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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785624

ABSTRACT

The risks faced by the mining industry have always been prominent for every walk of life in China. As the direct cause of accidents, individual unsafe behaviors are closely related to their risk perception. So, it is important to explore the factors affecting miners' risk perception and analyze the influencing mechanisms between these factors and risk perception. The questionnaire survey method was used to collect the data of risk perception from nearly 400 respondents working in metal mines in China. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to analyze and process collected data. The impact of four factors affecting miners' risk perception was verified, namely: organizational safety atmosphere, organizational trust, knowledge level, and risk communication. Then, regression analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, and structural equation model analysis were used to examine the effect of the four influencing factors on miners' risk perception. The four influencing factors all have a positive impact on miners' risk perception; knowledge level has the largest explained variation of miners' risk perception, followed by risk communication. Organizational trust and organizational safety atmosphere have an indirect and positive impact on miners' risk perception intermediated by knowledge level and risk communication. The results offer four important aspects of mine safety management to help miners establish quick and accurate risk perception, thereby reducing unsafe behaviors and avoiding accidents.


Subject(s)
Miners , China , Humans , Mining , Perception , Safety Management
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(7): e28880, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is still a lack of large-scale clinical studies and evidence-based evidence to prove the relationship between serum amyloid A (SAA) and the severity and prognosis of patients with new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica Database, and Web of Science for original articles from December 1, 2019 to December 19, 2020. Search criteria include free text search, explosive MESH/EMTREE terms, and all synonyms for SAA and COVID-19. There are no language restrictions on the searched documents. Statistical methods were performed using Stata 14.0 software, and RevMan 5.4 software provided by the Cochrane Collaboration for meta-analysis. The 10 included studies in the literature were classified according to the severity of the novel coronavirus treatment guidelines, with mild/moderate categorized as nonsevere and severe/critical as severe, and the data were meta-analyzed using multiple subgroup standard deviations combined. Severe and nonsevere were finally divided into 2 groups, and the combined data were meta-analyzed according to the standardized mean difference. RESULTS: The results of the meta-analysis given by random effects showed that SAA levels were significantly higher in severe vs nonsevere (standardized mean difference 1.20 [95% confidence interval 0.91-1.48]), which was statistically significant (P < .001). The 3 literatures studied (random effect size 0.11 [95% confidence interval 0.05-0.19]; I2 = 56.68%) and were statistically significant, z = 5.46 P < .01, suggesting that the risk of death occurs at higher levels with increasing SAA values, with the risk of death in the severe group being 11% higher than in the nonsevere group. CONCLUSION: SAA can be considered as a biomarker for predicting the severity and prognosis of COVID-19. SAA can be used for early warning of the poor prognosis of COVID-19 and for monitoring the recovery process, which has important clinical value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serum Amyloid A Protein , Humans , Prognosis
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 212-226, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585243

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of COVID-19 variants has necessitated the development of new vaccines that stimulate the formation of high levels of neutralizing antibodies against S antigen variants. A new strategy involves the intradermal administration of heterologous vaccines composed of one or two doses of inactivated vaccine and a booster dose with the mutated S1 protein (K-S). Such vaccines improve the immune efficacy by increasing the neutralizing antibody titers and promoting specific T cell responses against five variants of the RBD protein. A viral challenge test with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant confirmed that both administration schedules (i.e. "1 + 1" and "2 + 1") ensured protection against this strain. These results suggest that the aforementioned strategy is effective for protecting against new variants and enhances the anamnestic immune response in the immunized population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3949-e3955, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine for immunogenicity and safety in adults aged 18-59 years. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, healthy adults received a medium dose (MD) or a high dose (HD) of the vaccine at an interval of either 14 days or 28 days. Neutralizing antibody (NAb) and anti-S and anti-N antibodies were detected at different times, and adverse reactions were monitored for 28 days after full immunization. RESULTS: A total of 742 adults were enrolled in the immunogenicity and safety analysis. Among subjects in the 0, 14 procedure, the seroconversion rates of NAb in MD and HD groups were 89% and 96% with geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 23 and 30, respectively, at day 14 and 92% and 96% with GMTs of 19 and 21, respectively, at day 28 after immunization. Anti-S antibodies had GMTs of 1883 and 2370 in the MD group and 2295 and 2432 in the HD group. Anti-N antibodies had GMTs of 387 and 434 in the MD group and 342 and 380 in the HD group. Among subjects in the 0, 28 procedure, seroconversion rates for NAb at both doses were both 95% with GMTs of 19 at day 28 after immunization. Anti-S antibodies had GMTs of 937 and 929 for the MD and HD groups, and anti-N antibodies had GMTs of 570 and 494 for the MD and HD groups, respectively. No serious adverse events were observed during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Adults vaccinated with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine had NAb as well as anti-S/N antibody and had a low rate of adverse reactions. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04412538.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295297

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of new variants in the COVID-19 pandemic has led to new requirements for vaccines, with a focus on the capacity of vaccines to elicit high levels of neutralizing antibodies with specific recognition of S antigen variants based on the characterized vaccines licensed for use. A new strategy involving a heterologous vaccine composed of one or two doses of inactivated vaccine and a boost with the S1 protein with mutations (K-S) administered via the intradermal route was designed in this work and was found to improve immune efficacy by increasing neutralizing antibody titers and promoting specific T cell responses against 5 variants of the RBD peptide. A viral challenge test with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant confirmed that the both schedules of “1+1” and “2+1” administration ensured a clinical protective effect against this strain. All of these results not only suggested the feasibility of our strategy for protecting against new variants but also provided a technical pathway to enhance the anamnestic immune response in the immunized population.

6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2194-2198, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504286

ABSTRACT

Inactivated coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), as potential vaccines have been reported to result in enhanced respiratory diseases (ERDs) in murine and nonhuman primate (NHP) pneumonia models after virus challenge, which poses great safety concerns of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) for the rapid wide application of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in humans, especially when the neutralizing antibody levels induced by vaccination or initial infection quickly wane to nonneutralizing or subneutralizing levels over the time. With passive transfer of diluted postvaccination polyclonal antibodies to mimic the waning antibody responses after vaccination, we found that in the absence of cellular immunity, passive infusion of subneutralizing or nonneutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies could still provide some level of protection against infection upon challenge, and no low-level antibody-enhanced infection was observed. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG-infused group and control group showed similar, mild to moderate pulmonary immunopathology during the acute phase of virus infection, and no evidence of vaccine-related pulmonary immunopathology enhancement was found. Typical immunopathology included elevated MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; alveolar epithelial hyperplasia; and exfoliated cells and mucus in bronchioles. Our results corresponded with the recent observations that no pulmonary immunology was detected in preclinical studies of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in either murine or NHP pneumonia models or in large clinical trials and further supported the safety of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/toxicity , Bronchioles/chemistry , Bronchioles/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/analysis , Humans , Hyperplasia , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/toxicity , Lung/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mucus , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
7.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 6980-6983, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475113

ABSTRACT

In clinical trials, antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were almost eliminated in participants six months after immunization with an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The short duration of antibody persistence is an urgent problem. In this study, the problem was solved by intradermal inoculation with trace antigen. Within 72 h after intradermal inoculation, slight inflammatory reactions, such as redness and swelling, were observed at the inoculation site of the participants. On the 7th, 60th and 180th days after inoculation, the antibodies of the participants were detected, and it was found that the neutralizing antibody and ELISA (IgGs) anti-S antibody levels rapidly increased and were maintained for 6 months. These results indicate that there was a SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response in the participants immunized with an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, which could be quickly and massively activated by intradermal trace antigen inoculation to produce an effective clinically protective effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Stem Cells Int ; 2021: 9974635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440852

ABSTRACT

There is a population of p63+/Krt5+ distal airway stem cells (DASCs) quiescently located in the airway basal epithelium of mammals, responding to injury and airway epithelial regeneration. They hold the ability to differentiate into multiple pulmonary cell types and can repopulate the epithelium after damage. The current study aims at gaining further insights into the behavior and characteristics of the DASCs isolated from the patient lung and exploring their clinical translational potential. Human DASCs were brushed off through the bronchoscopic procedure and expanded under the pharmaceutical-grade condition. Their phenotype stability in long-term cell culture was analyzed, followed by safety evaluation and tumorigenic analysis using multiple animal models including rodents and nonhuman primate. The chimerism of the human-mouse lung model indicated that DASC pedigrees could give rise to multiple epithelial types, including type I alveolar cells as well as bronchiolar secretory cells, to regenerate the distal lung. Taken together, the results suggested that DASC transplantation could be a promising therapeutic approach for unmet needs in respiratory medicine including the COVID-19-related diseases.

9.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 23: 108-118, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379195

ABSTRACT

Because of the relatively limited understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis, immunological analysis for vaccine development is needed. Mice and macaques were immunized with an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine prepared by two inactivators. Various immunological indexes were tested, and viral challenges were performed on day 7 or 150 after booster immunization in monkeys. This inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was produced by sequential inactivation with formaldehyde followed by propiolactone. The various antibody responses and specific T cell responses to different viral antigens elicited in immunized animals were maintained for longer than 150 days. This comprehensive immune response could effectively protect vaccinated macaques by inhibiting viral replication in macaques and substantially alleviating immunopathological damage, and no clinical manifestation of immunopathogenicity was observed in immunized individuals during viral challenge. This candidate inactivated vaccine was identified as being effective against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.

10.
Applied Mathematical Modelling ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1292597

ABSTRACT

Considering individuals’ aggregation behavior, we study the SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) epidemic model in a modified activity driven network (ADN). The relations among individuals are divided into three categories: strong links (SLs), the first kind of weak links (FWLs) and the second kind of weak links (SWLs). Based on the mean field approximation, we theoretically calculate the epidemic threshold condition while the strong links structure is a homogeneous or a heterogeneous network, respectively. Finally, we provide some numerical examples that support our theoretical results.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1112-1115, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246664

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies in the subjects of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trial showed a decreasing trend over months. An investigation studying the third immunization suggested that the waning of neutralizing antibodies in individuals administered two doses of inactivated vaccine does not mean the disappearance of immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Immunologic Memory , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Young Adult
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 652296, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202086

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly caused socioeconomic impacts. However, little is known about the psychological effect of COVID-19 on home-quarantined nursing students. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and major determinants of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in Chinese nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine period. An online survey was conducted on a sample of 6,348 home-quarantined nursing students. Mental health status was assessed by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Scale (PHQ-9) and the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Check List-Civilian version (PCL-C), respectively. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors of anxiety, depression and PTSS. The overall prevalence of anxiety was 34.97%, and the rates of "mild," "moderate," and "severe" anxiety were 26.24, 7.04, and 1.69%, respectively. Depression was detected in 40.22% of the nursing students, and the prevalence of "mild," "moderate," "moderately severe," and "severe" depression was 27.87, 7.18, 4.08, and 1.09%, respectively. The overall prevalence of PTSS was 14.97%, with the prevalence of "mild" and "moderate-to-severe" PTSS reported at 7.04 and 7.93%, respectively. Male gender and insufficient social support were common risk factors for anxiety, depression and PTSS. In conclusion, about one-third, two-fifths, and one-seventh of Chinese nursing students had anxiety, depression and PTSS during the period of home quarantine, respectively. Timely and appropriate psychological interventions for nursing students should be implemented to reduce the psychological harm caused by COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2021: 6660930, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189960

ABSTRACT

This meta-analysis aims to screen the risk factors for severe illness and death and provide help for early clinical treatment of the new coronavirus (COVID-19). Based on a comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases, we included studies that explored the cause and risk factors for severe illness and death in COVID-19 patients. We evaluated the strength of this relationship using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 17 articles were included; 16 of the 17 articles were from China, and the risk factors associated with severe illness and death were age, sex, and multiple comorbidities. Advanced age (≥65 years, severe illness, OR = 2.62; death, OR = 6.00), male (severe illness, OR = 1.49; death, OR = 1.54), chronic respiratory diseases (severe illness, OR = 5.67; death, OR = 3.72), diabetes (severe illness, OR = 3.27; death, OR = 2.60), hypertension (severe illness, OR = 3.08; death, OR = 3.53), chronic kidney disease (severe illness, OR = 3.59; death, OR = 5.38), and cardiovascular diseases (severe illness, OR = 3.87; death, OR = 4.91) were all risk factors. For COVID-19 patients, advanced age, male, and patients with chronic disease are at higher risk of developing severe illness or even death.

15.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 1, 2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011252

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused millions of infections and deaths worldwide since its emergence in December 2019. As there is little or no natural immunity in the human population or specific anti-COVID-19 drugs, researchers from the government, academia and industry are developing vaccines at an unprecedented speed to halt the pandemic. In this review, the results of animal experiments and clinical trials on several vaccine technical platforms are summarized, and several challenges are also discussed to further promote the development, evaluation and application of vaccines during the challenging situation of the global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Evaluation/methods , Humans
16.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977525

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread globally as a severe pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection stimulates antigen-specific antibody responses. Multiple serologic tests have been developed for SARS-CoV-2. However, which antigens are most suitable for serological testing remains poorly understood. Specifically, which antigens have the highest sensitivity and specificity for serological testing and which have the least cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses are currently unknown. Previous studies have shown that the S1 domain of the spike (S) protein has very low cross-reactivity between epidemic coronaviruses and common human coronaviruses, whereas the S2 domain of the S protein and the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) show low-level cross-reactivity. Therefore, S1 is considered more specific than the native homotrimer of the S protein, and the receptor-binding domain as an antigen to test patient antibodies is more sensitive than the native N protein. In addition, an increasing number of studies have used multiantigen protein arrays to screen serum from convalescent patients with COVID-19. Antigen combinations demonstrated improved performance compared to each individual antigen. For rapid antigen detection, the sensitivity of the test is higher in the first week of onset of the disease with high viral loads. Highly sensitive and specific immunological diagnostic methods for antibodies or those that directly detect viral antigens in clinical samples would be beneficial for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Serologic Tests , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(11): e1008949, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922716

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 has emerged as an epidemic, causing severe pneumonia with a high infection rate globally. To better understand the pathogenesis caused by SARS-CoV-2, we developed a rhesus macaque model to mimic natural infection via the nasal route, resulting in the SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding in the nose and stool up to 27 days. Importantly, we observed the pathological progression of marked interstitial pneumonia in the infected animals on 5-7 dpi, with virus dissemination widely occurring in the lower respiratory tract and lymph nodes, and viral RNA was consistently detected from 5 to 21 dpi. During the infection period, the kinetics response of T cells was revealed to contribute to COVID-19 progression. Our findings implied that the antiviral response of T cells was suppressed after 3 days post infection, which might be related to increases in the Treg cell population in PBMCs. Moreover, two waves of the enhanced production of cytokines (TGF-α, IL-4, IL-6, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-15, IL-1ß), chemokines (MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, and MIP-1ß/CCL4) were detected in lung tissue. Our data collected from this model suggested that T cell response and cytokine/chemokine changes in lung should be considered as evaluation parameters for COVID-19 treatment and vaccine development, besides of observation of virus shedding and pathological analysis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/methods , Virulence , Virus Shedding
18.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2830-2838, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-848038

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leads to a series of clinical symptoms of respiratory and pulmonary inflammatory reactions via unknown pathologic mechanisms related to the viral infection process in tracheal or bronchial epithelial cells. Investigation of this viral infection in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can enter these cells through interaction between its membrane-localized S protein with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 molecule on the host cell membrane. Further observation indicates distinct viral replication with a dynamic and moderate increase, whereby viral replication does not lead to a specific cytopathic effect but maintains a continuous release of progeny virions from infected cells. Although messenger RNA expression of various innate immune signaling molecules is altered in the cells, transcription of interferons-α (IFN-α), IFN-ß, and IFN-γ is unchanged. Furthermore, expression of some interleukins (IL) related to inflammatory reactions, such as IL-6, IL-2, and IL-8, is maintained at low levels, whereas that of ILs involved in immune regulation is upregulated. Interestingly, IL-22, an IL that functions mainly in tissue repair, shows very high expression. Collectively, these data suggest a distinct infection process for this virus in respiratory epithelial cells, which may be linked to its clinicopathological mechanism.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/cytology , Epithelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/immunology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interleukins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(7): ofaa283, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestation and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were unclear in Wuhan, China. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics of pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19 aged from 20 to 40, admitted between January 15 and March 15, 2020 at Union Hospital, Wuhan, and symptoms of pregnant women with COVID-19 and compared the clinical characteristics and symptoms to historic data previously reported for H1N1. RESULTS: Among 64 patients, 34 (53.13%) were pregnant, with higher proportion of exposure history (29.41% vs 6.67%) and more pulmonary infiltration on computed tomography test (50% vs 10%) compared to nonpregnant women. Of pregnant patients, 27 (79.41%) completed pregnancy, 5 (14.71%) had natural delivery, 18 (52.94%) had cesarean section, and 4 (11.76%) had abortion; 5 (14.71%) patients were asymptomatic. All 23 newborns had negative reverse-transcription polymerase chain results, and an average 1-minute Apgar score was 8-9 points. Pregnant and nonpregnant patients show differences in symptoms such as fever, expectoration, and fatigue and on laboratory tests such as neurophils, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Pregnant patients with COVID-19 tend to have more milder symptoms than those with H1N1. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical characteristics of pregnant patients with COVID-19 are less serious than nonpregnant. No evidence indicated that pregnant women may have fetal infection through vertical transmission of COVID-19. Pregnant patients with H1N1 had more serious condition than those with COVID-19.

20.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1207

ABSTRACT

Background: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that threatens human society and has spread widely around the wor

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