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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All currently available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live-attenuated influenza virus vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (dNS1-RBD) administered by intranasal spray in healthy adults. METHODS: We did double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 1 and 2 trials, followed by a phase 2 extension trial, at a single centre in Jiangsu, China. Healthy adults (≥18 years) who had negative serum or fingertip blood total antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 (in phases 1 and 2), with no prevalent SARS-CoV-2 infection or history of infection and no SARS-CoV-2 vaccination history (in all three trials reported here), were enrolled. Participants were randomly allocated (4:1 in phase 1, 2:1 in phase 2, and 1:1 in the extension trial) to receive two intranasal doses of the dNS1-RBD vaccine or placebo on days 0 and 14 or, for half of the participants in phase 2, on days 0 and 21. To avoid cross-contamination during administration, vaccine and placebo recipients were vaccinated in separate rooms in the extension trial. The phase 1 primary outcome was safety (adverse events recorded on days 0-44; serious adverse events recorded from day 0 until 12 months after the second dose). In the phase 2 and extension trials, the primary immunogenicity outcomes were SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood (measured by IFN-γ ELISpot), proportion of participants with positive conversion for SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG and secretory IgA (s-IgA) antibodies, and concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG in serum and SARS-CoV-2 RBD s-IgA in the nasopharynx (measured by ELISA) at 1 month after the second dose in the per-protocol set for immunogenicity. χ2 test and Fisher's exact test were used to analyse categorical data, and t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare the measurement data between groups. These trials were registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000037782, ChiCTR2000039715, and ChiCTR2100048316). FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2020, and July 4, 2021, 63, 724, and 297 participants without a history of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were enrolled in the phase 1, phase 2, and extension trials, respectively. At least one adverse reaction after vaccination was reported in 133 (19%) of 684 participants in the vaccine groups. Most adverse reactions were mild. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was noted. Specific T-cell immune responses were observed in 211 (46% [95% CI 42-51]) of 455 vaccine recipients in the phase 2 trial, and in 48 (40% [31-49]) of 120 vaccine recipients compared with one (1% [0-5]) of 111 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. Seroconversion for RBD-specific IgG was observed in 48 (10% [95% CI 8-13]) of 466 vaccine recipients in the phase 2 trial (geometric mean titre [GMT] 3·8 [95% CI 3·4-4·3] in responders), and in 31 (22% [15-29]) of 143 vaccine recipients (GMT 4·4 [3·3-5·8]) and zero (0% [0-2]) of 147 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. 57 (12% [95% CI 9-16]) of 466 vaccine recipients had positive conversion for RBD-specific s-IgA (GMT 3·8 [95% CI 3·5-4·1] in responders) in the phase 2 trial, as did 18 (13% [8-19]) of 143 vaccine recipients (GMT 5·2 [4·0-6·8]) and zero (0% [0-2]) of 147 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. INTERPRETATION: dNS1-RBD was well tolerated in adults. Weak T-cell immunity in peripheral blood, as well as weak humoral and mucosal immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, were detected in vaccine recipients. Further studies are warranted to verify the safety and efficacy of intranasal vaccines as a potential supplement to current intramuscular SARS-CoV-2 vaccine pools. Steps should be taken in future studies to reduce the potential for cross-contamination caused by the vaccine strain aerosol during administration. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Science, Fujian Provincial Science, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, and Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise.

2.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867754

ABSTRACT

Remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); however, they are limited with respect to eliciting local immunity in the respiratory tract, which is the primary infection site for SARS-CoV-2. To overcome the limitations of intramuscular vaccines, we constructed a nasal vaccine candidate based on an influenza vector by inserting a gene encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, named CA4-dNS1-nCoV-RBD (dNS1-RBD). A preclinical study showed that in hamsters challenged 1 d after single-dose vaccination or 9 months after booster vaccination, dNS1-RBD largely mitigated lung pathology, with no loss of body weight. Moreover, such cellular immunity is relatively unimpaired for the most concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially for the latest Omicron variant. In addition, this vaccine also provides cross-protection against H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses. The protective immune mechanism of dNS1-RBD could be attributed to the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium, local RBD-specific T cell response in the lung, and RBD-specific IgA and IgG response. Thus, this study demonstrates that the intranasally delivered dNS1-RBD vaccine candidate may offer an important addition to the fight against the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and influenza infection, compensating limitations of current intramuscular vaccines.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 386(22): 2097-2111, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ZF2001 vaccine, which contains a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant, was shown to be safe, with an acceptable side-effect profile, and immunogenic in adults in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to investigate the efficacy and confirm the safety of ZF2001. The trial was performed at 31 clinical centers across Uzbekistan, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Ecuador; an additional center in China was included in the safety analysis only. Adult participants (≥18 years of age) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a total of three 25-µg doses (30 days apart) of ZF2001 or placebo. The primary end point was the occurrence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), as confirmed on polymerase-chain-reaction assay, at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. A key secondary efficacy end point was the occurrence of severe-to-critical Covid-19 (including Covid-19-related death) at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. RESULTS: Between December 12, 2020, and December 15, 2021, a total of 28,873 participants received at least one dose of ZF2001 or placebo and were included in the safety analysis; 25,193 participants who had completed the three-dose regimen, for whom there were approximately 6 months of follow-up data, were included in the updated primary efficacy analysis that was conducted at the second data cutoff date of December 15, 2021. In the updated analysis, primary end-point cases were reported in 158 of 12,625 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 580 of 12,568 participants in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 75.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.0 to 79.8). Severe-to-critical Covid-19 occurred in 6 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 43 in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 87.6% (95% CI, 70.6 to 95.7); Covid-19-related death occurred in 2 and 12 participants, respectively, for a vaccine efficacy of 86.5% (95% CI, 38.9 to 98.5). The incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events was balanced in the two groups, and there were no vaccine-related deaths. Most adverse reactions (98.5%) were of grade 1 or 2. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of adults, the ZF2001 vaccine was shown to be safe and effective against symptomatic and severe-to-critical Covid-19 for at least 6 months after full vaccination. (Funded by the National Science and Technology Major Project and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04646590.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Subunit , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/therapeutic use , Young Adult
4.
Vaccine ; 40(14): 2233-2239, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757910

ABSTRACT

A reference standard is needed for quality control of protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to meet urgent domestic needs. The Chinese National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) launched a project to establish the first reference material for the protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine to be used for calibration of antigen testing. The potency and stability of the national candidate standard (CS) were determined by collaborative calibration, and accelerated and freeze-thaw degradation studies. Moreover, a suitability study of the CS was performed. Eight laboratories in mainland China were asked to detect antigen content of CS using a common validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit established by NIFDC and in-house kits in the collaborative study. Six laboratories returned valid results, which established that the antigen content of the CS was 876,938 YU/mL, with good agreement across laboratories. In the suitability study, the CS exhibited excellent parallelism and a linear relationship with four samples produced by different expression systems and target proteins. In addition, good stability in the accelerated and freeze-thaw degradation study was observed. In conclusion, the CS was approved by the Biological Product Reference Standards Sub-Committee of the National Drug Reference Standards Committee as the first Chinese national standard for determining antigen content of protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, with an assigned antigen content of 877,000 U/mL (Lot. 300050-202101). This standard will contribute to a standardized assessment of protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in China and may provide experience for developing reference materials for antigen content detection of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Protein Subunits , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 vaccination often triggers a constellation of transitory inflammatory symptoms. Gout is associated with several comorbidities linked to poor outcomes in COVID-19, and gout flares can be triggered by some vaccinations. We analysed the risk of gout flares in the first 3 months after COVID-19 vaccination with inactivated virus, and whether colchicine can prevent gout flares following post-COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A clinical delivery population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Gout Clinic at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University between February and October 2021. Study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique among follow-up patients with gout. We collected data, including vaccinations and potential risk factors, using a combination of interviews, health QR codes and medical records. Logistic regression was used to adjust for covariates. RESULTS: We enrolled 549 gout participants (median age 39 years, 84.2% vaccinated). For the 462 patients who received COVID-19 vaccine, 203 (43.9%) developed at least one gout flare in the 3 months after vaccination. Most of these flares were experienced within 1 month after the first (99/119 (83.2%)) or second (70/115 (60.9%)) dose of vaccine. Compared with unvaccinated participants, COVID-19 vaccination was associated with higher odds of gout flare within 3 months (adjusted OR 6.02; 95% CI 3.00 to 12.08). Colchicine use was associated with 47% less likelihood of postvaccine gout flare. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination was associated with increased odds of gout flare, which developed mainly in month 1 after each vaccine dose, and was negatively associated with colchicine prophylaxis.

6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 69, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721495

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and the gradually decreasing neutralizing antibodies over time post vaccination have led to an increase in incidents of breakthrough infection across the world. To investigate the potential protective effect of the recombinant protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine targeting receptor-binding domain (RBD) (PS-RBD) and whole inactivated virus particle vaccine (IV) against the variant strains, in this study, rhesus macaques were immunized with PS-RBD or IV vaccine, followed by a Beta variant (B.1.351) challenge. Although neutralizing activity against the Beta variant was reduced compared with that against the prototype, the decreased viral load in both upper and lower respiratory tracts, milder pathological changes, and downregulated inflammatory cytokine levels in lung tissues after challenge demonstrated that PS-RBD and IV still provided effective protection against the Beta variant in the macaque model. Furthermore, PS-RBD-induced macaque sera possessed general binding and neutralizing activity to Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants in our study, though the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers declined by varying degrees, demonstrating potential protection of PS-RBD against current circulating variants of concern (VOCs). Interestingly, although the IV vaccine-induced extremely low neutralizing antibody titers against the Beta variant, it still showed reduction for viral load and significantly alleviated pathological change. Other correlates of vaccine-induced protection (CoP) like antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and immune memory were both confirmed to be existing in IV vaccinated group and possibly be involved in the protective mechanism.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/pharmacology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311929

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 vaccine for children and adolescents, who are indispensable populations to curb the pandemic, would protect this population against rare severe COVID-19 and infectious conditions. Here we aimed to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a candidate COVID-19 vaccine, CoronaVac, containing inactivated SARS-CoV-2, in children and adolescents aged 3-17 years old. Methods: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1/2 clinical trial of CoronaVac in healthy children and adolescents aged 3-17 years old in Zanhuang (Hebei, China). Vaccine (in 0 ·5ml aluminum hydroxide adjuvant) or placebo (adjuvant only) was given by intramuscular injection in two doses (day 0 and day 28). We conducted phase 1 trial in 71 participants with an age de-escalation in tree groups and dose-escalation in two blocks (1.5ug or 3ug per injection). Within each block, participants were randomly assigned (3:1) using block randomisation to receive CoronaVac or placebo. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) using block randomisation to receive either CoronaVac at 1.5ug or 3ug per dose, or placebo. The primary safety endpoint was adverse reactions within 28 days after each injection in all participants who received at least one dose. The primary immunogenicity endpoint was seroconversion rate at 28 days after the second injection and its GMT as the secondary endpoint. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04551547).Findings: Between October 31 and December 2, 2020, 72 participants were enrolled in phase 1, and between December 12 and December 30, 2020, 480 participants were enrolled in phase 2. 500 participants received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo (n=71 for phase 1 and n=479 for phase 2;safety population). In the combined safety profile of phase 1 and phase 2, any adverse reactions within 28 days after injection occurred in 56 (26%) of 219 participants in the 1·5ug group, 63 (29%) of 217 in the 3ug group and 27 (24%) of 114 in the placebo group, without significant difference. Most adverse reactions were mild and moderate in severity and injection site pain (73[13%]) of 550 participants was the most frequently reported event. As of March 12, 2021, only one serious adverse event has been reported, which was considered unrelated to vaccination. In phase 1, seroconversion after the second dose was observed in 27 of 27 participants (100·0% [95%CI 87·3-100·0]) in the 1·5ug groups and 26 of 26 participants (100·0% [86·8-100·0]) in the 3ug group, with the geometric mean titers of 55·0 (95%CI 38·9-77·9) and 117·4 (87·8-157·0). In phase 2, seroconversion was seen in 180 of 186 participants (96·8% [93·1-98·8]) in the 1·5ug group and 180 of 180 participants (100·0% [98·0-100·0]) in the 3ug group, with the geometric mean titers of 86·4 (73·9-101·0) and 142·2 (124·7-162·1). There were no detectable antibody responses in the placebo groups. Interpretation: CoronaVac was well tolerated and induced strong neutralising antibody responses in children and adolescents aged 3-17 years. The study has provided solid safety and immunogenicity data to support the further study and use of CoronaVac in children and adolescents.Trial Registration: NCT04551547Funding Statement: Chinese National Key Research and Development Program and Beijing Science and Technology Program.Declaration of Interests: QG and XL are employees of Sinovac Life Sciences Co., Ltd. YS, WY and LW are employees of Sinovac Biotech Ltd. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The clinical trial protocol and informed consent form were approved by the Ethics Committee of Hebei CDC (IRB2020-005).

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3949-e3955, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine for immunogenicity and safety in adults aged 18-59 years. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, healthy adults received a medium dose (MD) or a high dose (HD) of the vaccine at an interval of either 14 days or 28 days. Neutralizing antibody (NAb) and anti-S and anti-N antibodies were detected at different times, and adverse reactions were monitored for 28 days after full immunization. RESULTS: A total of 742 adults were enrolled in the immunogenicity and safety analysis. Among subjects in the 0, 14 procedure, the seroconversion rates of NAb in MD and HD groups were 89% and 96% with geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 23 and 30, respectively, at day 14 and 92% and 96% with GMTs of 19 and 21, respectively, at day 28 after immunization. Anti-S antibodies had GMTs of 1883 and 2370 in the MD group and 2295 and 2432 in the HD group. Anti-N antibodies had GMTs of 387 and 434 in the MD group and 342 and 380 in the HD group. Among subjects in the 0, 28 procedure, seroconversion rates for NAb at both doses were both 95% with GMTs of 19 at day 28 after immunization. Anti-S antibodies had GMTs of 937 and 929 for the MD and HD groups, and anti-N antibodies had GMTs of 570 and 494 for the MD and HD groups, respectively. No serious adverse events were observed during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Adults vaccinated with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine had NAb as well as anti-S/N antibody and had a low rate of adverse reactions. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04412538.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292884

ABSTRACT

Remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2);however, they are limited with respect to eliciting local immunity in the respiratory tract, which is the primary infection site for SARS-CoV-2. To overcome the limitations of intramuscular vaccines, we constructed a nasal vaccine candidate based on an influenza vector by inserting a gene encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, named CA4-dNS1-nCoV-RBD (dNS1-RBD). A preclinical study showed that in hamsters challenged 1 day and 7 days after single-dose vaccination or 6 months after booster vaccination, dNS1-RBD largely mitigated lung pathology, with no loss of body weight, caused by either the prototype-like strain or beta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Lasted data showed that the animals could be well protected against beta variant challenge 9 months after vaccination. Notably, the weight loss and lung pathological changes of hamsters could still be significantly reduced when the hamster was vaccinated 24 h after challenge. Moreover, such cellular immunity is relatively unimpaired for the most concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants. The protective immune mechanism of dNS1-RBD could be attributed to the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium, local RBD-specific T cell response in the lung, and RBD-specific IgA and IgG response. Thus, this study demonstrates that the intranasally delivered dNS1-RBD vaccine candidate may offer an important addition to fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, compensating limitations of current intramuscular vaccines, particularly at the start of an outbreak.

10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1598-1608, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316786

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, a variety of vaccine platforms have been developed. Amongst these, inactivated vaccines have been authorized for emergency use or conditional marketing in many countries. To further enhance the protective immune responses in populations that have completed vaccination regimen, we investigated the immunogenic characteristics of different vaccine platforms and tried homologous or heterologous boost strategy post two doses of inactivated vaccines in a mouse model. Our results showed that the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by different vaccines when administered individually differ significantly. In particular, inactivated vaccines showed relatively lower level of neutralizing antibody and T cell responses, but a higher IgG2a/IgG1 ratio compared with other vaccines. Boosting with either recombinant subunit, adenovirus vectored or mRNA vaccine after two-doses of inactivated vaccine further improved both neutralizing antibody and Spike-specific Th1-type T cell responses compared to boosting with a third dose of inactivated vaccine. Our results provide new ideas for prophylactic inoculation strategy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(12): 1645-1653, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 for children and adolescents will play an important role in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a candidate COVID-19 vaccine, CoronaVac, containing inactivated SARS-CoV-2, in children and adolescents aged 3-17 years. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial of CoronaVac in healthy children and adolescents aged 3-17 years old at Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Zanhuang (Hebei, China). Individuals with SARS-CoV-2 exposure or infection history were excluded. Vaccine (in 0·5 mL aluminum hydroxide adjuvant) or aluminum hydroxide only (alum only, control) was given by intramuscular injection in two doses (day 0 and day 28). We did a phase 1 trial in 72 participants with an age de-escalation in three groups and dose-escalation in two blocks (1·5 µg or 3·0 µg per injection). Within each block, participants were randomly assigned (3:1) by means of block randomisation to receive CoronaVac or alum only. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) by means of block randomisation to receive either CoronaVac at 1·5 µg or 3·0 µg per dose, or alum only. All participants, investigators, and laboratory staff were masked to group allocation. The primary safety endpoint was adverse reactions within 28 days after each injection in all participants who received at least one dose. The primary immunogenicity endpoint assessed in the per-protocol population was seroconversion rate of neutralising antibody to live SARS-CoV-2 at 28 days after the second injection. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04551547. FINDINGS: Between Oct 31, 2020, and Dec 2, 2020, 72 participants were enrolled in phase 1, and between Dec 12, 2020, and Dec 30, 2020, 480 participants were enrolled in phase 2. 550 participants received at least one dose of vaccine or alum only (n=71 for phase 1 and n=479 for phase 2; safety population). In the combined safety profile of phase 1 and phase 2, any adverse reactions within 28 days after injection occurred in 56 (26%) of 219 participants in the 1·5 µg group, 63 (29%) of 217 in the 3·0 µg group, and 27 (24%) of 114 in the alum-only group, without significant difference (p=0·55). Most adverse reactions were mild and moderate in severity. Injection site pain was the most frequently reported event (73 [13%] of 550 participants), occurring in 36 (16%) of 219 participants in the 1·5 µg group, 35 (16%) of 217 in the 3·0 µg group, and two (2%) in the alum-only group. As of June 12, 2021, only one serious adverse event of pneumonia has been reported in the alum-only group, which was considered unrelated to vaccination. In phase 1, seroconversion of neutralising antibody after the second dose was observed in 27 of 27 participants (100·0% [95% CI 87·2-100·0]) in the 1·5 µg group and 26 of 26 participants (100·0% [86·8-100·0]) in the 3·0 µg group, with the geometric mean titres of 55·0 (95% CI 38·9-77·9) and 117·4 (87·8-157·0). In phase 2, seroconversion was seen in 180 of 186 participants (96·8% [93·1-98·8]) in the 1·5 µg group and 180 of 180 participants (100·0% [98·0-100·0]) in the 3·0 µg group, with the geometric mean titres of 86·4 (73·9-101·0) and 142·2 (124·7-162·1). There were no detectable antibody responses in the alum-only groups. INTERPRETATION: CoronaVac was well tolerated and safe and induced humoral responses in children and adolescents aged 3-17 years. Neutralising antibody titres induced by the 3·0 µg dose were higher than those of the 1·5 µg dose. The results support the use of 3·0 µg dose with a two-immunisation schedule for further studies in children and adolescents. FUNDING: The Chinese National Key Research and Development Program and the Beijing Science and Technology Program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Adolescent , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunization , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 199, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233705

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has posed a huge threat to global health and economy. Countermeasures have revolutionized norms for working, socializing, learning, and travel. Importantly, vaccines have been considered as most effective tools to combat with COVID-19. As of the beginning of 2021, >200 COVID-19 vaccine candidates, covering nearly all existing technologies and platforms, are being research and development (R&D) by multiple manufacturers worldwide. This has posed a huge obstacle to the quality control and evaluation of those candidate vaccines, especially in China, where five vaccine platforms are deployed in parallel. To accelerate the R&D progress of COVID-19 vaccines, the guidances on R&D of COVID-19 vaccine have been issued by National Regulatory Authorities or organizations worldwide. The Center for Drug Evaluation and national quality control laboratory in China have played a leading role in launching the research on quality control and evaluation in collaboration with relevant laboratories involved in the vaccine R&D, which greatly supported the progression of vaccines R&D, and accelerated the approval for emergency use and conditional marketing of currently vaccine candidates. In this paper, the progress and experience gained in quality control and evaluation of COVID-19 vaccines developed in China are summarized, which might provide references for the R&D of current and next generation of COVID-19 vaccines worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Global Health , Humans , Quality Control
13.
Vaccine ; 39(20): 2746-2754, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. METHOD: In a phase I randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 192 healthy adults 18-59 years old, two injections of three doses (50 EU, 100 EU, 150 EU) of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine or placebo were administered intramuscularly at a 2- or 4-week interval. The safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine were evaluated. RESULTS: Vaccination was completed in 191 subjects. Forty-four adverse reactions occurred within 28 days, most commonly mild pain and redness at the injection site or slight fatigue. At days 14 and 28, the seroconversion rates were 87.5% and 79.2% (50 EU), 100% and 95.8% (100 EU), and 95.8% and 87.5% (150 EU), respectively, with geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 18.1 and 10.6, 54.5 and 15.4, and 37.1 and 18.5, respectively, for the schedules with 2-week and 4-week intervals. Seroconversion was associated with synchronous upregulation of antibodies against the S protein, N protein and virion and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. No cytokines and immune cells related to immunopathology were observed. Transcriptome analysis revealed the genetic diversity of immune responses induced by the vaccine. INTERPRETATION: In a population aged 18-59 years in this trial, this inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was safe and immunogenic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTR20200943 and NCT04412538.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , China , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1107-1119, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so far, they will not be sufficient to meet the global demand. Development of a wider range of vaccines, with different mechanisms of action, could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally. We developed a protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19 using a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as the antigen. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine, ZF2001, and determine the appropriate dose and schedule for an efficacy study. METHODS: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and phase 2 trials. Phase 1 was done at two university hospitals in Chongqing and Beijing, China, and phase 2 was done at the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Xiangtan, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, without a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection, an RT-PCR-positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, and severe allergies to any component of the vaccine were eligible for enrolment. In phase 1, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive three doses of the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart, in either a two-dose schedule or a three-dose schedule. Investigators, participants, and the laboratory team were masked to group allocation. For phase 1, the primary outcome was safety, measured by the occurrence of adverse events and serious adverse events. For phase 2, the primary outcome was safety and immunogenicity (the seroconversion rate and the magnitude, in geometric mean titres [GMTs], of SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibodies). Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04445194 and NCT04466085) and participant follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 22 and July 3, 2020, 50 participants were enrolled into the phase 1 trial and randomly assigned to receive three doses of placebo (n=10), the 25 µg vaccine (n=20), or the 50 µg vaccine (n=20). The mean age of participants was 32·6 (SD 9·4) years. Between July 12 and July 17, 2020, 900 participants were enrolled into the phase 2 trial and randomly assigned to receive two doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150), or three doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150). The mean age of participants was 43·5 (SD 9·2) years. In both phase 1 and phase 2, adverse events reported within 30 days after vaccination were mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) in most cases (phase 1: six [60%] of ten participants in the placebo group, 14 [70%] of 20 in the 25 µg group, and 18 [90%] of 20 in the 50 µg group; phase 2: 37 [25%] of 150 in the two-dose placebo group, 43 [29%] of 150 in the two-dose 25 µg group, 50 [33%] of 150 in the two-dose 50 µg group, 47 [31%] of 150 in the three-dose placebo group, 72 [48%] of 150 in the three-dose 25 µg group, and 65 [43%] of 150 in the three-dose 50 µg group). In phase 1, two (10%) grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in the 50 µg group. In phase 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported by 18 participants (four [3%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, four [3%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and six [4%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), and 11 were considered vaccine related (two [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, two [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and five [3%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group); seven participants reported serious adverse events (one [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, one [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and two [1%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), but none was considered vaccine related. In phase 2, on the two-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the second dose were 76% (114 of 150 participants) in the 25 µg group and 72% (108 of 150) in the 50 µg group; on the three-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the third dose were 97% (143 of 148 participants) in the 25 µg group and 93% (138 of 148) in the 50 µg group. In the two-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the second dose were 17·7 (95% CI 13·6-23·1) in the 25 µg group and 14·1 (10·8-18·3) in the 50 µg group. In the three-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the third dose were 102·5 (95% CI 81·8-128·5) in the 25 µg group and 69·1 (53·0-90·0) in the 50 µg group. INTERPRETATION: The protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic. The safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 and 2 trials support the use of the 25 µg dose in a three-dose schedule in an ongoing phase 3 trial for large-scale evaluation of ZF2001's safety and efficacy. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Multimerization , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 629-637, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124369

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines emerging from different platforms differ in efficacy, duration of protection, and side effects. To maximize the benefits of vaccination, we explored the utility of employing a heterologous prime-boost strategy in which different combinations of the four types of leading COVID-19 vaccine candidates that are undergoing clinical trials in China were tested in a mouse model. Our results showed that sequential immunization with adenovirus vectored vaccine followed by inactivated/recombinant subunit/mRNA vaccine administration specifically increased levels of neutralizing antibodies and promoted the modulation of antibody responses to predominantly neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, a heterologous prime-boost regimen with an adenovirus vector vaccine also improved Th1-biased T cell responses. Our results provide new ideas for the development and application of COVID-19 vaccines to control the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adenovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Interferon-gamma/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2606-2618, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944152

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is causing huge impact on health, life, and global economy, which is characterized by rapid spreading of SARS-CoV-2, high number of confirmed cases and a fatality/case rate worldwide reported by WHO. The most effective intervention measure will be to develop safe and effective vaccines to protect the population from the disease and limit the spread of the virus. An inactivated, whole virus vaccine candidate of SARS-CoV-2 has been developed by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products and Wuhan Institute of Virology. The low toxicity, immunogenicity, and immune persistence were investigated in preclinical studies using seven different species of animals. The results showed that the vaccine candidate was well tolerated and stimulated high levels of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Low or no toxicity in three species of animals was also demonstrated in preclinical study of the vaccine candidate. Biochemical analysis of structural proteins and purity analysis were performed. The inactivated, whole virion vaccine was characterized with safe double-inactivation, no use of DNases and high purity. Dosages, boosting times, adjuvants, and immunization schedules were shown to be important for stimulating a strong humoral immune response in animals tested. Preliminary observation in ongoing phase I and II clinical trials of the vaccine candidate in Wuzhi County, Henan Province, showed that the vaccine is well tolerant. The results were characterized by very low proportion and low degree of side effects, high levels of neutralizing antibodies, and seroconversion. These results consistent with the results obtained from preclinical data on the safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
17.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(2): 181-192, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the unprecedented morbidity and mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, a vaccine against COVID-19 is urgently needed. We investigated CoronaVac (Sinovac Life Sciences, Beijing, China), an inactivated vaccine candidate against COVID-19, containing inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), for its safety, tolerability and immunogenicity. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial, healthy adults aged 18-59 years were recruited from the community in Suining County of Jiangsu province, China. Adults with SARS-CoV-2 exposure or infection history, with axillary temperature above 37·0°C, or an allergic reaction to any vaccine component were excluded. The experimental vaccine for the phase 1 trial was manufactured using a cell factory process (CellSTACK Cell Culture Chamber 10, Corning, Wujiang, China), whereas those for the phase 2 trial were produced through a bioreactor process (ReadyToProcess WAVE 25, GE, Umea, Sweden). The phase 1 trial was done in a dose-escalating manner. At screening, participants were initially separated (1:1), with no specific randomisation, into two vaccination schedule cohorts, the days 0 and 14 vaccination cohort and the days 0 and 28 vaccination cohort, and within each cohort the first 36 participants were assigned to block 1 (low dose CoronaVac [3 µg per 0·5 mL of aluminium hydroxide diluent per dose) then another 36 were assigned to block 2 (high-dose Coronavc [6 µg per 0·5 mL of aluminium hydroxide diluent per dse]). Within each block, participants were randomly assigned (2:1), using block randomisation with a block size of six, to either two doses of CoronaVac or two doses of placebo. In the phase 2 trial, at screening, participants were initially separated (1:1), with no specific randomisation, into the days 0 and 14 vaccination cohort and the days 0 and 28 vaccination cohort, and participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1), using block randomisation with a block size of five, to receive two doses of either low-dose CoronaVac, high-dose CoronaVac, or placebo. Participants, investigators, and laboratory staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary safety endpoint was adverse reactions within 28 days after injection in all participants who were given at least one dose of study drug (safety population). The primary immunogenic outcome was seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies to live SARS-CoV-2 at day 14 after the last dose in the days 0 and 14 cohort, and at day 28 after the last dose in the days 0 and 28 cohort in participants who completed their allocated two-dose vaccination schedule (per-protocol population). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352608, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between April 16 and April 25, 2020, 144 participants were enrolled in the phase 1 trial, and between May 3 and May 5, 2020, 600 participants were enrolled in the phase 2 trial. 743 participants received at least one dose of investigational product (n=143 for phase 1 and n=600 for phase 2; safety population). In the phase 1 trial, the incidence of adverse reactions for the days 0 and 14 cohort was seven (29%) of 24 participants in the 3 ug group, nine (38%) of 24 in the 6 µg group, and two (8%) of 24 in the placebo group, and for the days 0 and 28 cohort was three (13%) of 24 in the 3 µg group, four (17%) of 24 in the 6 µg group, and three (13%) of 23 in the placebo group. The seroconversion of neutralising antibodies on day 14 after the days 0 and 14 vaccination schedule was seen in 11 (46%) of 24 participants in the 3 µg group, 12 (50%) of 24 in the 6 µg group, and none (0%) of 24 in the placebo group; whereas at day 28 after the days 0 and 28 vaccination schedule, seroconversion was seen in 20 (83%) of 24 in the 3 µg group, 19 (79%) of 24 in the 6 µg group, and one (4%) of 24 in the placebo group. In the phase 2 trial, the incidence of adverse reactions for the days 0 and 14 cohort was 40 (33%) of 120 participants in the 3 µg group, 42 (35%) of 120 in the 6 µg group, and 13 (22%) of 60 in the placebo group, and for the days 0 and 28 cohort was 23 (19%) of 120 in the 3 µg group, 23 (19%) of 120 in the 6 µg group, and 11 (18%) of 60 for the placebo group. Seroconversion of neutralising antibodies was seen for 109 (92%) of 118 participants in the 3 µg group, 117 (98%) of 119 in the 6 µg group, and two (3%) of 60 in the placebo group at day 14 after the days 0 and 14 schedule; whereas at day 28 after the days 0 and 28 schedule, seroconversion was seen in 114 (97%) of 117 in the 3 µg group, 118 (100%) of 118 in the 6 µg group, and none (0%) of 59 in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: Taking safety, immunogenicity, and production capacity into account, the 3 µg dose of CoronaVac is the suggested dose for efficacy assessment in future phase 3 trials. FUNDING: Chinese National Key Research and Development Program and Beijing Science and Technology Program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
18.
Science ; 369(6499): 77-81, 2020 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-667322

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. Because of the novelty of the virus, there are currently no SARS-CoV-2-specific treatments or vaccines available. Therefore, rapid development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Here, we developed a pilot-scale production of PiCoVacc, a purified inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine candidate, which induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates. These antibodies neutralized 10 representative SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting a possible broader neutralizing ability against other strains. Three immunizations using two different doses, 3 or 6 micrograms per dose, provided partial or complete protection in macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, respectively, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These data support the clinical development and testing of PiCoVacc for use in humans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology
19.
Cell ; 182(3): 713-721.e9, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549043

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health. The development of a vaccine is urgently needed for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Here, we report the pilot-scale production of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate (BBIBP-CorV) that induces high levels of neutralizing antibodies titers in mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates (cynomolgus monkeys and rhesus macaques) to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2. Two-dose immunizations using 2 µg/dose of BBIBP-CorV provided highly efficient protection against SARS-CoV-2 intratracheal challenge in rhesus macaques, without detectable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. In addition, BBIBP-CorV exhibits efficient productivity and good genetic stability for vaccine manufacture. These results support the further evaluation of BBIBP-CorV in a clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Guinea Pigs , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
20.
Science ; 369(6499): 77-81, 2020 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197649

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. Because of the novelty of the virus, there are currently no SARS-CoV-2-specific treatments or vaccines available. Therefore, rapid development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Here, we developed a pilot-scale production of PiCoVacc, a purified inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine candidate, which induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates. These antibodies neutralized 10 representative SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting a possible broader neutralizing ability against other strains. Three immunizations using two different doses, 3 or 6 micrograms per dose, provided partial or complete protection in macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, respectively, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These data support the clinical development and testing of PiCoVacc for use in humans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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