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Front Public Health ; 10: 963999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163167


Background: Using daily monitoring of environmental surfaces and personal protective equipment (PPE), we found an increase in environmental contamination since August 18, 2021, in a designated hospital for COVID-19 patients in China, which may lead to an increased risk of exposure to medical staff. Methods: To investigate the cause of increased environmental contamination and effect of our intervention, we obtained environmental samples at pre-intervention (August 18-21, 2021) and post-intervention (August 22-28, 2021) from six infection isolation rooms with windows for ventilation and other auxiliary areas at 105 and 129 sites before routine daily cleaning, respectively. In addition, we obtained PPE samples from 98 medical staff exiting the patient rooms/contaminated areas at 482 sites. Between August 22 and 24, 2021, we took measures to reduce environmental contamination based on sampling and inspection results. Findings: At pre-intervention, the positivity rates for contamination of environmental surfaces and PPE samples were significantly higher for critical patients (37.21 and 27.86%, respectively) than severely ill patients (25.00 and 12.50%, respectively) and moderately ill patients (0.00 and 0.00%, respectively) (Pearson's Chi-square: χ2 = 15.560, p = 0.000; Fisher's exact test: χ2 = 9.358, p = 0.007). Therefore, we inferred that the source of contamination of environmental surfaces and PPE was mainly the room of critically ill patients, likely through the hands of medical staff to the potentially contaminated areas. A critically ill patient had emergency tracheal intubation and rescue on August 18, 2021, due to worsened patient condition. The ventilator tube used for first aid did not match the ventilator, and the ventilator tube fell off multiple times on August 18-21, 2021, which may explain the increased contamination of environmental surfaces and PPE from critically ill patients, as well as lead to indirect contamination of potentially contaminated areas. The contamination positivity rates of environmental surfaces and PPE were reduced by replacing the appropriate ventilator catheter, limiting the number of people entering the isolation room simultaneously, increasing the frequency of environmental disinfection, standardizing the undressing process, setting up undressing monitoring posts to supervise the undressing process, and preventing the spread of virus infections in the hospital during an epidemic. Conclusions: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was spread on object surfaces in isolation rooms mainly by touch, and the contamination of environmental surfaces and PPE was greater in rooms of patients with greater disease severity and higher surface touch frequency. Therefore, strict protective measures for medical staff, frequent environmental cleaning for isolation rooms, and compliance with mask wearing by patients when conditions permit should be advised to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread in hospitals.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Illness , Hospitals , Medical Staff
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 489-494, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745338


To propose the architectural layout for the big general hospital in the face of public health emergencies, we analyzed the conditions, methods, problems and countermeasures for the reconstruction of the isolation ward from the existing medical building layout of a general hospital. The affected areas met the requirements of isolation ward in the reconstruction, and realized the corresponding partition and separation of people. But the cost of occupying the medical room should be concerned. General hospital should be alerted to potential risks of public health emergencies. The characteristics of different construction types, defects, and the function of the hospital should be considered in the construction, rebuilding, and expansion of the hospital, which shouldnot only meet the needs of the development of the hospital daily usage but also consider dealing with emergent public health events. We can adopt the reasonable layout, including setting up a firewall-like device between the channel and the floor, an ordinary ward at ordinary times, and an independent space for emergency by pulling down the gate. This strategy can not only avoid the problem of low utilization rate of the space occupied by the corresponding area in the ward for diseases spread by air and droplets, maximizing the efficiency of the medical site, but also avoid the problem of emergency response to the temporary reconstruction.

Emergencies , Facility Design and Construction , Hospitals, General , Public Health , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans
Innovation (Camb) ; 1(1): 100001, 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42140


BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults might play a key role in the worldwide spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) because they are more likely to be involved in overseas study, business, work, and travel. However, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics remain unknown. METHODS: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data from 46 confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 10 to 35 years from the Chongqing Three Gorges Central Hospital. Several key epidemiological parameters, asymptomatic cases, transmission to family members, and clinical characteristics at admission and during treatment were summarized. RESULTS: Of 46 confirmed patients, 14 patients (30.4%) were aged between 10 and 24 years, and 24 (52.2%) patients were male. The estimated mean incubation period was 6.6 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4-9.6). The median serial interval was 1.9 days (95% CI 0.4-6.2). Three of the asymptomatic cases showed transmission to their family members. Only one patient was identified as a severe case at admission. The common symptoms at admission were dry cough (34, 81.0%) and fever (29, 69.1%). Nearly 60% of the patients showed ground-glass opacity on chest computed tomography. Three patients developed acute kidney injury during treatment. Most of the patients (78.3%) recovered and were discharged by the end of the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This single-center study with a relatively small sample size showed that adolescent and young adult patients with COVID-19 had a long incubation period and a short serial interval. The transmission occurred from asymptomatic cases to family members. Fewer patients developed complications during treatment.