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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803047

ABSTRACT

Baoji is a typical heavy industrial city in northwest China. Its air quality is greatly impacted by the emission from the factories. Elements in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that are greatly emitted from anthropogenic sources could pose diverse health impacts on humans. In this study, an online AMMS-100 atmospheric heavy metal analyzer was used to quantify 30 elements in PM2.5 under the weak and strong anthropogenic disturbance scenarios before the city lockdown period (from January 9th to 23rd) and the lockdown period (from January 26th to February 9th) due to the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. During the lockdown period, the average total concentration of total quantified elements was 3475.0 ng/m3, which was 28% and 33% lower than that of the week and strong anthropogenic disturbance scenarios during the pre-lockdown period. The greatest reductions were found for the elements of chromium (Cr), titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), and Zinc (Zn), consistent with the industrial structure of Baoji. The mass concentrations of most elements showed obvious reductions when the government post-alerted the industries to reduce the operations and production. Dust, traffic sources, combustion, non-ferrous metal processing, and Ti-related industrial processing that are the contributors of the elements in the pre-lockdown period were apportioned by the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Substantial changes in the quantified elements' compositions and sources were found in the lockdown period. Health assessment was conducted and characterized by apportioned sources. The highest non-carcinogenic risk (HQ) was seen for Zn, demonstrating the high emissions from the related industrial activities. The concentration level of arsenic (As) exceeded the incremental lifetime carcinogenic risk (ILCR) in the lockdown period. This could be attributed to the traditional firework activities for the celebration of the Chinese New Year within the lockdown period.

2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(14): e2104333, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782562

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global public health threat. Hence, more effective and specific antivirals are urgently needed. Here, COVID-19 hyperimmune globulin (COVID-HIG), a passive immunotherapy, is prepared from the plasma of healthy donors vaccinated with BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine). COVID-HIG shows high-affinity binding to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein, the receptor-binding domain (RBD), the N-terminal domain of the S protein, and the nucleocapsid protein; and blocks RBD binding to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Pseudotyped and authentic virus-based assays show that COVID-HIG displays broad-spectrum neutralization effects on a wide variety of SARS-CoV-2 variants, including D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Kappa (B.1.617.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) in vitro. However, a significant reduction in the neutralization titer is detected against Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants. Additionally, assessments of the prophylactic and treatment efficacy of COVID-HIG in an Adv5-hACE2-transduced IFNAR-/- mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection show significantly reduced weight loss, lung viral loads, and lung pathological injury. Moreover, COVID-HIG exhibits neutralization potency similar to that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin from pooled convalescent plasma. Overall, the results demonstrate the potential of COVID-HIG against SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide reference for subsequent clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Globulins , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Globulins/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321367

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A pneumonia associated with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, subsequently named SARS-CoV2) emerged worldwide since December, 2019. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Shaanxi province of China. Results: : 1. Among the 245 patients, 132 (53.9%) were males and 113 (46.1%) were females. The average age was 46.15±16.43 years, ranging from 3 to 89 years. 2. For the clinical type, 1.63% (4/245) patients were mild type , 84.90% (208/245) were moderate type, 7.76% (19/245) were severe type, 5.31% (13/245) were critical type and only 0.41% (1/245) was asymptomatic. 3. Of the 245 patients, 116 (47.35%) were input case, 114 (46.53%) were non-input case , and 15 (6.12%) were unknown exposure. 4. 48.57% (119/245) cases were family cluster , involving 42 families. The most common pattern of COVID-19 family cluster was between husband and wife or between parents and children.

4.
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical ; : 130853, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1447160

ABSTRACT

Baicalin (Bn) obtained from natural plants has been found to exhibit significant antiviral activity against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, a novel ultrasensitive Bn electrochemical sensor was proposed based on graphitized carbon-nitride - single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites (C3N4-SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and electrodeposited cyclodextrin-metal organic framework (CD-MOF). The sensing nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Under optimal conditions, the sensor exhibited sensitive detection of Bn in a wide linear range of 1 × 10-9 - 5 × 10-7M with an LOD of 4.6 × 10-10M and a sensitivity of 220A/M, and it showed satisfactory stability and accuracy for detecting Bn in real samples (human serum and bear bile scutellaria eye drops). In addition, the electrochemical reaction sites and redox mechanism of Bn were revealed through electrochemical behavior and density functional theory. This work provided an insightful solution for detecting Bn, and extensive potential applications could be further expected.

5.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; 1992(4), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1379419

ABSTRACT

In order to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on urban transportation and provide policy recommendations for city and transportation planning and management under the normalization of the pandemic, this article conducted an online survey to examine urban mobility change in Beijing. Combined with the current status of transportation operations, this article studied the opportunities and challenges faced by future urban transportation planning, construction and management. The results show that the travel numbers declined during the pandemic and people prefer to travel by cars and bicycles. In the end, this article put forward reflections on city planning and transportation system including creating an efficient life and commuting circle, reshaping the street space to be more friendly for active mobility, building the on-demand and resilient transportation system and promoting the integration of advanced technologies and traffic governance to enhance the resilience of transports system and achieve the smooth operation of urban transportation.

6.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105290, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318948

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been almost controlled in China under a series of policies, including "early diagnosis and early treatment". This study aimed to explore the association between early treatment with Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) and favorable clinical outcomes. In this retrospective multicenter study, we included 782 patients (males, 56 %; median age 46) with confirmed COVID-19 from 54 hospitals in nine provinces of China, who were divided into four groups according to the treatment initiation time from the first date of onset of symptoms to the date of starting treatment with QFPDD. The primary outcome was time to recovery; days of viral shedding, duration of hospital stay, and course of the disease were also analyzed. Compared with treatment initiated after 3 weeks, early treatment with QFPDD after less than 1 week, 1-2 weeks, or 2-3 weeks had a higher likelihood of recovery, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95 % confidence interval [CI]) of 3.81 (2.65-5.48), 2.63 (1.86-3.73), and 1.92 (1.34-2.75), respectively. The median course of the disease decreased from 34 days to 24 days, 21 days, and 18 days when treatment was administered early by a week (P < 0.0001). Treatment within a week was related to a decrease by 1-4 days in the median duration of hospital stay compared with late treatment (P<0.0001). In conclusion, early treatment with QFPDD may serve as an effective strategy in controlling the epidemic, as early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes, including faster recovery, shorter time to viral shedding, and a shorter duration of hospital stay. However, further multicenter, prospective studies with a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm the benefits of early treatment with QFPDD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110090, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227702

ABSTRACT

Importance: Reimagining university life during COVID-19 requires substantial innovation and meaningful community input. One method for obtaining community input is crowdsourcing, which involves having a group of individuals work to solve a problem and then publicly share solutions. Objective: To evaluate a crowdsourcing open call as an approach to COVID-19 university community engagement and strategic planning. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study assessed a crowdsourcing open call offered from June 16 to July 16, 2020, that sought ideas to inform safety in the fall 2020 semester at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). Digital methods (email and social media) were used for promotion, and submissions were collected online for 4 weeks. Participation was open to UNC students, staff, faculty, and others. Main Outcomes and Measures: Submissions were evaluated for innovation, feasibility, inclusivity, and potential to improve safety and well-being. Demographic data were collected from submitting individuals, and submissions were qualitatively analyzed for emergent themes on challenges with and solutions for addressing safety and well-being in the fall semester. Data were shared with UNC leadership to inform decision-making. Results: The open call received 82 submissions from 110 participants, including current UNC students (56 submissions [68%]), people younger than 30 years (67 [82%]), women (55 [67%]), and individuals identifying as a racial/ethnic minority or as multiracial/ethnic (49 [60%]). Seven submissions were identified as finalists and received cash prizes with the encouragement to use these funds toward idea development and implementation. Seventeen runner-up teams were linked to university resources for further development. Thematic analysis of submissions regarding challenges with the fall semester revealed not only physical health concerns and the limitations of remote learning but also challenges that have been exacerbated by the pandemic, such as a lack of mental health support, structural racism and inequality, and insufficient public transportation. Solutions included novel ideas to support mental health among specific populations (eg, graduate students and racial/ethnic minorities), improve health equity, and increase transit access. All 24 finalists and runners-up indicated interest in implementation after being notified of the open call results. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that open calls are a feasible strategy for university community engagement on COVID-19, providing a stakeholder-driven approach to identifying promising ideas for enhancing safety and well-being. Open calls could be formally incorporated into university planning processes to develop COVID-19 safety strategies that are responsive to diverse community members' concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Crowdsourcing , Organizational Innovation , Strategic Planning , Universities/organization & administration , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Education, Distance , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Minority Groups/psychology , North Carolina , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students/psychology , Young Adult
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(5): 862-864, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114829

ABSTRACT

We present 2 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the third trimester of pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns had excellent outcomes. We failed to identify SARS-CoV-2 in all of the products of conception and the newborns. This report provided evidence of low risk of intrauterine infection by vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4242-4258, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951227

ABSTRACT

Viruses remain a major challenge in the fierce fight against diseases. There have been many pandemics caused by various viruses throughout the world over the years. Recently, the global outbreak of COVID-19 has had a catastrophic impact on human health and the world economy. Antiviral drug treatment has become another essential means to overcome pandemics in addition to vaccine development. How to quickly find effective drugs that can control the development of a pandemic is a hot issue that still needs to be resolved in medical research today. To accelerate the development of drugs, it is necessary to target the key target proteins in the development of the pandemic, screen active molecules, and develop reliable methods for the identification and characterization of target proteins based on the active ingredients of drugs. This article discusses key target proteins and their biological mechanisms in the progression of COVID-19 and other major epidemics. We propose a model based on these foundations, which includes identifying potential core targets, screening potential active molecules of core targets, and verifying active molecules. This article summarizes the related innovative technologies and methods. We hope to provide a reference for the screening of drugs related to pandemics and the development of new drugs.


Subject(s)
Drug Development/methods , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Pandemics , Proteomics/methods , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Databases, Protein , Humans , Plague/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy
10.
Reprod Toxicol ; 100: 163-166, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943567

ABSTRACT

The effects of SARS-COV-2 infection on the pregnant women and their fetus growth have attracted worldwide concern. Our case study aimed to investigate the neonatal clinical outcomes of the recovered pregnant women from COVID-19 in China, expecting to provide the clinical references of urgent need for other countries. Our study recruited a total of 12 recovered pregnant women from COVID-19 prior to pregnancy termination. The maternal and neonatal clinical characteristics were recorded. Of them, the placental pathological characteristics of five participants were evaluated following the standard guidelines. Two of them chose induced labour due to being worry about the potential adverse effects of medical treatment for COVID-19 by themselves. For the others, 8 gave birth by cesarean section with certain indications and 2 by vaginal delivery. Their neonates were all live birth with ≥ 37 gestational weeks and high Apgar scores of 9 ∼ 10. For the neonate related biological samples, they all have negative results of RNA test, including nasopharyngeal swab, umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, vaginal fluid, placenta, or umbilical cord. Most of other pathological indicators of placental examination suggested no abnormal syndromes. Overall, we did not find any abnormal pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes among them. We concluded that excess adverse effect on the fetus development due to COVID-19 in the recovered pregnant women should be less influential, especially, induce abortion due to the anxiety of COVID-19 treatment should be not advisable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 506, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A pneumonia associated with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, subsequently named SARS-CoV2) emerged worldwide since December, 2019. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Shaanxi province of China. RESULTS: 1. Among the 245 patients, 132 (53.9%) were males and 113 (46.1%) were females. The average age was 46.15 ± 16.43 years, ranging from 3 to 89 years. 2. For the clinical type, 1.63% (4/245) patients were mild type, 84.90% (208/245) were moderate type, 7.76% (19/245) were severe type, 5.31% (13/245) were critical type and only 0.41% (1/245) was asymptomatic. 3. Of the 245 patients, 116 (47.35%) were input case, 114 (46.53%) were non-input case, and 15 (6.12%) were unknown exposure. 4. 48.57% (119/245) cases were family cluster, involving 42 families. The most common pattern of COVID-19 family cluster was between husband and wife or between parents and children.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Young Adult
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e238, 2020 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807239

ABSTRACT

The mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differs between countries and regions. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of imported and second-generation cases in Shaanxi. This study included 134 COVID-19 cases in Shaanxi outside Wuhan. Clinical data were compared between severe and non-severe cases. We further profiled the dynamic laboratory findings of some patients. In total, 34.3% of the 134 patients were severe cases, 11.2% had complications. As of 7 March 2020, 91.8% patients were discharged and one patient (0.7%) died. Age, lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase showed difference between severe and no-severe cases (all P < 0.05). Baseline lymphocyte count was higher in survived patients than in non-survivor case, and it increased as the condition improved, but declined sharply when death occurred. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) level displayed a downtrend in survivors, but rose very high in the death case. Pulmonary fibrosis was found on later chest computed tomography images in 51.5% of the pneumonia cases. Imported and second-generation cases outside Wuhan had a better prognosis than initial cases in Wuhan. Lymphocyte count and IL-6 level could be used for evaluating prognosis. Pulmonary fibrosis as the sequelae of COVID-19 should be taken into account.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1851

ABSTRACT

Background: Few studies have examined the association between treatment given time and clinical outcomes, which is indeed of great importance to clinical manage

15.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 665-672, 2020 Jun 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745326

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate residents' knowledge, attitude and behavior towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hunan Province, and to explore the factors influencing behaviors. METHODS: A self-designed questionnaire was used to conduct an online survey for 4 139 Hunan residents. The contents included general population information, residents' knowledge, attitude and practice to COVID-19. RESULTS: Mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and behavior were 29.82±3.16, 6.71±1.12, and 14.93±1.45, respectively. Residents had the highest score of major symptoms of COVID-19 (3.96±0.39), but the lowest was the main transmission routes (3.47±0.89). A total of 22.68% of the residents were very or relatively afraid of the outbreak, but 95.22% of the residents had confidence in defeating COVID-19. In behavior dimension, "handling of suspicious symptoms" had the lowest score (3.58±0.75). The behavior implementation rate of "keep the surfaces of household items clean" (80.50%), "doing more exercise, reasonable diet, working and resting regularly" (84.59%), and "avoid hand contacting with eyes, mouth or nose" (89.51%) were relatively low. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that the knowledge, attitude, and practices score were correlated with each other (knowledge vs behavior: r=0.366; knowledge vs attitude: r=0.041; attitude vs behavior: r=0.100; all P<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the knowledge, attitude and behavior on COVID-19 were mostly influenced by education background (all P<0.05), and the independent factors affecting behavior included knowledge and attitude, gender, permanent residence, education background (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Residents in Hunan Province have a good knowledge, attitude, and behavior to COVID-19. Nevertheless there are still weak links to be improved in all dimensions. It is necessary to strengthen knowledge and behavior of family protection, and care for residents' psychological health, especially persons with low education degree, male and rural residents.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(1): 111.e1-111.e14, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is a global public health emergency. Data on the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy are limited to small case series. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes in pregnancy and the vertical transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for 116 pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia from 25 hospitals in China between January 20, 2020, and March 24, 2020. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed by testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal pharyngeal swab samples. RESULTS: The median gestational age on admission was 38+0 (interquartile range, 36+0-39+1) weeks. The most common symptoms were fever (50.9%, 59/116) and cough (28.4%, 33/116); 23.3% (27/116) patients presented without symptoms. Abnormal radiologic findings were found in 96.3% (104/108) of cases. Of the 116 cases, there were 8 cases (6.9%) of severe pneumonia but no maternal deaths. One of 8 patients who presented in the first trimester and early second trimester had a missed spontaneous abortion. Of 99 patients, 21 (21.2%) who delivered had preterm birth, including 6 with preterm premature rupture of membranes. The rate of spontaneous preterm birth before 37 weeks' gestation was 6.1% (6/99). One case of severe neonatal asphyxia resulted in neonatal death. Furthermore, 86 of the 100 neonates tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 had negative results; of these, paired amniotic fluid and cord blood samples from 10 neonates used to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 had negative results. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm birth. There is no evidence of vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection when the infection manifests during the third trimester of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Fetal Blood/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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