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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(2): 2225640, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244449

ABSTRACT

Although humoral responses elicited by infection or vaccine lost the ability to prevent transmission against Omicron, vaccine-induced antibodies may still contribute to disease attenuation through Fc-mediated effector functions. However, Fc effector function elicited by CoronaVac, as the most widely supplied inactivated vaccine globally, has not been characterized. For the first time, our study depicted Fc-mediated phagocytosis activity induced by CoronaVac, including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and antibody-dependent neutrophil phagocytosis (ADNP) activities, and further compared with that from convalescent individuals and CoronaVac recipients with subsequent breakthrough infections. We showed that 2-dose of CoronaVac effectively induced both ADCP and ADNP, but was substantially lower compared to infection, whereas the booster dose further augmented ADCP and ADNP responses, and remained detectable for 52 weeks. Among CoronaVac recipients, ADCP and ADNP responses also demonstrated cross-reactivity against Omicron subvariants, and breakthrough infection could enhance the phagocytic response. Meanwhile, serum samples from vaccinees, convalescent individuals with wildtype infection, BA.2 and BA.5 breakthrough infection demonstrated differential cross-reactive ADCP and ADNP responses against Omicron subvariants, suggesting the different subvariants of spike antigen exposure might alter the cross-reactivity of Fc effector function. Further, ADCP and ADNP responses were strongly correlated with Spike-specific IgG responses and neutralizing activities, indicating coordinated neutralization activity, ADCP and ADNP responses triggered by CoronaVac. Of note, the ADCP and ADNP responses were more durable and cross-reactive than corresponding Spike-specific IgG titers and neutralizing activities. Our study has important implications for optimal boosting vaccine strategies that may induce potent and broad Fc-mediated phagocytic activities.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Phagocytosis , Humans , Breakthrough Infections , Vaccines, Inactivated , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Neutralizing
2.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939957

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a threat with the emergence of new variants, especially Delta and Omicron, without specific effective therapeutic drugs. The infection causes dysregulation of the immune system with a cytokine storm that eventually leads to fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and further irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, the promising way to inhibit infection is to disrupt the binding and fusion between the viral spike and the host ACE2 receptor. A transcriptome-based drug screening platform has been developed for COVID-19 to explore the possibility and potential of the long-established drugs or herbal medicines to reverse the unique genetic signature of COVID-19. In silico analysis showed that Virofree, an herbal medicine, reversed the genetic signature of COVID-19 and ARDS. Biochemical validations showed that Virofree could disrupt the binding of wild-type and Delta-variant spike proteins to ACE2 and its syncytial formation via cell-based pseudo-typed viral assays, as well as suppress binding between several variant recombinant spikes to ACE2, especially Delta and Omicron. Additionally, Virofree elevated miR-148b-5p levels, inhibited the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro), and reduced LPS-induced TNF-α release. Virofree also prevented cellular iron accumulation leading to ferroptosis which occurs in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Furthermore, Virofree was able to reduce pulmonary fibrosis-related protein expression levels in vitro. In conclusion, Virofree was repurposed as a potential herbal medicine to combat COVID-19. This study highlights the inhibitory effect of Virofree on the entry of Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2, which have not had any effective treatments during the emergence of the new variants spreading.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1527, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this research, the factors that influence the self-precautionary behavior during the pandemic are explored with the combination of social support and a risk perception attitude framework. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among 429 members to collect information on demographic data, social support, perceptions of outbreak risk, health self-efficacy, and self-precautionary behaviors with the guide of the Social Support Scale, the COVID-19 Risk Perception Scale, the Health Self-Efficacy Scale and the Self-precautionary Behavior Scale. RESULTS: The research shows that among the three dimensions of social support, both objective support and support utilization negatively predict risk perception, while subjective support positively predicts health self-efficacy; health self-efficacy and risk perception significantly predict self-precautionary behavior; the relationship between risk perception and self-precautionary behavior is significantly moderated by health self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The combined influence of social capital and risk perception attitudinal frameworks on self-precautionary behavior is highlighted in this study, with the relationship between the public's risk perception, health self-efficacy, and self-precautionary behavior intentions examined against the background of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These findings contribute to understanding the impact of social capital factors on risk perception and health self-efficacy, which provides insight into the current status and influencing factors of the public's precautionary behavior and facilitates early intervention during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(2): 222-229, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846807

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a worldwide pandemic and poses a serious public health risk. It has been proven that lung ultrasound can be extremely valuable in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, which could also minimize the number of exposed healthcare workers and equipment. Because healthcare workers in ultrasound departments are in close contact with patients who might be infected or virus carriers, it is extremely important that they be provided sufficient protection. Extremely aggressive protection should be avoided because it might lead to a lack of protection equipment for the hospital. Guidance on proper protection management should be provided in detail, for example, how to choose personal protective equipment, how to disinfect the environment. To address these problems, on behalf of the Chinese Ultrasound Doctors Association, Chinese PLA Professional Committee of Ultrasound in Medicine, Beijing Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine and Chinese Research Hospital Association Ultrasound Professional Committee, the authors have summarized the recommendations for effective protection according to existing hygienic standards, their experience and available literature. After the recommendations were completed, two online conferences were held on January 31, 2020 and February 7, 2020, at which the recommendations were discussed in detail. A modified version of the work was circulated and finally approved by all authors, and is the present Chinese Expert Consensus on Protection for Ultrasound Healthcare Workers against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Ultrasonography/methods , China , Consensus , Disinfection , Humans , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Quarantine , Triage
5.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.09.02.20187187

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To systematically analyze the chest CT imaging features of children with COVID-19 and provide references for clinical practice. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase; data published by Johns Hopkins University; and Chinese databases CNKI, Wanfang, and Chongqing Weipu. Reports on chest CT imaging features of children with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, to August 10, 2020, were analyzed retrospectively and a meta-analysis carried out using Stata12.0 software. Results: Thirty-seven articles (1747 children) were included in this study. The overall rate of abnormal lung CT findings was 63.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55.8-70.6%), with a rate of 61.0% (95% CI: 50.8-71.2%) in China and 67.8% (95% CI: 57.1-78.4%) in the rest of the world in the subgroup analysis. The incidence of ground-glass opacities was 39.5% (95% CI: 30.7-48.3%), multiple lung lobe lesions 65.1% (95% CI: 55.1-67.9%), and bilateral lung lesions 61.5% (95% CI: 58.8-72.2%). Other imaging features included nodules (25.7%), patchy shadows (36.8%), halo sign (24.8%), consolidation (24.1%), air bronchogram signs (11.2%), cord-like shadows (9.7%), crazy-paving pattern (6.1%), and pleural effusion (9.1%). Two articles reported three cases of white lung, another reported two cases of pneumothorax, and another one case of bullae. CONCLUSION: The lung CT results of children with COVID-19 are usually normal or slightly atypica, with a low sensitivity and specificity compared with that in adults. The lung lesions of COVID-19 pediatric patients mostly involve both lungs or multiple lobes, and the common manifestations are patchy shadows, ground-glass opacities, consolidation, partial air bronchogram signs, nodules, and halo signs; white lung, pleural effusion, and paving stone signs are rare. CLINICAL IMPACT: Therefore, chest CT has limited value as a screening tool for children with COVID-19 and can only be used as an auxiliary assessment tool.

6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 291, 2020 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680783

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, which causes global public health emergencies, has sped widely for more than 5 months and has the risk of long-term transmission. No effective treatment has been discovered to date. In the cases we report, the patient continued to deteriorate even after administration of antiviral drugs such as lopinavir/ritonavir, interferon-α, and ribavirin, as well as intravenous injection of meropenem, methylprednisolone, and immunoglobulin. So, we infused the patient with convalescent plasma (CP), and the absolute lymphocyte count increased the next day and returned to normal on the fourth day. Followed by intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), bilateral infiltrates were absorbed and the pulmonary function was significantly improved. We note that the intravenous infusion of CP and MSCs for the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients may have synergistic characteristics in inhibiting cytokine storm, promoting the repair of lung injury, and recovering pulmonary function. We hope to provide a reference for the research direction of COVID-19 clinical strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Leukocyte Count , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Serotherapy
7.
Lancet ; 395(10239): 1802-1812, 2020 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548644

ABSTRACT

China has substantially increased financial investment and introduced favourable policies for strengthening its primary health care system with core responsibilities in preventing and managing chronic diseases such as hypertension and emerging infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, widespread gaps in the quality of primary health care still exist. In this Review, we aim to identify the causes for this poor quality, and provide policy recommendations. System challenges include: the suboptimal education and training of primary health-care practitioners, a fee-for-service payment system that incentivises testing and treatments over prevention, fragmentation of clinical care and public health service, and insufficient continuity of care throughout the entire health-care system. The following recommendations merit consideration: (1) enhancement of the quality of training for primary health-care physicians, (2) establishment of performance accountability to incentivise high-quality and high-value care; (3) integration of clinical care with the basic public health services, and (4) strengthening of the coordination between primary health-care institutions and hospitals. Additionally, China should consider modernising its primary health-care system through the establishment of a learning health system built on digital data and innovative technologies.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care/standards , Quality of Health Care , COVID-19 , China , Continuity of Patient Care , Coronavirus Infections , Fee-for-Service Plans , Humans , Pandemics , Physicians, Primary Care/education , Physicians, Primary Care/standards , Pneumonia, Viral , Primary Health Care/organization & administration
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