mL, to recombinant N protein. The sensitivity of commercial nucleic acid detection kit to SI was 1 : 107, which was equal to that of colloidal gold test cassette from manufacturer A (1 : 2 x 107). Conclusion A sample panel for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen was successfully established, which showed high specificity and sensitivity, and might be used for the development and quality evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 antigen colloidal gold test cassettes. Copyright © 2022 Changchun Institute of Biological Products. All rights reserved.

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