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1.
Early Intervention in Psychiatry ; 17(Supplement 1):26, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240524

ABSTRACT

Background: During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic presentations to emergency psychiatric services sharply declined, despite no significant change in the incidence of psychosis. Aim(s): To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in a first-episode service. Method(s): Data was collected by the specialized treatment early in psychosis (STEP) clinic to compare the DUP pre vs. early and late pandemic stages. The onset of the pandemic was defined as the 15th of March 2020, based on an analysis of case numbers and the advent of restrictions. Outcome measures were DUP total (the time elapsed between onset of psychosis and enrolment in the STEP clinic), DUP demand (the time from onset of psychosis to first antipsychotic prescription), and DUP supply (the time from first antipsychotic prescription to enrolment into STEP). Result(s): DUP total decreased significantly (p = .008) during the early pandemic compared with pre-pandemic from a median of 208 (IQR, 24-1020.0) to 55.5 days (IQR, 8.0-560.0). During the late pandemic stage, DUP total increased back to a median of 153.5 days (IQR, 1.0- 885.0). DUP demand decreased significantly (p = .001) during the early pandemic compared to pre-pandemic from a median of 117 (IQR, 17.0-714.0) to 35 days (IQR, 2.0-541.0) and then reduced further to 27.5 (IQR, 0.0-690.0) days during the late pandemic. No significant changes were found in DUP supply (p = .24) across the different stages of the pandemic. This is the first study to show a reduction in DUP associated with the pandemic.

2.
Medical Journal of Malaysia ; 77(Supplement 5):25, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319096

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of facemask as precaution from COVID-19 cross-transmission have been strongly advocated by healthcare agencies as a public health management strategy to mitigate the pandemic burden on the healthcare system. Method(s): This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) according to facemask practice during COVID-19. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariable linear regression was used to identify factor contributing to knowledge while Binomial analysis was used to investigate factors contributing to practice. Result(s): Among 268 participants included in the study, those with medical-grade facemask had better knowledge score (88.8%) compared to non-medical facemask (86.3%) and those without facemask (78.6%). Majority of participants had positive attitudes on controlling COVID-19 pandemic (88.8%), the ability in overcoming the pandemic (99.2%) and use of facemask in a public place (98.9%). Participants using medical-grade facemask (Adjusted Odds Ratio;AOR 5.9, 95% CI 1.9-18.0;p=0.002) have appropriate practices towards COVID-19. However, Participants using medicalgrade facemask were 9.2 times (AOR 9.2, 95% CI: 3.5 to 24.5, p<0.001) more likely to reuse of facemask without washing. Conclusion(s): The results highlight adequate KAP among respondents. However, hygienic use of facemask needs to be disseminated among general population.

3.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):326-327, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2316272

ABSTRACT

Background: Infancy is an important developmental period when the human microbiome is shaped. Given links between young age at antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation and smaller persisting viral reservoirs, we hypothesized that earlier ART initiation may leave distinct microbial signatures in the oral cavity detectable in children living with HIV (CLWH). Method(s): Oral swab samples were collected from 477 CLWH and 123 children without HIV at two sites in Johannesburg, South Africa. CLWH had started ART < 2 years of age with 60% starting < 6 months of age. Most were wellcontrolled on ART at a median of 10 years of age when the swab was collected. Controls were age-matched and recruited from the same communities. Sequencing of the V4 amplicon of the 16S rRNA gene was done using established protocols. DADA2, decontam, and phyloseq were used for sequence inference, contaminant removal, and subsequent analyses. All p-values were adjusted for multiple testing using Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate method. Statistical analyses were performed with R. Result(s): CLWH had lower alpha diversity than uninfected children (Shannon index p< 0.0001). Genus-level abundances of Granulicatella, Streptococcus and Gemella were greater and Neisseria and Haemophilus were less abundant among CLWH compared to uninfected children. Associations were strongest among boys. There was no evidence of attenuation of associations with earlier ART initiation. In fact, decreased bacterial diversity and differences in taxa abundances in CLWH versus controls were consistent regardless of whether ART was started before or after 6 months of age. Shifts in genus-level taxa abundances relative to uninfected controls were most marked in children on regimens containing lopinavir/ritonavir;with few shifts seen if on regimens containing efavirenz. Conclusion(s): A distinct profile of less diverse oral bacterial taxa was observed in school-age CLWH on ART versus uninfected age-matched children suggesting persisting interference of HIV and its treatments on microbiota in the mouth. Any effects of earlier ART initiation were not detectable at this age. Studies of treated adults with HIV have observed similar shifts in taxa abundances. Oral microbiota have been linked to salivary cytokine levels with associations between Granulicatella and IL-8 and Neisseria and IL-6. Declines in Neisseria abundances in oral samples have been associated with more severe outcomes in influenza and COVID-19.

4.
3rd Asia Conference on Computers and Communications, ACCC 2022 ; : 29-34, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2306230

ABSTRACT

When using the traditional SEIR infectious disease model to predict the trend of novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic, numerous initial parameters need to be tuned, and the parameters cannot change over time during the prediction process, which reduces the accuracy of the model. Firstly, thesis used a logistic model to preprocess the SEIR model parameters and proposed a SEIR model based on time series recovery rate optimization with a new parameter of effective immunity rate. Secondly, the model was trained with epidemic data from domestic and foreign provinces and cities, and the usability of the model was demonstrated experimentally, and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and goodness of fit (R2) were used to compare with other models, which proved the superiority of the model prediction and indicated further research directions. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 156:505-514, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2298717

ABSTRACT

Clinical diagnosis based on computed tomography (CT) could be used, as part of diagnosis standard of COVID-19 pneumonia. Addressing the problem that accuracy of CT-based traditional pneumonia classification diagnosis models is relatively low when employed for classification of community-acquired pneumonia (CP), COVID-19 pneumonia (NCP) and normal cases, a new network model is proposed which combines application of Swin Transformer and multi-head axial self-attention (MASA) mechanism, to analyze CT images and make intelligence-assisted diagnosis. The method in detail is to partially replace traditional multi-head self-attention (MSA) mechanism in encoders of Swin Transformer by MASA. The improved model is applied to train and test on commonly used pneumonia CT dataset CC-CCII. The results show that the proposed network outperforms traditional networks ResNet50 and Vision Transformer in indicators of accuracy, sensitivity and F1-measure. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

6.
Chinese Journal of General Surgery ; 29(5):589-595, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2257256

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19), discovered in December 2019, has now spread throughout the world. Studies have shown that patients with cancer have a higher risk of COVID-19 and are more likely to develop severe symptoms and progress to exacerbation. Head and neck tumors, as the major disease entities to be encountered in a cancer-specialized hospital, have a large number of cases of complex disorders, and some of them are highly malignant with rapid progress, for which the treatment cannot be delayed. Moreover, the operations involving the mouth, throat and airway are unavoidable during the diagnosis and treatment process of head and neck tumors, which may increase the risk of COVID-19 infection between doctors and patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to mainly investigate the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of head and neck tumors and prevention and control strategies of COVID-19 in a cancer-specialized hospital amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The clinical data of 38 patients with head and neck malignant tumors admitted for therapy by scheduled appointment in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital from February 1th, 2020 to February 22rd, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. In our center, the time-phased appointments were implemented, patients were appropriately diverted based on the diagnosis and treatment guidelines and clinical practice, and the hospitalization indications were rigorously adhered to. All admitted patients received surgery or chemotherapy on the premise of exclusion of COVID-19 by detailed epidemiological investigation, nucleic acid detection and chest CT scan. During hospitalization, the epidemic prevention and control measures were strictly implemented, the treatment process was carefully observed, and the temperature monitoring and management were paid particular attention. After discharge, the outcomes of patients were followed up and the patients received medical advice and post-discharge treatment through internet-based hospitals or other online channels. Results: Among the 38 patients with head and neck tumors, 17 cases were males and 21 were females, with an average age of 49 years. There were 21 cases of thyroid cancer, 6 cases of oral malignancies, 3 cases of salivary gland cancer, 2 cases of laryngeal cancer, 2 cases of hypopharyngeal cancer, and 1 case each of cervical esophageal cancer, lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer and of angiosarcoma. COVID-19 was excluded in all 38 patients upon admission. Thirty-one patients underwent surgical treatment and the other 7 patients were subjected to chemotherapy. Fever occurred in 3 patients during the process of treatment, which included fever associated with agranulocytosis in 1 case, fever caused by tumor necrosis and infection in 1 case and fever caused by wound infection in 1 case. Patients generally had an uneventful treatment course and recovered well. No COVID-19 infection was found in patients and medical staff during hospitalization and at the end of 2 weeks after discharge from hospital. Conclusion: In the situation of COVID-19 pandemic, rational distribution of patients as well as scientific prevention and control based on the diagnosis and treatment guidelines and clinical practice, making full use of the advantages of "internet + medical service", to protect cancer patients from virus while engage in the fight against the epidemic, providing psychological support to the patients, and minimizing the impact of the epidemic on treatment and ensuring the continuity of treatment are feasible strategies for the clinical treatment of head and neck tumors. © 2020 by the Author(s).

7.
Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare ; 31(no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2255010

ABSTRACT

Aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen hospitals isolating suspect cases. Geriatric populations are at a risk of severe COVID-19 disease and often present with concomitant geriatric syndromes requiring holistic interdisciplinary care. However, isolation of older people poses challenges to care delivery. This study shares the experience of Singapore's first acute geriatric isolation facility geriatric PARI (Pneumonia-Acute Respiratory Infection) ward and describes the geriatric-related outcomes and pitfalls in care delivery. Method(s): This is a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in 7 negative pressure isolation rooms in an acute care public hospital in Singapore. 100 patients admitted consecutively to the geriatric PARI ward were included. Patient demographics, presenting symptoms and geriatric-related adverse outcomes associated with hospitalisation were collected and analysed. Result(s): Patients' mean age was 86.4 years (standard deviation [SD]: 6.8) with significant comorbidities being hypertension (81%), hyperlipidaemia (74%) and renal disease (70%). 51% of patients had dementia and 24% had behaviour and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). 27% of patients presented atypically with delirium and 15% presented with a fall. Delirium was associated with restraint use (OR: 3.88;p-value 0.01). Falls rate was 1.64 per 1000 occupied bed. 1 patient screened positive for COVID-19. Conclusion(s): The geriatric PARI ward is essential for curbing nosocomial transmission of COVID-19. This is important in the older people with comorbidities who are more likely to develop morbidity and mortality. Our study reveals challenges in delivering person-centred care to the older patients in isolation rooms, especially in the management of delirium and falls prevention. Innovative strategies should be developed to minimise isolation-related adverse outcome.Copyright © The Author(s) 2022.

8.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 11, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2268665

ABSTRACT

The long-term viability of small businesses in the aftermath of multiple pandemics and consequent lockdowns has a crucial impact on the sustainable economic and social development of any region across the world. Thus, in order to investigate what has been the major impact of COVID-19 pandemic within local small businesses and to identify which main factors helped small businesses to survive none as well as multiple lockdowns, data were obtained from 382 small businesses in the main urban area of Wuhan, China, via two rounds of field investigations and surveys in July 2020 and July 2022. This paper presents the results of the field investigations and the surveys completed and describes the Bayesian methods applied to quantitatively explore the impact of different variables on the probability of each business to remain active and open even after experiencing none or multiple lockdowns. Results obtained show that the difference between survival rates associated with businesses hit by no pandemic outbreak with those hit by one or several waves is negligible. Furthermore, owners who had higher confidence in their abilities since the beginning or they implemented an accurate evaluation of their strategies to run their businesses since the start of the pandemic, demonstrated to have a higher probability to keep their business alive with none as well as additional waves of the pandemic. Reduction of employees, transition of operations and promotion activities online as well as rent subsidies and tax reduction were identified as crucial actions that enhanced the probability to maintain alive businesses that experienced at least one lockdown. Globally, there was no clear policy approach at the start of the pandemic, however this study clearly determines that in future governments should provide timely support to small businesses in regions experiencing more severe impacts of the pandemic, and this should consist of a mix of grants, loans, and temporary tax cuts since initial stages. Copyright © 2023 Li, Rubinato, Zhou, Li and Chen.

9.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Mobile Networks and Wireless Communications, ICMNWC 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2268662

ABSTRACT

The clinical diagnosis results based on lung X-rays provide important evidence in the COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosis process and for some other disease. However, due to the similarity of the lesions among many types of pneumonia displayed by X-rays, and due to the huge amount of X-ray readings of a doctor's daily work, traditional reading and identification method purely by human have problems of diagnosis mistakes, missed diagnosis and huge time consumption. Therefore, an intelligent detection model of pneumonia with multi-scale-input Focal Transformer integrated with SPD module is proposed to automatically identify various types of pneumonia including COVID-19 pneumonia. The method can pay attention to the multi-scale characteristic features of pneumonia lesions, and then make improved classification among COVID-19 pneumonia, cases with lung opacity, viral pneumonia and normal cases, providing stronger support for radiologists in medical diagnosis. The experiment results show that the proposed model has advantages in comparison to the traditional network models ResNet-50 and Swin Transformer in aspects of accuracy, recall, F1-Measure and other indicators. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Education Sciences ; 13(3), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2268661

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has impacted conventional educational practice in universities worldwide. Chinese universities are no exception. WeChat, a social application widely used in China, has been considered a viable tool for language education. However, the perspectives of Chinese university students and English language teachers in terms of using WeChat for English vocabulary learning and teaching during the pandemic remain unclear. The aim of the present study was twofold: First, it explored Chinese university students' and language teachers' opinions of adopting a self-developed WeChat-assisted lexical-learning program (the WALL program) during COVID-19. Second, it gathered their evaluations of the WALL program. To achieve the aim, two sets of semi-structured interviews were used to gather qualitative data about five students' and three English language teachers' perceptions at a university in northern China. The results first revealed that the eight participants showed overwhelming opinions in support of adopting the program for vocabulary learning and teaching during the pandemic. In addition, it received mostly positive evaluations. However, the program had two main drawbacks: distracting learning environments and uncertain learning effects. The present study then made recommendations for future WeChat-based language learning and teaching programs. The findings are expected to provide pedagogical insights for tertiary educational institutions, practitioners, and students in the chosen context in order to deal with the future design and implementation of sound MALL-based approaches. © 2023 by the author.

11.
Infectious Diseases and Immunity ; 3(1):36-39, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2287217

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 is "not over,"in fact, the "dynamic clearing"policy for SARS-CoV-2 control and prevention in China has been firmly enforced. This study aimed to analyze the clinical symptoms and dynamic viral RNA changes in 2021 at Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital. This study showed that 31.4% of the patients (695/2212) tested negative for viral RNA from admission to the final release from quarantine. Of all negative cases, 86.5% (601/695) remained in the hospital for no more than 5 days and were asymptomatic or mild. Among the remaining 402 patients who stayed for no more than 5 days, 76.4% (307/402) were viral RNA retest positive during the isolation stage. However, 96.4% of the peak viral RNA (296/307) was over Ct = 33 cycles during the isolation stage. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

12.
Infectious Diseases and Immunity ; 3(1):3-12, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2287095

ABSTRACT

Background The outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has greatly threatened public health. Recent studies have revealed that the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 is a potent target for vaccine development. However, adjuvants are usually required to strengthen the immunogenicity of recombinant antigens. Different types of adjuvants can elicit different immune responses. Methods We developed an RBD recombinant protein vaccine with a polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] adjuvant to evoke a strong immune response. The delivery of poly(I:C) was optimized in two steps. First, poly(I:C) was complexed with a cationic polymer, poly-l-lysine (PLL), to form poly(I:C)-PLL, a polyplex core. Thereafter, it was loaded into five different lipid shells (group II, III-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC], III-1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [DOPE], IV-DOPE, and IV-DSPC). We performed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay to compare the ability of the five lipopolyplex adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein, including humoral and cellular immune responses. Finally, the adjuvant with the highest immunogenicity was selected to verify the protective immunity of the vaccine through animal challenge experiments. Results Recombinant RBD protein has low immunogenicity. The different adjuvants we developed enhanced the immunogenicity of the RBD protein in different ways. Among the lipopolyplexes, those containing DOPE (III-DOPE and IV-DOPE) elicited RBD-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses, and adjuvants with four components elicited better RBD-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses than those containing three components (P < 0.05). The IC50 and IC90 titers indicated that the IV-DOPE lipopolyplex had the greatest neutralization ability, with IC50 titers of 1/117,490. Furthermore, in the challenge study, IV-DOPE lipopolyplex protected mice from SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the fourth day after infection, the average animal body weights were reduced by 18.56% (24.164 ± 0.665 g vs. 19.678 ± 0.455 g) and 0.06% (24.249 ± 0.683 g vs. 24.235 ± 0.681 g) in the MOCK and vaccine groups, respectively. In addition, the relative expression of viral RNA in the vaccinated group was significantly lower than that in the MOCK group (P < 0.05). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the MOCK group, whereas no obvious damage was observed in the vaccinated group. Conclusions The IV-DOPE-adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD protein vaccine efficiently protected mice from SARS-CoV-2 in the animal challenge study. Therefore, IV-DOPE is considered an exceptional adjuvant for SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD protein-based vaccines and has the potential to be further developed into a SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD protein-based vaccine. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(6): 2686-2691, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to discuss the prognostic significance of peripheral interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-four COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed and classified into three groups, including the moderate group (15 cases), the serious group (45 cases), and the critical group (24 cases). The levels of peripheral IL-6, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ were determined for each group. It was assessed whether these indicators were correlated to the prognosis and death risks of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The three groups of COVID-19 patients differed significantly in the levels of peripheral IL-6 and CD4+ and CD8+ cells. The IL-6 levels in the critical, moderate, and serious groups were increased successively, but the changed levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were just opposite to that of IL-6 (p<0.05). The peripheral IL-6 level increased dramatically in the death group, while the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells decreased significantly (p<0.05). The peripheral IL-6 level was significantly correlated with the level of CD8+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the critical group (p<0.05). The logistic regression analysis indicated a dramatic increase in the peripheral IL-6 level in the death group (p=0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The aggressiveness and survival of COVID-19 were highly correlated with the increases in IL-6 and CD4+/CD8+ T cells. The fatalities of COVID-19 individuals remained at increased incidence due to elevated peripheral IL-6 levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Humans , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
14.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; 441, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2239696

ABSTRACT

This study explored the degradation behavior of three types of disposable face masks in simulated seawater via the accelerated aging experiments. Microplastics (MPs) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were monitored in UV- and thermal-treated mask suspensions and their concentrations increased slowly in the early stage at 50 ℃ and 58 ℃. Owing to the high energy supply, the release rates of MPs and DOC at 76 ℃ were much faster than the above two temperatures. The time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) was used to superpose the MPs/DOC release kinetics from other tested temperatures to the reference temperature and its applicability was verified by the similar activation energy. Then, a release kinetics model was established and fitted well with the superposed MP data (R2 ≥ 0.96). Since less than 0.1 % of carbon was leached, the superposed DOC data was roughly modelled by the exponential function (R2 ≥ 0.90). According to the TTSP and the established kinetics models, about 15 years were estimated to decompose half of a certain marine mask waste, together with leaching 0.21 ± 0.02 mg∙g-mask−1 of DOC. If mask consumption remains the same before 2025, they would contribute 40000–230000 tonnes of MPs and 13–97 tonnes of DOC to the ocean by 2040. © 2022

15.
Applied Economics Letters ; 30(5):577-581, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2242714

ABSTRACT

Social distancing restrictions have become a primary measure in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the fact that the survival probability of infected individuals and labour supply will decline during the pandemic, this study extends the overlapping generations (OLG) model to include the effects of COVID-19 on individuals' health and investigates the optimal social distancing policy from an economic perspective. Our results show that the pandemic can cause economic contraction, and a strict social distancing policy generally benefits economic growth. Nevertheless, absolute zero socializing may not be an optimal strategy. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

16.
Remote Sensing ; 15(1), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2242637

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented disruptions to human society worldwide since late 2019, and lockdown policies in response to the pandemic have directly and drastically decreased human socioeconomic activities. To quantify and assess the extent of the pandemic's impact on the economy of Hebei Province, China, nighttime light (NTL) data, vegetation information, and provincial quarterly gross domestic product (GDP) data were jointly utilized to estimate the quarterly GDP for prefecture-level cities and county-level cities. Next, an autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) model was applied to predict the quarterly GDP for 2020 and 2021. Finally, economic recovery intensity (ERI) was used to assess the extent of economic recovery in Hebei Province during the pandemic. The results show that, at the provincial level, the economy of Hebei Province had not yet recovered;at the prefectural and county levels, three prefectures and forty counties were still struggling to restore their economies by the end of 2021, even though these economies, as a whole, were gradually recovering. In addition, the number of new infected cases correlated positively with the urban NTL during the pandemic period, but not during the post-pandemic period. The study results are informative for local government's strategies and policies for allocating financial resources for urban economic recovery in the short- and long-term. © 2022 by the authors.

17.
Sci Sports ; 2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246427

ABSTRACT

Background: Improved physical fitness is important for preventing COVID-19-related mortality. So, combined training can effectively increase peak oxygen consumption, physical fitness, body composition, blood pressure, and the healthrelated characteristics of adults; however, its impact in the elderly remains unclear. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of combined training on older adults. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science) were searched (until April 2021) for randomized trials comparing the effect of combined training on cardiorespiratory fitness, physical fitness, body composition, blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk factors in older adults. Results: Combined training significantly improved peak oxygen consumption compared to no exercise (WMD = 3.10, 95% CI: 2.83 to 3.37). Combined resistance and aerobic training induced favorable changes in physical fitness (timed up-and-go = -1.06, 30-s chair stand = 3.85, sit and reach = 4.43, 6-minute walking test = 39.22, arm curl = 4.60, grip strength = 3.65, 10-m walk = -0.47, maximum walking speed = 0.15, one-leg balance = 2.71), body composition (fat mass = -2.91, body fat% = -2.31, body mass index = -0.87, waist circumference = -2.91), blood pressure (systolic blood pressure = -8.11, diastolic blood pressure = -4.55), and cardiometabolic risk factors (glucose = -0.53, HOMA-IR = -0.14, high-density lipoprotein = 2.32, total cholesterol = -5.32) in older individuals. Finally, the optimal exercise prescription was ≥ 30 min/session × 50-80% VO2peak, ≥ 3 times/week for ≥ 12 weeks and resistance intensity 70-75% one-repetition maximum, 8-12 repetitions × 3 sets. Conclusions: Combined training improved VO2peak and some cardiometabolic risk factors in older populations. The dose-effect relationship varied between different parameters. Exercise prescriptions must be formulated considering individual needs during exercise.


Contexte: L'amélioration de la condition physique est importante pour prévenir la mortalité liée au COVID-19. Ainsi, l'entraînement combiné peut augmenter efficacement la consommation maximale d'oxygène, la forme physique, la composition corporelle, la tension artérielle et les caractéristiques liées à la santé des adultes; cependant, son impact chez les personnes âgées reste incertain. Méthodes: Cette revue systématique et cette méta-analyse visaient à évaluer les effets de l'entraînement combiné chez les personnes âgées. Quatre bases de données électroniques (PubMed, Scopus, Medline et Web of Science) ont été consultées (jusqu'en avril 2021) pour trouver des essais randomisés comparant l'effet d'un entraînement combiné sur l'aptitude cardiorespiratoire, la forme physique, la composition corporelle, la tension artérielle et les facteurs de risque cardiométabolique chez les personnes âgées. Résultats: Au total, 37 publications ont été incluses dans cette étude. L'entraînement combiné a considérablement amélioré la consommation maximale d'oxygène par rapport à l'absence d'exercice (DMP = 3,10, IC95 % : 2,83 à 3,37). La combinaison résistance + entraînement aérobie a entraîné des changements favorables dans la forme physique (démarrage chronométré = −1,06, position assise pendant 30 s = 3,85, position assise et lever = 4,43, test de marche de 6 minutes = 39,22, flexion des bras = 4,60, adhérence force = 3,65, marche de 10 m = −0,47, vitesse de marche maximale = 0,15, équilibre sur une jambe = 2,71), composition corporelle (masse grasse = −2,91, pourcentage de graisse corporelle = −2,31, indice de masse corporelle = −0,87, taille circonférence = −2,91), tension artérielle (pression artérielle systolique = −8,11, pression artérielle diastolique = −4,55) et facteurs de risque cardiométabolique (glucose = −0,53, HOMA-IR = −0,14, lipoprotéines de haute densité = 2,32, cholestérol total = −5,32) chez les personnes âgées. Enfin, la prescription d'exercice optimale était ≥ 30 min/séance × 50­80 % VO2pic, ≥ 3 fois/semaine pendant ≥ 12 semaines et résistance à une intensité de 70­75 % une répétition maximale, 8­12 répétitions × 3 séries. Conclusions: L'entraînement combiné a amélioré la VO2pic et certains facteurs de risque cardiométabolique chez les populations âgées. La relation dose-effet variait entre les différents paramètres. Les prescriptions d'exercice doivent être formulées en tenant compte des besoins individuels pendant l'exercice.

18.
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics ; 29(4), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2235528

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic metasurface biosensing has shown great potential in label-free detection of bio-nanoparticles with various sizes, such as cancer antigens, exosomes and SARS-CoV-2 virus. It typically relies on the immunoassay, but current studies usually neglect the perfect size matching between each target bio-nanoparticle and the surface near-field domain, which should be very critical for the enhancement of detection performance. In order to maximize the immunodetection capability for each bio-nanoparticle, we propose a plasmonic meta-biosensor based on the field-customized mechanism. Our design overcomes the serious interference of biofunctionalization and accomplishes a sensitivity of 27 times higher than the conventional nanoplasmonic counterpart. Our method also builds the important basis of single bio-nanoparticle immunodetection by a plasmonic metasurface. The customized plasmonic metasensing study implies a promising way towards ultra-low concentration biosensing or even single bio-nanoparticle detection for high-performance point-of-care-testing in the near future. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(2): 818-825, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Transplant recipients have a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection owing to the use of immunosuppressive drugs like tacrolimus (FK506). FK506 and nirmatrelvir (NMV) (an anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug) are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 and may have potential drug-drug interactions. It is important to determine the effect of NMV on FK506 concentrations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Following protein precipitation from blood, FK506 and its internal standard (FK506-13C,2d4) were detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Total 22 blood samples (valley concentrations) from two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were collected and analyzed for FK506 concentrations. RESULTS: Blood levels of FK506 (0.5-100 ng/mL) showed good linearity. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was validated with intra- and inter-batch accuracies of 104.55-107.85%, and 99.52-108.01%, respectively, and precisions of < 15%. Mean blood FK506 concentration was 12.01 ng/mL (range, 3.15-33.1 ng/mL). Five-day co-administration with NMV increased the FK506 concentrations from 3.15 ng/mL to 33.1 ng/mL, returning to 3.36 ng/mL after a 9-day-washout. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a simple quantification method for therapeutic drug monitoring of FK506 in patients with COVID-19 using UHPLC-MS/MS with protein precipitation. We found that NMV increased FK506 blood concentration 10-fold. Therefore, it is necessary to re-consider co-administration of FK506 with NMV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tacrolimus , Humans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactams , Leucine , Reproducibility of Results , Drug Monitoring
20.
Acta Crystallographica a-Foundation and Advances ; 78:A324-A324, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2218778
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