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Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395036


Chronic alcohol abuse increases the risk of mortality and poor outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on lung injury and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). In order to produce rodent models with chronic alcohol consumption, wild­type C57BL/6 mice were treated with alcohol. A2a adenosine receptor (AR) small interfering (si)RNA or A2bAR siRNA were transfected into the lung tissue of mice and primary rat alveolar type II (ATII) cells. The rate of AFC in lung tissue was measured during exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expression was determined to investigate the mechanisms underlying alcohol­induced regulation of AFC. In the present study, exposure to alcohol reduced AFC, exacerbated pulmonary edema and worsened LPS­induced lung injury. Alcohol caused a decrease in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and inhibited α­ENaC, ß­ENaC and γ­ENaC expression levels in the lung tissue of mice and ATII cells. Furthermore, alcohol decreased α­ENaC, ß­ENaC and γ­ENaC expression levels via the A2aAR or A2bAR­cAMP signaling pathways in vitro. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that chronic alcohol consumption worsened lung injury by aggravating pulmonary edema and impairing AFC. An alcohol­induced decrease of α­ENaC, ß­ENaC and γ­ENaC expression levels by the A2AR­mediated cAMP pathway may be responsible for the exacerbated effects of chronic alcohol consumption in lung injury.

Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Sodium Channels/drug effects , Epithelial Sodium Channels/metabolism , Ethanol/pharmacology , Receptors, Adenosine A2/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Animals , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cytokines , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung Injury/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Pulmonary Edema/chemically induced , Pulmonary Edema/metabolism , Pulmonary Edema/pathology , RNA Splicing Factors/genetics , RNA Splicing Factors/metabolism , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A2A/genetics , Receptor, Adenosine A2A/metabolism , Signal Transduction
Macromol Biosci ; 21(1): e2000252, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740854


Bacterial infectious diseases and bacterial-infected environments have been threatening the health of human beings all over the world. In view of the increased bacteria resistance caused by overuse or improper use of antibiotics, antibacterial biomaterials are developed as the substitutes for antibiotics in some cases. Among them, antibacterial hydrogels are attracting more and more attention due to easy preparation process and diversity of structures by changing their chemical cross-linkers via covalent bonds or noncovalent physical interactions, which can endow them with various specific functions such as high toughness and stretchability, injectability, self-healing, tissue adhesiveness and rapid hemostasis, easy loading and controlled drug release, superior biocompatibility and antioxidation as well as good conductivity. In this review, the recent progress of antibacterial hydrogel including the fabrication methodologies, interior structures, performances, antibacterial mechanisms, and applications of various antibacterial hydrogels is summarized. According to the bacteria-killing modes of hydrogels, several representative hydrogels such as silver nanoparticles-based hydrogel, photoresponsive hydrogel including photothermal and photocatalytic, self-bacteria-killing hydrogel such as inherent antibacterial peptides and cationic polymers, and antibiotics-loading hydrogel are focused on. Furthermore, current challenges of antibacterial hydrogels are discussed and future perspectives in this field are also proposed.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Hydrogels/therapeutic use , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Delayed-Action Preparations/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrogels/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Wound Healing/drug effects
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 429, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608211


BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, over 80,000 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed in China. With the increasing number of recovered patients, more attention should be paid to the follow-up of these patients. METHODS: In the study, 576 patients with COVID-19 discharged from hospital in Chongqing, China from January 24, 2020, to March 10, 2020 were evaluated by viral nucleic acid tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) to determine if they could be released from quarantine. Among the 576 patients, 61 patients (10.6%) had positive RT-PCR test results of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to analyze the demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment of 61 patients. RESULTS: These positive patients were characterized by older age, chronic medical illness and mild conditions. 38 (62.3%) patients who were asymptomatic without abnormalities on chest radiographs were found in the positive with COVID-19. Also, they showed positive results of stool or sputum specimens with negative results of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The median duration of positive result of SARS-CoV-2 was varied from 3 days to 35 days in the patients discharged from hospital with no family member infection. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-site screening of SARS-CoV-2 including nasal and pharyngeal swabs, stool and sputum specimens could be considered to improve the diagnosis, treatment and infection control in patients with COVID-19. Our findings provide the important information and clinical evidence for the improved management of patients recovered from COVID-19.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nose/virology , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum/virology