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2.
Viruses ; 14(4):820, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792416

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a disastrous impact on global health. Although some vaccine candidates have been effective in combating SARS-CoV-2, logistical, economical, and sociological aspects still limit vaccine access globally. Recently, we reported on two room-temperature stable AAV-based COVID-19 vaccines that induced potent and protective immunogenicity following a single injection in murine and primate models. Obesity and old age are associated with increased mortality in COVID-19, as well as reduced immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of the AAVCOVID vaccine candidates in murine models of obesity and aging. Results demonstrate that obesity did not significantly alter the immunogenicity of either vaccine candidate. In aged mice, vaccine immunogenicity was impaired. These results suggest that AAV-based vaccines may have limitations in older populations and may be equally applicable in obese and non-obese populations.

3.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-333130

ABSTRACT

Background: The epidemiological characteristics and transmissibility of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may undergo changes due to the mutation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains. The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in the outbreaks of the different strains, with regards to aspects such as epidemiological characteristics, transmissibility, and difficulties in prevention and control. Methods: COVID-19 data from outbreaks of pre-Delta strains, the Delta variant and Omicron variant, were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Case data were collected from China’s direct-reporting system, and the data concerning outbreaks were collected by on-site epidemiological investigators and collated by the authors of this paper. Indicators such as the effective reproduction number (Reff), time-dependent reproduction number (Rt), rate of decrease in transmissibility (RDT), and duration from the illness onset date to the diagnosed date (DID) / reported date (DIR) were used to compare differences in transmissibility between pre-Delta strains, Delta variants and Omicron variants. A nonparametric test was used to compare differences in epidemiological characteristics and transmissibility between outbreaks of different strains. P < 0.05 indicated that the difference was statistically significant. Results: Mainland China has maintained a “dynamic zero-out strategy” since the first case was reported, and clusters of outbreaks have occurred intermittently. The strains causing outbreaks in mainland China have gone through three stages: the outbreak of pre-Delta strains, the outbreak of the Delta variant, and outbreaks involving the superposition of Delta and Omicron variant strains. Each outbreak of pre-Delta strains went through two stages: a rising stage and a falling stage;Each outbreak of the Delta variant and Omicron variant went through three stages: a rising stage, a platform stage and a falling stage. The maximum Reff value of Omicron variant outbreaks was highest (median: 6.7;ranged from 5.3 to 8.0) and the differences were statistically significant. The RDT value of outbreaks involving pre-Delta strains was smallest (median: 91.4%;[IQR]: 87.30%-94.27%), and the differences were statistically significant. The DID and DIR of all strains accounted for the most in 0 ~ 2 days, with more than 75%. The range of duration for outbreaks of pre-Delta strains was the largest (median: 20 days, ranging from 1 to 61 days), and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: With the evolution of the virus, the transmissibility of the variants has increased. The transmissibility of the Omicron variant is higher than that of both the pre-Delta strains and the Delta variant, and is more difficult to suppress. These findings enable us to get a more clear and precise picture of the transmissibility of the different variants in the real world, in accordance with the findings of previous studies. Reff is more suitable than Rt for assessing the transmissibility of the disease during an epidemic outbreak.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332830

ABSTRACT

The low COVID-19 vaccination rate and intention among parents with children ages 5-11 is a seriousissue as the U.S. attempts to control the pandemic. According to current research, safety and side effectconcerns are the primary reason for such vaccine hesitancy. To mitigate it and boost vaccinationintention, we used two “safety” messages (a short, concise one vs. a long, detailed one) that carefullyexplained the vaccine’s lower dosage, the low rate of side effects, and the rigorous approval process.We also compared these safety messages with two “protect” messages which respectively emphasizedthe protection of the child and the entire family. Among the four treatment arms, we found that the shortversion of the safety message increased the average vaccination intention by over 1 point on a 0-6 scale,compared to the control arm, while the other three treatments failed to show significance. Specifically,these effects are particularly pronounced (~2 points) for Republican parents who had a much lowerinitial intention. Our study highlights the importance of to-the-point and concise information renderingin promoting public health activities and therefore has important policy implications for raisingvaccination intentions among parents, especially those leaning towards more conservative politicalaffiliation.

5.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782945

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The impact of HIV infection on the natural history of COVID-19 is unknown, given the recency of the human spread of SARS-CoV-2 (CoV). We reviewed published case series/reports of CoV-HIV coinfections to clarify epidemiologic and clinical features in China, the first nation with pandemic experience. RECENT FINDINGS: Assuming that HIV-infected persons were at average risk of CoV infection in Wuhan, we estimated HIV-CoV coinfected persons to number 412 (95%CI: 381-442); our review encompassed an estimated 16.7% (69/412) of Wuhan. Men (many of whom reported sex with other men) accounted for 71.1% (54/76) of the cases reported in China. The median age was 48.0 years old (range 24-77, interquartile:37-57). The median CD4+ cell count at the last clinical visit was 421 cells/µL; 83.0% had an undetectable viral load. Among 31 patients with clinical details reported, fatigue (41.9%), respiratory distress (41.9%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (26.7%) were most common. Among the 52 cases reporting COVID-19 clinical severity, 46.2% were severe, 44.2% mild, and 9.6% asymptomatic COVID-19. Late antiretroviral therapy (ART) was reported by 30.4% (7/23) among whom 57.1% (4/7) were confirmed as severe COVID-19. The case fatality rate was 9.1% (3/33). Severe disease and death were less common among persons who took ART prior to the COVID-19 diagnosis. Of 16 reported IL-6 results, 68.7% were within the normal range. Earlier use of ART was associated with a better COVID-19 prognosis with CoV-HIV co-infection reported from China through early 2021, but small sample sizes limit definitive conclusions.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332387

ABSTRACT

The spike (S), a homotrimer glycoprotein, is the most important antigen target in the research and development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. There is no doubt that fully simulating the advanced structure of this homotrimer in the subunit vaccine development strategy is the most likely way to improve the immune protective effect of the vaccine. In this study, the preparation strategies of S protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) trimer, S1 region trimer, and ectodomain (ECD) trimer nanoparticles were designed based on ferritin nanoparticle self-assembly technology. The Bombyx mori baculovirus expression system was used to prepare these three nanoparticle vaccines with high expression levels in the silkworm. The immune results of mice show that the nanoparticle vaccine prepared by this strategy can not only induce an immune response by subcutaneous administration but also effective by oral administration. Given the stability of these ferritin-based nanoparticles vaccine, easy-to-use and low-cost oral immunization strategy can make up for the vaccination blind areas caused by the shortage of ultralow-temperature equipment and medical resources in underdeveloped areas. And the oral vaccine is also a very potential candidate to cut off the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic and farmed animals, especially in stray and wild animals.

8.
Protein Cell ; 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777862

ABSTRACT

The nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to have a high ability of liquid-liquid phase separation, which enables its incorporation into stress granules (SGs) of host cells. However, whether SG invasion by N protein occurs in the scenario of SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknow, neither do we know its consequence. Here, we used SARS-CoV-2 to infect mammalian cells and observed the incorporation of N protein into SGs, which resulted in markedly impaired self-disassembly but stimulated cell cellular clearance of SGs. NMR experiments further showed that N protein binds to the SG-related amyloid proteins via non-specific transient interactions, which not only expedites the phase transition of these proteins to aberrant amyloid aggregation in vitro, but also promotes the aggregation of FUS with ALS-associated P525L mutation in cells. In addition, we found that ACE2 is not necessary for the infection of SARS-CoV-2 to mammalian cells. Our work indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection can impair the disassembly of host SGs and promote the aggregation of SG-related amyloid proteins, which may lead to an increased risk of neurodegeneration.

9.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e054292, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of existing studies and evidence on the impact of school closures and reopenings during the pandemic. INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated widespread school closures, and reopening schools safely has a pivotal role in the well-being of children and teachers, SARS-CoV-2 transmission control and optimal societal functioning. Widespread school closures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have caused adverse effects on the education, physical health and mental well-being of children. An understanding of the impact of school closures and reopenings as well as factors influencing school safety is critical to bringing schools' operational status back to normal. Despite the implication of individual concerns and knowledge on disease prevention practices, there is a paucity of research on individual knowledge, needs and behaviours in the context of school reopenings. In the proposed study, we will conduct a scoping review to identify and provide inventory of the current research and evidence on the impact of COVID-19 on K-12 schools (primary and secondary schools) and vice versa. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Eligible studies/literature include members of K-12 (primary and secondary) schools (students, parents, staff, faculty, COVID-19 coordinator, school nurses) in countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We will exclude university or college students. There will be no exclusion based on methods, timing or school operational status.All concepts regarding school closures and reopenings will be considered, and all types of research will be considered.This scoping review will follow the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. Sources of evidence published from 2020 to 31 October 2021 will be included. The search will include PubMed, preprints in EuropePMC, ERIC, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL and VHL. We will cover grey literature in Harvard Think Tank Database, COVID-19 Evidence Hub like COVID-END and Google Scholar. The abstract and title screening, full-text screening and data extraction will be done by two independent reviewers.Disagreements will be resolved by an independent third reviewer. Data extract will be done on Qualtrics form to ensure accurate extraction. Citation chaining will be performed on key articles identified. A critical appraisal will be performed.The scoping review will take place from 1 August 2021 to 15 November 2021. We will perform a final round of updated search and citation chaining. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The review will be based on published works and grey literature, thus it is exempt from formal ethical approval. This protocol cannot be registered in the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews because this registry is not for scoping reviews. We will register it in OSF Registration. The paper will appear in a peer-reviewed, open-access journal to ensure a broad dissemination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 362: 131764, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763980

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continuously causing hazards for the world. Effective detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can relieve the impact, but various toxic chemicals are also released into the environment. Fluorescence sensors offer a facile analytical strategy. During fluorescence sensing, biological samples such as tissues and body fluids have autofluorescence, giving false-positive/negative results because of the interferences. Fluorescence near-infrared (NIR) nanosensors can be designed from low-toxic materials with insignificant background signals. Although this research is still in its infancy, further developments in this field have the potential for sustainable detection of SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we summarize the reported NIR fluorescent nanosensors with the potential to detect SARS-CoV-2. The green synthesis of NIR fluorescent nanomaterials, environmentally compatible sensing strategies, and possible methods to reduce the testing frequencies are discussed. Further optimization strategies for developing NIR fluorescent nanosensors to facilitate greener diagnostics of SARS-CoV-2 for pandemic control are proposed.

11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 19, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still ongoing spreading globally, machine learning techniques were used in disease diagnosis and to predict treatment outcomes, which showed favorable performance. The present study aims to predict COVID-19 severity at admission by different machine learning techniques including random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and logistic regression (LR). Feature importance to COVID-19 severity were further identified. METHODS: A retrospective design was adopted in the JinYinTan Hospital from January 26 to March 28, 2020, eighty-six demographic, clinical, and laboratory features were selected with LassoCV method, Spearman's rank correlation, experts' opinions, and literature evaluation. RF, SVM, and LR were performed to predict severe COVID-19, the performance of the models was compared by the area under curve (AUC). Additionally, feature importance to COVID-19 severity were analyzed by the best performance model. RESULTS: A total of 287 patients were enrolled with 36.6% severe cases and 63.4% non-severe cases. The median age was 60.0 years (interquartile range: 49.0-68.0 years). Three models were established using 23 features including 1 clinical, 1 chest computed tomography (CT) and 21 laboratory features. Among three models, RF yielded better overall performance with the highest AUC of 0.970 than SVM of 0.948 and LR of 0.928, RF also achieved a favorable sensitivity of 96.7%, specificity of 69.5%, and accuracy of 84.5%. SVM had sensitivity of 93.9%, specificity of 79.0%, and accuracy of 88.5%. LR also achieved a favorable sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 72.3%, and accuracy of 85.2%. Additionally, chest-CT had highest importance to illness severity, and the following features were neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that RF could be a useful predictive tool to identify patients with severe COVID-19, which may facilitate effective care and further optimize resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS ONE Vol 16(5), 2021, ArtID e0250770 ; 16(5), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1756155

ABSTRACT

Background & aim: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the life and work of people worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate the rhythm disruptions of life, work, and entertainment, and their associations with the psychological impacts during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from the 10th to 17th March 2020 in China. A structured e-questionnaire containing general information, the Chinese version of Brief Social Rhythm Scale, and Zung's self-rating scales of depression and anxiety (SDS and SAS) was posted and collected online through a public media (i.e. EQxiu online questionnaire platform). Scores in sleeping, getting up, and socializing (SGS) rhythm and eating, physical practice, and entertainment (EPE) rhythm were compared among and between participants with different sociodemographic backgrounds including gender, age, education, current occupation, annual income, health status, and chronic disease status. Correlations of SDS and SAS with SGS-scale and EPE-scale were also analyzed. Results: Overall, 5854 participants were included. There were significant differences in the scores of SGS-scale and EPE-scale among people with different sociodemographic backgrounds. The scores were significantly higher in the groups with female gender, low education level, lower or higher than average income, poor health status, ages of 26-30 years or older than 61 years, nurses and subjects with divorce or widow status. There were also significant differences in SAS and SDS scores among people with different sociodemographic backgrounds (all P< 0.05). The overall prevalence of depression and anxiety was 24.3% and 12.6%, respectively, with nurses having the highest rates of depression (32.94%) and anxiety (18.98%) among the different occupational groups. SGS-scale was moderately correlated with SDS and SAS, and disruption of SGS rhythm was an independent risk factor for depression and anxiety. Conclusion: Social rhythm disruption was independently associated with depression and anxiety. Interventions should be applied to people vulnerable to the rhythm disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 803031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753384

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has caused more than 2.6 billion infections and several million deaths since its outbreak 2 years ago. We know very little about the long-term cellular immune responses and the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to SARS-CoV-2 because it has emerged only recently in the human population. Methods: We collected blood samples from individuals who were from the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan between December 30, 2019, and February 24, 2020. We analyzed NAbs to SARS-CoV-2 using pseudoviruses and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) protein using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients' sera and determined SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses of patients with ELISpot assays. Results: We found that 91.9% (57/62) and 88.9% (40/45) of COVID-19 patients had NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in a year (10-11 months) and one and a half years (17-18 months), respectively, after the onset of illness, indicating that NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 waned slowly and possibly persisted over a long period time. Over 80% of patients had IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 S and N protein one and a half years after illness onset. Most patients also had robust memory T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 one and a half years after the illness. Among the patients, 95.6% (43/45) had an IFN-γ-secreting T-cell response and 93.8% (15/16) had an IL-2-secreting T-cell response. The T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were positively correlated with antibodies (including neutralizing antibodies and IgG antibodies to S and N protein) in COVID-19 patients. Eighty percent (4/5) of neutralizing antibody-negative patients also had SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response. After long-term infection, protective immunity was independent of disease severity, sex, and age. Conclusions: We concluded that SARS-CoV-2 infection elicited a robust and persistent neutralizing antibody and memory T-cell response in COVID-19 patients, indicating that these sustained immune responses, among most SARS-CoV-2-infected people, may play a crucial role in protection against reinfection.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 485, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, people in many countries have shown xenophobia toward China, where the pandemic began. Within China, xenophobia has also been observed toward the people of Wuhan, the city where the first cases were identified. The relationship between disease threat and xenophobia is well established, but the reasons for this relationship are unclear. This study investigated the mediation role of perceived protection efficacy and moderation role of support seeking in the relationship between perceived COVID-19 risk and xenophobia within China. METHODS: An online survey was administered to a nationally representative sample (N = 1103; 51.7% women; ages 18 to 88) of Chinese adults during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants completed questionnaires about their perceived COVID-19 risk, perceived protection efficacy in reducing risk, support seeking, and xenophobic attitudes toward people of the Wuhan area. RESULTS: Regression based analyses showed that the perceived COVID-19 risk positively predicted xenophobia. Low perceived protection efficacy partly mediated the relationship between perceived COVID-19 risk and xenophobic attitudes, and this indirect effect was moderated by support seeking. Specifically, the indirect effect was weaker among individuals who sought more social support. CONCLUSIONS: Under disease threat, xenophobia can appear within a country that otherwise seems culturally homogeneous. This study extends the extant research by identifying a possible psychological mechanism by which individuals' perception of disease threat elicits xenophobia, and by addressing the question of why this response is stronger among some people than others. Increasing the public's perceived efficacy in protecting themselves from infection, and encouraging support seeking, could reduce xenophobic attitudes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phobic Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Xenophobia/psychology , Young Adult
15.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ; 63: 98-107, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729675

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking gut dysbiosis and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are poorly understood, although gut microbiota disorders are related to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. The roles of the gut microbiota in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with those in respiratory viral infection, which is an easily understood and enlightening analogy. Secondary bacterial infections caused by immune disorders and antibiotic abuse can lead to dysregulation of the gut microbiota in patients with respiratory viral infections. The gut microbiota can influence the progression of respiratory viral infections through metabolites and the immune response, which is known as the gut-lung axis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is expressed in both the lungs and the small intestine, which may be a bridge between the lung and the gut. Similarly, SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to disturb the gut microbiota, which may be the cause of cytokine storms. Bacteria in the gut, lung, and other tissues and respiratory viruses can be considered microecosystems and may exert overall effects on the host. By referencing respiratory viral infections, this review focused on the mechanisms involved in the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 infections and the gut microbiota and provides new strategies for the treatment or prevention of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections by improving gut microbial homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Dysbiosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718358

ABSTRACT

The association between meteorological factors and COVID-19 is important for the prevention and control of COVID-19. However, similar studies are relatively rare in China. This study aims to investigate the association between COVID-19 and meteorological factors, such as average temperature, relative humidity, and air quality index (AQI), and average wind speed. We collected the daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 and meteorological factors in Shanghai China from January 10, 2020 to March 31, 2020. A generalized additive model was fitted to quantify the associations between meteorological factors and COVID-19 during the study period. A negative association between average temperature and daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 was found on lag 13 days. In addition, we observed a significant positive correlation between meteorological factors (AQI, relative humidity) and daily confirmed cases of COVID-19. A 10 increase in AQI (lag1/7/8/9/10 days) was correlated with a 4.2%-9.0% increase in the daily confirmed cases of COVID-19. A 1% increase in relative humidity (lag1/4/7/8/9/10 days) was correlated with 1.7%-3.7% increase in the daily confirmed cases of COVID-19. However, the associations between average wind speed and the daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 is complex in different lag days. In summary, meteorological factors could affect the occurrence of COVID-19. Reducing the effects of meteorological factors on COVID-19 may be an important public health action for the prevention and control of COVID-19.

17.
Chem Eng J ; 438: 135589, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712496

ABSTRACT

Nearly 200 million people have been diagnosed with COVID-19 since the outbreak in 2019, and this disease has claimed more than 5 million lives worldwide. Currently, researchers are focusing on vaccine development and the search for an effective strategy to control the infection source. This work designed a detection platform based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) by introducing acetonitrile and calcium ions into the silver nanoparticle reinforced substrate system to realize the rapid detection of novel coronavirus. Acetonitrile may amplify the calcium-induced hot spots of silver nanoparticles and significantly enhanced the stability of silver nanoparticles. It also elicited highly sensitive SERS signals of the virus. This approach allowed us to capture the characteristic SERS signals of SARS-CoV-2, Human Adenovirus 3, and H1N1 influenza virus molecules at a concentration of 100 copies/test (PFU/test) with upstanding reproduction and signal-to-noise ratio. Machine learning recognition technology was employed to qualitatively distinguish the three virus molecules with 1000 groups of spectra of each virus. Acetonitrile is a potent internal marker in regulating the signal intensity of virus molecules in saliva and serum. Thus, we used the SERS peak intensity to quantify the virus content in saliva and serum. The results demonstrated a satisfactory linear relationship between peak intensity and protein concentration. Collectively, this rapid detection method has a broad application prospect in clinical diagnosis of viruses, management of emergent viral infectious diseases, and exploration of the interaction between viruses and host cells.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 630-638, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of COVID-19 epidemiology remains incomplete and crucial questions persist. We aimed to examine risk factors for COVID-19 death. METHODS: A total of 80 543 COVID-19 cases reported in China, nationwide, through 8 April 2020 were included. Risk factors for death were investigated by Cox proportional hazards regression and stratified analyses. RESULTS: Overall national case-fatality ratio (CFR) was 5.64%. Risk factors for death were older age (≥80: adjusted hazard ratio, 12.58; 95% confidence interval, 6.78-23.33), presence of underlying disease (1.33; 1.19-1.49), worse case severity (severe: 3.86; 3.15-4.73; critical: 11.34; 9.22-13.95), and near-epicenter region (Hubei: 2.64; 2.11-3.30; Wuhan: 6.35; 5.04-8.00). CFR increased from 0.35% (30-39 years) to 18.21% (≥70 years) without underlying disease. Regardless of age, CFR increased from 2.50% for no underlying disease to 7.72% for 1, 13.99% for 2, and 21.99% for ≥3 underlying diseases. CFR increased with worse case severity from 2.80% (mild) to 12.51% (severe) and 48.60% (critical), regardless of region. Compared with other regions, CFR was much higher in Wuhan regardless of case severity (mild: 3.83% vs 0.14% in Hubei and 0.03% elsewhere; moderate: 4.60% vs 0.21% and 0.06%; severe: 15.92% vs 5.84% and 1.86%; and critical: 58.57% vs 49.80% and 18.39%). CONCLUSIONS: Older patients regardless of underlying disease and patients with underlying disease regardless of age were at elevated risk of death. Higher death rates near the outbreak epicenter and during the surge of cases reflect the deleterious effects of allowing health systems to become overwhelmed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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