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1.
Complex Systems and Complexity Science ; 19(2):80-86, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876198

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus is a new type of virus, and its transmission characteristics are different from previous virus. Infected people not only have an incubation period, but also a large number of asymptomatic infections. Based on the classic model SEIR, this study redefines the latent state as close contact state, introduces an asymptomatic state of infection, and the influence of time on the state transition parameters in the model is considered, proposed a new transmission model which includes five types of states: susceptible state, close contact state, asymptomatic infection state, infected state, and removed state. The model uses the actual epidemic data of Hubei Province to conduct experiments, and uses RMSE and MAPE as evaluation indicators to compare the experimental results. The results show that the fitting accuracy of the SCUIR model has been significantly improved. Compared with the traditional model, the fitting error is reduced by 8.3%~47.6%, and hidden data that is difficult to count in the epidemic can be calculated, which further characterizes the mechanism of epidemic transmission. © 2022, The Editorial Department of Complex Systems and Complexity Science. All right reserved.

2.
Computers, Materials and Continua ; 72(3):4897-4910, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1836523

ABSTRACT

Lung is an important organ of human body. More and more people are suffering from lung diseases due to air pollution. These diseases are usually highly infectious. Such as lung tuberculosis, novel coronavirus COVID-19, etc. Lung nodule is a kind of high-density globular lesion in the lung. Physicians need to spend a lot of time and energy to observe the computed tomography image sequences to make a diagnosis, which is inefficient. For this reason, the use of computer-assisted diagnosis of lung nodules has become the current main trend. In the process of computer-aided diagnosis, how to reduce the false positive rate while ensuring a low missed detection rate is a difficulty and focus of current research. To solve this problem, we propose a three-dimensional optimization model to achieve the extraction of suspected regions, improve the traditional deep belief network, and to modify the dispersion matrix between classes. We construct a multi-view model, fuse local three-dimensional information into two-dimensional images, and thereby to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. And alleviate the problem of unbalanced training caused by only a small number of positive samples. Experiments show that the false positive rate of the algorithm proposed in this paper is as low as 12%, which is in line with clinical application standards. © 2022 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

3.
Atmosphere ; 13(4):18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820162

ABSTRACT

Studies on droplet transmission are needed to understand the infection mechanism of SARS-CoV-2. This research investigated the effects of coughing intensity and wind direction on respiratory droplets transportation using the Euler-Lagrange method. The results revealed that both coughing intensity and wind conditions considerably influence the transmission of small and medium droplets but had little effect on large droplets. A stronger coughing intensity resulted in small and medium droplets traveling farther in a calm wind and spreading widely and rapidly in a windy environment. The droplets do not travel far in the absence of ambient wind, even with stronger coughing. Medium droplets spread in clusters, and small droplets drifted out of the domain in the band area in different wind conditions except for 60 degrees and 90 degrees wind directions, in which cases, the droplets were blown directly downstream. In 0 degrees wind direction, many droplets were deposited on the human body. The fast and upward movement of particles in 60 degrees and 90 degrees directions could cause infection risk with short exposure. In 180 degrees wind direction, droplets spread widely and traveled slowly because of the reverse flow downstream, prolonged exposure can result in a high risk of infection.

4.
Remote Sensing Letters ; 13(7):651-662, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819662

ABSTRACT

The timely and accurate assessment of flooding disasters and economic resilience is significant for post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. In July 2021, the National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) daily data were explored as a proxy to assess the flooding damage caused by heavy rainfall in Zhengzhou City, China. A combination of the night-time light (NTL) changes and the radiation normalization method was used to rapidly identify affected areas and extract populations following the flooding disaster. A daily gross domestic product (GDP) prediction model was developed to evaluate the economic resilience of Zhengzhou City using multi-temporal DNB daily and monthly NTL data. The severity of the disaster was estimated by the extent of power outages, flooding crisis regions, and affected populations. It has been predicted that the Zhengzhou economy is unlikely to be restored to its normal level before the end of 2021 owing to the dual impact of the coronavirus outbreak and flooding disaster;the revised recovery-time prediction is late April 2022. We concluded that our NTL data provided new, simple, and effective insights into the post-flooding assessment of the affected areas, populations, GDP forecast, and economic recovery.

5.
5th IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration, EI2 2021 ; : 3025-3030, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1806894

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many governments around the world to implement strict lockdown measures and order citizens to stay at home, which has caused a major change in travel patterns. This study leveraged electric vehicle charging big data in Hefei, Anhui Province, China to estimate electric vehicle charging demand in the absence of the COVID-19 pandemic using multi-layer perceptron model, which quantified the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, we employed the vector autoregressive model to investigate the dynamic relationships between the changes in charging demand and various explanatory factors. The results suggest that the daily average charging demand in Hefei decreased by 78.3% compared to the predicted value during the pandemic. Furthermore, according to the variance decomposition and impulse response function analysis, national confirmed COVID-19 cases play a dominant role in reducing charging demand. The number of daily hospitalizations and Migration Scale Index also have significant and robust effect on the decrease in charging demand. The Air Quality Index and Baidu Index are susceptible to external factors and do not have a direct impact on the change in charging demand. Findings support a better understanding of changes in travel behavior during the pandemic and provide policy makers with references to deal with similar events. © 2021 IEEE

6.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333612

ABSTRACT

Combating the COVID-19 pandemic requires potent and low-cost therapeutics. We identified a novel series of single-domain antibodies (i.e., nanobody), Nanosota-1, from a camelid nanobody phage display library. Structural data showed that Nanosota-1 bound to the oft-hidden receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, blocking out viral receptor ACE2. The lead drug possessing an Fc tag ( Nanosota-1C-Fc ) bound to SARS-CoV-2 RBD with a K d of 15.7picomolar (~3000 times more tightly than ACE2 did) and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection with an ND 50 of 0.16microgram/milliliter (~6000 times more potently than ACE2 did). Administered at a single dose, Nanosota-1C-Fc demonstrated preventive and therapeutic efficacy in hamsters subjected to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unlike conventional antibody drugs, Nanosota-1C-Fc was produced at high yields in bacteria and had exceptional thermostability. Pharmacokinetic analysis of Nanosota-1C-F c documented a greater than 10-day in vivo half-life efficacy and high tissue bioavailability. Nanosota-1C-Fc is a potentially effective and realistic solution to the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPACT STATEMENT: Potent and low-cost Nanosota-1 drugs block SARS-CoV-2 infections both in vitro and in vivo and act both preventively and therapeutically.

7.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; 47(2):197-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791805

ABSTRACT

The purpose of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is to prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but studies have shown that BCG activates innate immunity, causes epigenetic reprogramming and metabolic changes of myeloid cells, and forms innate immune memory or trained immunity. When bone marrow-like cells are stimulated by pathogens again, they show enhanced immune response and promote the host's nonspecific defense ability. Innate immune memory is also called training immunity. In recent years, BCG-induced innate immune memory has attracted much attention, and it will guide the design of novel vaccine. This article reviews the application of BCG in prevention and treatment of corone virus disease 2019, the non-specific protection and mechanism of BCG-mediated trained immunity.

8.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(8): 2009-2015, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, people with Down syndrome (DS) have experienced a more severe disease course and higher mortality rates than the general population. It is not yet known whether people with DS are more susceptible to being diagnosed with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether DS is associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19. DESIGN: Matched-cohort study design using anonymised primary care electronic health records from the May 2021 release of Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum. SETTING: Electronic health records from approximately 1400 general practices (GPs) in England. PARTICIPANTS: 8854 people with DS and 34,724 controls matched for age, gender and GP who were registered on or after the 29th January 2020. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was COVID-19 diagnosis between January 2020 and May 2021. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate associations between DS and COVID-19 diagnosis, adjusting for comorbidities. RESULTS: Compared to controls, people with DS were more likely to be diagnosed with COVID-19 (7.4% vs 5.6%, p ≤ 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.23-1.48). There was a significant interaction between people with DS and a chronic respiratory disease diagnosis excluding asthma and increased odds of a COVID-19 diagnosis (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.20-2.43), whilst adjusting for a number of comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Individuals with DS are at increased risk for contracting COVID-19. Those with underlying lung conditions are particularly vulnerable during viral pandemics and should be prioritised for vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Down Syndrome , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Electronics , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care
9.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-331185

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). The neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 are among the most promising strategies to prevent and treat COVID-19. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) profoundly reduced the efficacies of most of mAbs and vaccines approved for clinical use. Herein, we demonstrated mAb 35B5 efficiently neutralizes both wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs, including B.1.617.2 (delta) variant, in vitro and in vivo. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) revealed that 35B5 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 by targeting a unique epitope that avoids the prevailing mutation sites on RBD identified in circulating VOCs, providing the molecular basis for its pan-neutralizing efficacy. The 35B5-binding epitope could also be exploited for the rational design of a universal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

10.
Web of Science; 2021.
Preprint in English | Web of Science | ID: ppcovidwho-331129

ABSTRACT

Background The worldwide surge in coronavirus cases has led to the COVID-19 testing demand surge. Rapid, accurate, and cost-effective COVID-19 screening tests working at a population level are in imperative demand globally. Methods Based on the eye symptoms of COVID-19, we developed and tested a COVID-19 rapid prescreening model using the eye-region images captured in China and Spain with cellphone cameras. The convolutional neural networks (CNNs)-based model was trained on these eye images to complete binary classification task of identifying the COVID-19 cases. The performance was measured using area under receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and F1. The application programming interface was open access. Findings The multicenter study included 2436 pictures corresponding to 657 subjects (155 COVID-19 infection, 23·6%) in development dataset (train and validation) and 2138 pictures corresponding to 478 subjects (64 COVID-19 infections, 13·4%) in test dataset. The image-level performance of COVID-19 prescreening model in the China-Spain multicenter study achieved an AUC of 0·913 (95% CI, 0·898-0·927), with a sensitivity of 0·695 (95% CI, 0·643-0·748), a specificity of 0·904 (95% CI, 0·891 -0·919), an accuracy of 0·875(0·861-0·889), and a F1 of 0·611(0·568-0·655). Interpretation The CNN-based model for COVID-19 rapid prescreening has reliable specificity and sensitivity. This system provides a low-cost, fully self-performed, non-invasive, real-time feedback solution for continuous surveillance and large-scale rapid prescreening for COVID-19.

11.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-330684

ABSTRACT

Neuro-inflammation signaling has been identified as an important hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in addition to amyloid beta plaques (Abeta) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). However, our knowledge of neuro-inflammation is very limited;and the core signaling pathways associated with neuro-inflammation are missing. From a novel perspective, i.e., investigating weakly activated molecular signals (rather than the strongly activated molecular signals), in this study, we uncovered the core neuro-inflammation signaling pathways in AD. Our novel hypothesis is that weakly activated neuro-inflammation signaling pathways can cause neuro-degeneration in a chronic process;whereas, strongly activated neuro-inflammation often cause acute disease progression like in COVID-19. Using the two large-scale genomics datasets, i.e., Mayo Clinic (77 control and 81 AD samples) and RosMap (97 control and 260 AD samples), our analysis identified 7 categories of signaling pathways implicated on AD and related to virus infection: immune response, x-core signaling, apoptosis, lipid dysfunctional, biosynthesis and metabolism, and mineral absorption signaling pathways. More interestingly, most of genes in the virus infection, immune response and x-core signaling pathways, are associated with inflammation molecular functions. Specifically, the x-core signaling pathways were defined as a group of 9 signaling proteins: MAPK, Rap1, NF-kappa B, HIF-1, PI3K-Akt, Wnt, TGF-beta, Hippo and TNF, which indicated the core neuro-inflammation signaling pathways responding to the low-level and weakly activated inflammation and hypoxia, and leading to the chronic neuro-degeneration. The core neuro-inflammation signaling pathways can be used as novel therapeutic targets for effective AD treatment and prevention.

12.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4):S89-S90, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1748261

ABSTRACT

Study Objectives: To identify changes in emergency department (ED) visits for opioid-related diagnoses, opioid overdose, and the use of buprenorphine in EDs during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods: Electronic health data was collected from 14 geographically distinct emergency departments for ED visits between August 31, 2019 and August 30, 2020. Variables collected include age, sex, race, ICD-10 discharge codes, buprenorphine administrations, buprenorphine prescriptions and SARS-CoV-2 hospital admission rate. The category of opioid-related diagnoses included ED visits with ICD-10 codes for opioid use disorder, opioid dependence, opioid withdrawal, opioid overdose and/or opioid-related infection. Opioid-related infection visits were tabulated as ED visits with ICD-10 code for abscess, cellulitis, endocarditis or osteomyelitis and concurrent ICD-10 code of opioid-related diagnosis for the current ED visit or in the medical history. We used descriptive statistics and paired t-test to evaluate for differences in ED visits for opioid-related diagnoses, opioid overdose and rate of buprenorphine administrations and/or prescriptions between in visit with opioid-related diagnosis between August 31, 2019-February 29, 2020 and March 1, 2020-August 30, 2020. Spearman correlation was used to assess the association of outcomes with hospital SARS-CoV-2 burden from January 1, 2020 through August 30, 2020. Results: We collected information on a total of 911,738 ED visits between August 31, 2019- August 30, 2020 from 14 EDs Total ED visits with opioid-related diagnoses by ICD-10 code were 9,788, including 3,198 for opioid overdose, 1,745 for opioid withdrawal, and 431 for opioid-related infection (Figure 1). Between August 31, 2019-February 29, 2020 and March 1, 2020-August 30, 2020 (N = 13 sites), there was an increase in ED visits for OUD-related visits per 10,000 visits (130.8 (SE: 24.2) vs 101.8 (SE: 21.8);p=0.002) and an increase in ED visits for opioid overdose per 10,000 ED visits (40.8 (SE: 10.3) vs 27.4 (SE: 6.1);p=0.02). No change was detected in the rate of buprenorphine administration and/or prescriptions: 25.8 (SE: 5.3) vs 25.1 (5.5);p=0.80. From January to August 2020, significant correlations were observed between inpatient hospital SARS-CoV-2 rates and ED visits with a positive correlation between opioid-related diagnoses per 10,000 (Spearman r=0.92, p= <0.0001) and opioid overdose per 10,000 visits (r=0.90, p=<0.0001);a negative correlation was found for the rate of ED administration and/or prescription of buprenorphine (r=-0.37, p=0.03). Conclusions: ED visits for opioid-related diagnoses and opioid overdose per 10,000 ED visits increased in EDs between March 1, 2020 – August 30, 2020 compared to the preceding 6 months and correlated with inpatient SARS-CoV-2 burden. Although the overall rate of buprenorphine administered and/or prescribed from the ED highlights a significant practice change in EDs over recent years, buprenorphine provision in EDs did not increase despite likely treatment service disruptions during this period of SARS-CoV-2. [Formula presented]

13.
Xitong Gongcheng Lilun yu Shijian/System Engineering Theory and Practice ; 42(2):487-498, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1744615

ABSTRACT

The prediction of the development trend of internet public opinion is a very significant reference for monitoring and control of the network public opinion by the relevant government departments. On account of small sample characteristics of online public opinion and the needs for both accuracy and stability in the prediction model, in this paper, an improved grey wolf optimization algorithm (IGWO) based on the initialization of the good-point set method, nonlinear parameter control and the weighting of the leading wolf is proposed. Using IGWO to optimize the super parameters of SVM regression model, a network public opinion prediction model based on improved grey wolf optimized support vector machine regression (IGWO-SVR) is established. Empirical research is carried out with Baidu indexes such as COVID-19 as public opinion data samples. The experimental results of 12 test functions show that the improved grey wolf optimization algorithm has relatively strong global search ability, faster convergence speed and better stability. The IGWO-SVR model has relatively outstanding accuracy and stability in the prediction of the development trend of public opinion, which can provide better decision-making support for public opinion supervision department of government. © 2022, Editorial Board of Journal of Systems Engineering Society of China. All right reserved.

14.
Advanced Functional Materials ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1729090

ABSTRACT

The respiratory system holds crucial importance in the biology of vertebrate animals. Injuries of the respiratory system caused by viral infections (e.g., by COVID-19, MERS, and SARS) can lead to severe or lethal conditions. So far there are no effective treatments for respiratory injuries. This represents a highly unmet clinical need, e.g., during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Nanomedicines have high potential in the treatment of respiratory injuries. In this review, the pathology and clinical treatments of major respiratory injuries, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome are briefly summarized. The review primarily focuses on nanomedicines based on liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles, which are tested in preclinical models for the treatment of respiratory injuries. These nanomedicines are utilized to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including corticosteroids, statins, and nucleic acids. Furthermore, nanomedicines are also investigated for other respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The promising preclinical results of various nanoformulations from these studies suggest the potential of nanomedicines for future clinical management of respiratory viral infections and diseases. © 2022 The Authors.

16.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-328526

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 protein Nsp2 has been implicated in a wide range of viral processes, but its exact functions, and the structural basis of those functions, remain unknown. Here, we report an atomic model for full-length Nsp2 obtained by combining cryo-electron microscopy with deep learning-based structure prediction from AlphaFold2. The resulting structure reveals a highly-conserved zinc ion-binding site, suggesting a role for Nsp2 in RNA binding. Mapping emerging mutations from variants of SARS-CoV-2 on the resulting structure shows potential host-Nsp2 interaction regions. Using structural analysis together with affinity tagged purification mass spectrometry experiments, we identify Nsp2 mutants that are unable to interact with the actin-nucleation-promoting WASH protein complex or with GIGYF2, an inhibitor of translation initiation and modulator of ribosome-associated quality control. Our work suggests a potential role of Nsp2 in linking viral transcription within the viral replication-transcription complexes (RTC) to the translation initiation of the viral message. Collectively, the structure reported here, combined with mutant interaction mapping, provides a foundation for functional studies of this evolutionary conserved coronavirus protein and may assist future drug design.

17.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326946

ABSTRACT

Rationale: High galectin-3 levels predict poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Galectin-3 activates monocytes and macrophages which are directly implicated in COVID-19 immunopathology and the cytokine storm. GB0139 is a potent thiodigalactoside galectin-3 inhibitor and may reduce the severe effects of the disease. We report safety and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the inhaled galectin-3 inhibitor, GB0139, and assess clinical outcomes and key systemic inflammatory biomarkers in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 (ClinicalTrials.gov/EudraCT identifier: NCT04473053/2020-002230-32). Methods: Adults with COVID-19 requiring oxygen, and with pneumonitis on x-ray, were randomised to receive standard of care (SOC;including dexamethasone;n=21) or SOC plus 10 mg GB0139 twice daily for 48 hours, then once daily for ≤14 days (n=20). Results: Patients aged 27–87 years were enrolled from July 2020;the final patient completed the 90-day follow-up in April 2021. GB0139+SOC was well tolerated with no treatment-related serious adverse events reported. Incidences of adverse events were similar between treatment arms (40 with GB0139+SOC vs 35 with SOC). Plasma GB0139 was measurable in all patients after inhaled exposure, with moderate interpatient variability, and demonstrated target engagement with decreased circulating galectin (overall treatment effect post-hoc over days 2–7: p=0·0099 vs SOC). Rate of decline in fraction of inspired oxygen (%) requirement was significantly greater in the GB0139+SOC arm with a posterior mean difference of −1·51 (95% highest posterior density: −2·90, −0·189) versus SOC. Plasma levels of biomarkers associated with inflammation, coagulopathy, major organ function and fibrosis showed a downward trend versus SOC. Conclusions: GB0139+SOC was well tolerated and achieved clinically relevant plasma concentrations and target engagement. This, and the reduction in markers associated with inflammatory, coagulation, fibrosis, and reduction in inspired oxygen (%) over SOC alone, indicates the therapeutic potential for inhaled GB0139 in hospitalised patients with COVID-19.

18.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31:1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1610151
19.
2021 International Congress on Educational and Technology in Sciences, CISETC 2021 ; 3037:77-85, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1589447

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease has started several levels of alert and biosafety protocols to mitigate the risk of contagion everywhere, therefore causing universities to adopt the virtual environments in their teachings, but nowadays it became a necessity to return to classrooms in a short term basis;however, how prepared are we for this “new normal”? In this research, a validated questionnaire was used to measure the knowledge of COVID-19 and preventive measures adopted by university students, before and after the use of an epidemiological surveillance mobile app, developed as a tool to raise awareness in students. The research was quantitative, quasi-experimental, it was applied in a sample of 82 students, the analysis was global and gender inferential using the non-parametric T test for paired samples. The results indicated that the epidemiological surveillance mobile app made possible to raise awareness in the students in the adoption of preventive measures, proposing awareness strategies that allow establishing alerts and timely controls. © 2020 Copyright for this paper by its authors.

20.
Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine ; 3(1):45-49, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582957

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an active role in the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. Currently, there are many TCM intervention programs for the COVID-19 infections, and the clinical effect is better. However, there are some problems in the design of actual clinical programs. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various TCM interventions for the COVID-19 infection from the perspective of scientific and clinical research. We can scientifically use the TCM theory to guide and design clinical research, and come up with real data and treatment, to provide new models and explorations for the research of the modernization of Chinese medicine.

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