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1.
J Virol ; 95(16): e0018721, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486048

ABSTRACT

Subversion of the host cell cycle to facilitate viral replication is a common feature of coronavirus infections. Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein can modulate the host cell cycle, but the mechanistic details remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein on the cell cycle and the influence on viral replication. Results indicated that PEDV N induced Vero E6 cell cycle arrest at S-phase, which promoted viral replication (P < 0.05). S-phase arrest was dependent on the N protein nuclear localization signal S71NWHFYYLGTGPHADLRYRT90 and the interaction between N protein and p53. In the nucleus, the binding of N protein to p53 maintained consistently high-level expression of p53, which activated the p53-DREAM pathway. The key domain of the N protein interacting with p53 was revealed to be S171RGNSQNRGNNQGRGASQNRGGNN194 (NS171-N194), in which G183RG185 are core residues. NS171-N194 and G183RG185 were essential for N-induced S-phase arrest. Moreover, small molecular drugs targeting the NS171-N194 domain of the PEDV N protein were screened through molecular docking. Hyperoside could antagonize N protein-induced S-phase arrest by interfering with interaction between N protein and p53 and inhibit viral replication (P < 0.05). The above-described experiments were also validated in porcine intestinal cells, and data were in line with results in Vero E6 cells. Therefore, these results reveal the PEDV N protein interacts with p53 to activate the p53-DREAM pathway, and subsequently induces S-phase arrest to create a favorable environment for virus replication. These findings provide new insight into the PEDV-host interaction and the design of novel antiviral strategies against PEDV. IMPORTANCE Many viruses subvert the host cell cycle to create a cellular environment that promotes viral growth. PEDV, an emerging and reemerging coronavirus, has led to substantial economic loss in the global swine industry. Our study is the first to demonstrate that PEDV N-induced cell cycle arrest during the S-phase promotes viral replication. We identified a novel mechanism of PEDV N-induced S-phase arrest, where the binding of PEDV N protein to p53 maintains consistently high levels of p53 expression in the nucleus to mediate S-phase arrest by activating the p53-DREAM pathway. Furthermore, a small molecular compound, hyperoside, targeted the PEDV N protein, interfering with the interaction between the N protein and p53 and, importantly, inhibited PEDV replication by antagonizing cell cycle arrest. This study reveals a new mechanism of PEDV-host interaction and also provides a novel antiviral strategy for PEDV. These data provide a foundation for further research into coronavirus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nuclear Localization Signals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Microb Pathog ; 140: 103922, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Highly virulent variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have been closely associated with recent outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in China, which have resulted in severe economic losses to the pork industry. METHODS: In the current study, the variant PEDV strain HM2017 was isolated and purified and a viral growth curve was constructed according to the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). HM2017 were amplify with RT-PCR and analyzed by phylogeny analysis. Animal pathogenicity experiment was carried to evaluate the HM2017 clinical assessment. RESULTS: Genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that PEDV strain HM2017 was clustered into the variant subgroup GII-a that is currently circulating in pig populations in China. The highest median tissue culture infectious dose of strain HM2017 after 15 passages in Vero cells was 1.33 × 107 viral particles/mL. Strain HM2017 was highly virulent to suckling piglets, which exhibited clinical symptoms at 12 h post-infection (hpi) (i.e., weight loss at 12-84 hpi, increased body temperatures at 24-48 hpi, high viral loads in the jejunum and ileum, and 100% mortality by 84 hpi). CONCLUSION: The present study reports a variant subgroup GII-a PEDV HM2017 strain in China and characterize its pathogenicity. PEDV strain HM2017 of subgroup GII-a presents a promising vaccine candidate for the control of PED outbreaks in China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Animals , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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