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1.
IEEE J Emerg Sel Top Power Electron ; 10(1): 1282-1291, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090809

ABSTRACT

Cyber and physical attacks threaten the security of distribution power grids. The emerging renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PVs) introduce new potential vulnerabilities. Based on the electric waveform data measured by waveform sensors in the distribution power networks, in this paper, we propose a novel high-dimensional data-driven cyber physical attack detection and identification approach (HCADI). Firstly, we analyze the cyber and physical attack impacts (including cyber attacks on the solar inverter causing unusual harmonics) on electric waveforms in distribution power grids. Then, we construct a high dimensional streaming data feature matrix based on signal analysis of multiple sensors in the network. Next, we propose a novel mechanism including leverage score based attack detection and binary matrix factorization based attack diagnosis. By leveraging the data structure and binary coding, our HCADI approach does not need the training stage for both detection and the root cause diagnosis, which is needed for machine learning/deep learning-based methods. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first attempt to use raw electrical waveform data to detect and identify the power electronics cyber/physical attacks in distribution power grids with PVs.

2.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 900773, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769604

ABSTRACT

Background: There is an urgent need for cost-effective, easy-to-measure biomarkers to identify subjects who will develop Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially at the pre-symptomatic stage. This stage can be determined in autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) which offers the opportunity to observe the dynamic biomarker changes during the life-course of AD stages. This study aimed to investigate serum biomarkers during different AD stages and potential novel protein biomarkers of presymptomatic AD. Methods: In the first stage, 32 individuals [20 mutation carriers including 10 with AD, and 10 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 12 healthy controls] from ADAD families were analyzed. All subjects underwent a complete clinical evaluation and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Serum samples were collected from all subjects, and antibody arrays were used to analyze 170 proteins in these samples. The most promising biomarkers were identified during this screening and were then measured in serum samples of 12 subjects with pre-MCI and 20 controls. Results: The serum levels of 13 proteins were significantly different in patients with AD or MCI compared to controls. Of the 13 proteins, cathepsin D, immunoglobulin E, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), von Willebrand factor (vWF), haptoglobin, and phosphorylated Tau-181 (p-Tau181) correlated with all cognitive measures (R2 = -0.69-0.76). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of these seven proteins were 0.71-0.93 for the classification of AD and 0.57-0.95 for the classification of MCI. Higher levels of p-Tau181 were found in the serum of pre-MCI subjects than in the serum of controls. The p-Tau181 serum level might detect AD before symptoms occur (area under the curve 0.85, sensitivity 75%, specificity 81.67%). Conclusions: A total of 13 serum proteins showed significant differences between subjects with AD and MCI and healthy controls. The p-Tau181 serum level might be a broadly available and cost-effective biomarker to identify individuals with preclinical AD and assess the severity of AD.

3.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E27, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617680

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: US school systems underwent major upheaval, including closures, implementation of virtual and/or hybrid learning, and stringent infection mitigation protocols, during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to examine the association between food insecurity and perceived health, perceived stress, and social determinants of health concerns among elementary schoolteachers serving predominantly low-income children during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Brighter Bites, a nonprofit organization that weekly distributes fresh fruits and vegetables and nutrition education materials to more than 300 schools serving racial and ethnic minority populations with low income, conducts annual surveys of participating teachers to help determine subsequent efforts to support schools and families during the school year. We analyzed self-reported data collected electronically by the Brighter Bites teachers survey in 76 elementary schools during summer 2020. We used generalized linear mixed models to measure the association between food insecurity and health-related concerns. RESULTS: Of 862 teachers who responded to the survey, 685 answered the 2 questions about food insecurity status; of these, 199 (29.1%) reported experiencing food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with poor perceived general health, greater perceived stress, concerns about various social determinants of health, and changes in fruit and vegetable consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the high prevalence of food insecurity and highlights its associated factors among elementary schoolteachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. It calls attention to the high correlation of various concerns among elementary schoolteachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further intervention and policy efforts are needed to relieve food insecurity-related concerns and enhance well-being among teachers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Ethnicity , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Vegetables
4.
Workplace Health Saf ; 70(4): 180-187, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392748

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Teaching is a stressful occupation due to high-stake job demands and limited resources, which were exacerbated during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study assessed the prevalence of perceived stress and explored its predictors among elementary school teachers employed at schools serving predominantly low-income populations in five cities in the United States. METHOD: Our study analyzed the data among selected schools that were collected through the Brighter Bites teacher survey which comprised items measuring sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, perceived general health, food insecurity, and concerns regarding social determinants of health needs. The predictors of perceived stress were examined using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with schools as the random variable. FINDINGS: A total of 685 teachers were included in the analysis (84.9% female, 38.1% Hispanic, 57.6% <5 years of teaching experience). Most (85.4%) of the teachers stated they were stressed "sometimes"/"often." Results from adjusted GLMM showed that teachers who were food insecure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.33, confidence interval [CI]: [1.63, 3.35]), those who had concerns regarding financial stability (2.68 [1.91, 3.75]), food availability (1.69 [1.15, 2.48]), food affordability (2.27 [1.57, 3.28]), availability/affordability of housing (2.21 [1.33, 3.67]), access to childcare (1.76 [1.06, 2.92]), and access to a clinic/doctor (1.60 [1.10, 2.33]) were at significantly greater odds of reporting perceived stress. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: Our study demonstrates the heightened impact of COVID-19 on the mental well-being of teachers across a wide range of social needs. Stress management and additional social service programs are suggested to support teachers to mitigate pandemic impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , School Teachers , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
5.
Mol Neurobiol ; 59(6): 3370-3381, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305243

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease and most anti-AD drugs have failed in clinical trials; hence, it is urgent to find potentially effective drugs against AD. DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a compound extracted from celery seed and is a multiple-target drug. Several studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of NBP on cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms of NBP remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we found that NBP could alleviated the increase of intracellular Ca2+ and reversed down-regulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase alpha (CaMKIIα) signaling and rescued neuronal apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells treated by Aß oligomers. However, these neuroprotective effects of NBP on neuronal damage and CaMKIIα signaling were abolished when CaMKIIα expression was knocked down or its activity was inhibited. Thus, our findings suggested that CaMKIIα signaling was required for the neuroprotective effects of NBP in AD and provided an improved basis for elucidating the mechanism and treatment of NBP in AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Benzofurans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotective Agents , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Benzofurans/therapeutic use , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 92(1): 44-53, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35221095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to be biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether exosomal miRNAs can predict AD at the asymptomatic stage remains unclear. METHODS: This study is a multicenter study with four independent datasets to verify the capacity of exosomal miRNAs to identify preclinical AD. Subjects were recruited from a Beijing center in the pilot study (dataset 1: subjects with AD, n = 20; control subjects, n = 20), from other centers across China (dataset 2: subjects with AD, n = 95; control subjects, n = 93), a longitudinal cohort (dataset 3: subjects with preclinical AD, n = 101; control subjects, n = 102), and a confirmation study on familial AD (dataset 4: mutation carriers, n = 56; nonmutation carriers, n = 57). RESULTS: A panel of miRNAs was changed in subjects with AD and can detect preclinical AD 5 to 7 years before the onset of cognitive impairment (areas under the curve = 0.85-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Exosomal miRNAs can be effective biomarkers for predicting AD 5 to 7 years prior to cognitive impairment onset.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , MicroRNAs , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Biomarkers , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Pilot Projects
7.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057453

ABSTRACT

Plant-based and animal-based protein intake have differential effects on various aging-related health outcomes, but less is known about the health effect of isocaloric substitution of plant-based and animal-based protein. This systematic review summarized current evidence of the isocaloric substitutional effect of plant-based and animal-based protein on aging-related health outcomes. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for epidemiologic observational studies published in English up to 15 March 2021. Studies that included adults ≥18 years old; use of a nutritional substitution model to define isocaloric substitution of plant protein and animal protein; health outcomes covering mortality, aging-related diseases or indices; and reported association estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were included. Nine cohort studies and 3 cross-sectional studies were identified, with a total of 1,450,178 subjects included in this review. Consistent and significant inverse association of substituting plant protein for various animal proteins on all-cause mortality was observed among 4 out of 5 studies with relative risks (RRs) from 0.54 to 0.95 and on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among all 4 studies with RRs from 0.58 to 0.91. Among specific animal proteins, the strongest inverse association on all-cause and CVD mortality was identified when substituting plant protein for red and/or processed meat protein, with the effect mainly limited to bread, cereal, and pasta protein when replacing red meat protein. Isocaloric substitution of plant-based protein for animal-based protein might prevent all-cause and CVD-specific mortality. More studies are needed on this topic, particularly for cancer incidence and other specific aging-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animal Proteins, Dietary/pharmacology , Cause of Death , Energy Intake , Feeding Behavior , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Animal Proteins, Dietary/administration & dosage , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diet, Vegetarian , Humans , Meat Proteins , Plant Proteins/administration & dosage
8.
Food Chem ; 378: 132032, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033710

ABSTRACT

This work aimed to investigate how pulsed electric field (PEF) technology as an alternative to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone glycosides (SIG). To achieve it, the effect of PEF treatment on the activity, kinetics, thermodynamics and structure of ß-glucosidase (ß-GLU) were evaluated. The parameters for PEF-assisted hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone glycosides were optimized by response surface methodology. The results showed that PEF treatment increased the relative activity and catalytic efficiency of ß-GLU with moderate electric field intensity. Furthermore, PEF treatment induced the secondary and tertiary structural change of ß-GLU, the α-helix content increased by 4.23% and the ß-fold content decreased by 3.70%. The optimum conditions for PEF treatment were established as the highest yield of isoflavone aglycones achieved 94.58%. Therefore, these results indicated that PEF treatment could be used as an efficient process to improve the ß-GLU properties, converting soybean isoflavone glycoside to their aglycones form.


Subject(s)
Isoflavones , Glycosides , Hydrolysis , Soybeans , beta-Glucosidase
9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(7): 1345-1356, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786838

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with altered metabolites. This study aimed to determine the validity of using circulating metabolites to differentiate AD from other dementias. METHODS: Blood metabolites were measured in three data sets. Data set 1 (controls, 27; AD, 28) was used for analyzing differential metabolites. Data set 2 (controls, 93; AD, 92) was used to establish a diagnostic AD model with use of a metabolite panel. The model was applied to Data set 3 (controls, 76; AD, 76; other dementias, 205) to verify its capacity for differentiating AD from other dementias. RESULTS: Data set 1 revealed 7 upregulated and 77 downregulated metabolites. In Data set 2, a panel of 11 metabolites was included in a model that could distinguish AD from controls. In Data set 3, this panel was used to successfully differentiate AD from other dementias. DISCUSSION: This study revealed an AD-specific panel of 11 metabolites that may be used for AD diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans
10.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 264, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The most common biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are amyloid ß (Aß) and tau, detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or with positron emission tomography imaging. However, these procedures are invasive and expensive, which hamper their availability to the general population. Here, we report a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum that can predict P-tau/Aß42 in CSF and readily differentiate AD from other dementias, including vascular dementia (VaD), Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and dementia with Lewy body (DLB). METHODS: RNA samples were extracted from the participant's blood. P-tau/Aß42 of CSF was examined for diagnostic purposes. A pilot study (controls, 21; AD, 23), followed by second (controls, 216; AD, 190) and third groups (controls, 153; AD, 151), is used to establish and verify a predictive model of P-tau/Aß42 in CSF. The test is then applied to a fourth group of patients with different dementias (controls, 139; AD,155; amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], 55; VaD, 51; PDD, 53; bvFTD, 53; DLB, 52) to assess its diagnostic capacity. RESULTS: In the pilot study, 29 upregulated and 31 downregulated miRNAs in the AD group were found. In Dataset 2, these miRNAs were then included as independent variables in the linear regression model. A seven-microRNA panel (miR-139-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-146a-5p, miR-485-5p, miR-10a-5P, miR-26b-5p, and miR-451a-5p) accurately predicted values of P-tau/Aß42 of CSF. In Datasets 3 and 4, by applying the predicted P-tau/Aß42, the predictive model successfully differentiates AD from controls and VaD, PDD, bvFTD, and DLB. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the panel of microRNAs is a promising substitute for traditional measurement of P-tau/Aß42 in CSF as an effective biomarker of AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , MicroRNAs , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Biomarkers , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Peptide Fragments , Pilot Projects , tau Proteins
11.
Food Funct ; 12(23): 11974-11986, 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747965

ABSTRACT

As a natural dietary ingredient, berberine possesses multiple biological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. In this work, glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated alleviation of inflammation by berberine was investigated by a combination of in vitro, in silico, and in vivo approaches. The fluorescence polarization assay showed that berberine bound to GR with an IC50 value of 9.14 ± 0.16 pM. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation suggested that berberine bound stably to the active site of GR via hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Berberine induced GR nuclear translocation but did not activate the glucocorticoid response element in HeLa cells. Furthermore, both gene and protein expressions of PEPCK were significantly attenuated by berberine in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, berberine downregulated CBG mRNA and protein levels without up-regulating TAT mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 cells, demonstrating its dissociated characteristics that could separate transrepression from transactivation. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of berberine were confirmed in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells and in a mouse model of allergic contact dermatitis, respectively. In conclusion, berberine might serve as a potential selective GR modulator.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Berberine , Inflammation/metabolism , Receptors, Glucocorticoid , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Berberine/chemistry , Berberine/metabolism , Berberine/pharmacology , Dermatitis, Contact/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , RAW 264.7 Cells , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/chemistry , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114739, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648903

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a type of herbal plant that has frequently been used in many Asian countries to treat a variety of diseases. Ginseng is considered to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative pharmacological effects. However, the specific mechanism is still not entirely understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we investigated if ginseng extract could attenuate inflammation and oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells and in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RAW264.7 cells and LPS were used to develop inflammatory and oxidative cell models. C57/6J male mice and DSS were used to construct the animal models. O2-, mitochondria number, and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed using fluorescent probes and fluorescence microscopy. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation were detected with probes and microplate readers. The secreted amounts of inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Protein expression levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus were measured by western blotting analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the changes in mRNA levels. Autophagosome accumulation was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. A p62-specific siRNA was used to evaluate the effect of p62 on the anti-oxidative function of ginseng root extract (GRE). Asperuloside and SP600125 were used to confirm the involvement of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. RESULTS: We performed a systematic analysis of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and autophagy regulatory mechanisms of GRE in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. GRE considerably reduced the levels of nitric oxide, TNF-α, and IL-6 secreted by LPS-treated cells. GRE treatments dose-dependently upregulated IL-10 mRNA levels and decreased IL-6 and IL-1ß mRNA levels in LPS-treated cells. Similar to the NF-κB and JNK inhibitors, GRE treatment significantly inhibited NF-κB activity and phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK, ERK-1/2, and p38). Additionally, GRE treatment remarkably decreased LPS-triggered reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction by motivating Nrf2 nuclear translocation by enhancing phosphorylated p62. Knockdown of p62 resulted in the loss of GRE anti-oxidative ability. Autophagy was strongly induced by GRE via the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, relieving excessive oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation, while enhancing Beclin-1, LC3 II, and Atg7 protein expression. Furthermore, GRE alleviated the degree of injury, inflammatory cytokine production, and regulated the relative signaling pathway in DSS-induced colitis. CONCLUSIONS: GRE can exert both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative functions by targeting the MAPK/NF-κB and p62-Nrf2-Keap1 pathways, as well as autophagy, in vitro and vivo.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Panax/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Autophagy/drug effects , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Inflammation/drug therapy , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RAW 264.7 Cells , Signal Transduction/drug effects
13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(10): 1343-1350, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424260

ABSTRACT

Importance: Much remains unknown about the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. How the severity of the index case and timing of exposure is associated with disease in close contacts of index patients with COVID-19 and clinical presentation in those developing disease is not well elucidated. Objectives: To investigate the association between the timing of exposure and development of disease among close contacts of index patients with COVID-19 and to evaluate whether the severity of the index case is associated with clinical presentation in close contacts who develop COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used a large, population-based cohort of 730 individuals (index patients) who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China, from January 8 to July 30, 2020, along with a contact tracing surveillance program. Field workers visited 8852 close contacts of the index patients and evaluated them for COVID-19 through August 2020. A timeline was constructed to characterize different exposure periods between index patients and their contacts. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the attack rate of COVID-19, defined as the total number of new COVID-19 cases diagnosed among contacts of index patients divided by the total number of exposed contacts. A secondary outcome was asymptomatic clinical presentation among infected contacts. Relative risks were calculated to investigate risk factors for COVID-19 among contacts and asymptomatic clinical presentation among infected contacts. Results: Among 8852 close contacts (4679 male contacts [52.9%]; median age, 41 years [interquartile range, 28-54 years]) of 730 index patients (374 male patients [51.2%]; median age, 46 years [interquartile range, 36-56 years]), contacts were at highest risk of COVID-19 if they were exposed between 2 days before and 3 days after the index patient's symptom onset, peaking at day 0 (adjusted relative risk [ARR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5). Compared with being exposed to an asymptomatic index patient, the risk of COVID-19 among contacts was higher when they were exposed to index patients with mild (ARR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.8-9.1) and moderate (ARR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.9-9.7) cases of COVID-19. As index case severity increased, infected contacts were less likely to be asymptomatic (exposed to patient with mild COVID-19: ARR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; exposed to patient with moderate COVID-19: ARR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that individuals with COVID-19 were most infectious a few days before and after symptom onset. Infected contacts of asymptomatic index patients were less likely to present with COVID-19 symptoms, suggesting that quantity of exposure may be associated with clinical presentation in close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Young Adult
14.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113430, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351299

ABSTRACT

The growing number of industrial carbon emissions have resulted in a significant increase in the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2), which, in turn, will have a major impact on climate change. Therefore, the reduction, storage, and reuse of CO2 is an important concern in modern society. Calcium oxide (CaO) is known to be an excellent adsorbent of CO2 in a high-temperature environment. However, since deterioration of the adsorbent is likely to occur after repeated cycles of adsorption under high temperature conditions, it would be desirable to mitigate this phenomenon, in order to maintain the stability of CaO. In the present study, common eggshell waste was used as the starting material. The main component of eggshell waste is calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which was purified to produce CaO. Different surfactants and amino-containing polymers were added to synthesize CaO-based adsorbents with different configurations and pore sizes. The amount of CO2 adsorbed was determined using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed that the CO2 adsorption capacity of the synthetic CaO recovered from purified eggshell waste could reach 0.6 g-CO2/g-sorbent, indicating a good adsorption capacity. CaO modified with a dopamine-containing polymer was shown to have an adsorption capacity of 0.62 g-CO2/g-sorbent. Moreover, it showed an excellent adsorption capacity of 0.40 g-CO2/g-sorbent, even after 10 cycles of CO2 adsorption. The present study suggests that using eggshell waste to synthesize CaO-based adsorbents for effective CO2 adsorption can not only reduce environmental waste, but also have the potential to capture greenhouse gas CO2 emissions, which conforms to the principles of green chemistry.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Greenhouse Gases , Adsorption , Animals , Calcium Compounds , Egg Shell , Oxides
15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(2): 897-906, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global race-dependent association of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is not well understood. Transethnic analysis of APOE could clarify the role of genetics in AD risk across populations. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine how race and APOE genotype affect the risks for AD. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library since 1993 to Aug 25, 2020. A total of 10,395 reports were identified, and 133 were eligible for analysis with data on 77,402 participants. Studies contained AD clinical diagnostic and APOE genotype data. Homogeneous data sets were pooled in case-control analyses. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for developing AD were calculated for populations of different races and APOE genotypes. RESULTS: The proportion of APOE genotypes and alleles differed between populations of different races. Results showed that APOEɛ4 was a risk factor for AD, whereas APOEɛ2 protected against it. The effects of APOEɛ4 and ɛ2 on AD risk were distinct in various races, and they were substantially attenuated among Black people. Sub-group analysis found a higher frequency of APOEɛ4/ɛ4 and lower frequency of APOEɛ3/ɛ3 among early-onset AD than late-onset AD in a combined group and different races. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggests that the association of APOE genotypes and AD differ among races. These results enhance our understanding of APOE-related risk for AD across race backgrounds and provide new insights into precision medicine for AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , /genetics , Alleles , Apolipoprotein E2/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Genotype , Humans
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(4): 1823-1831, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current and future incidence and prevalence estimates of dementia are essential for public health planning. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to establish prediction model of incidence and estimate the prevalence of dementia in the Chinese and worldwide population from 2020 to 2050. METHODS: A model-based method was used to project the dementia prevalence from 2020 to 2050 in China, which required incidence, the mortality rate for individual without dementia, and the relative risk of death. Furthermore, we detected the impact of intervention on the prevalence projection for dementia using a simulation method. We applied the same method to other projections worldwide. RESULTS: In 2020, the model predicted 16.25 million (95%confidence interval 11.55-21.18) persons with dementia in China. By 2050, this number would increase by approximately three-fold to 48.98 million (38.02-61.73). Through data simulation, if the incidence of dementia decreased by 10%every 10 years from 2020 after intervention and prevention, the number of dementia cases by 2050 was reduced by 11.96 million. This would reduce the economic burden by US $639.04 billion. In addition, using this model, dementia cases grew relatively slowly over the next few decades in the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and Japan, with percentage changes of 100.88%, 65.93%, and 16.20%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The number of people with dementia in China is large and will continue to increase rapidly. Effective interventions could reduce the number of patients drastically. Therefore, prevention and control strategies must be formulated urgently to reduce the occurrence of dementia.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation/trends , Dementia/epidemiology , Forecasting , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Prevalence , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 1357-1367, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alterations in levels of peripheral insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been reported in several studies, and results are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid IGF-1 levels and AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted and 18 studies were included. RESULTS: Results of random-effects meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference between AD patients and healthy control (17 studies; standard mean difference [SMD], -0.01; 95%CI, -0.35 to 0.32) and between MCI patients and healthy control (6 studies; SMD, -0.20; 95%CI, -0.52 to 0.13) in peripheral IGF-1 levels. Meta-regression analyses identified age difference might explain the heterogeneity (p = 0.017). However, peripheral IGF-1 levels were significantly decreased in AD subjects (9 studies; SMD, -0.44; 95%CI, -0.81 to -0.07) and MCI subjects exhibited a decreasing trend (4 studies; SMD, -0.31; 95%CI, -0.72 to 0.11) in studies with sample size≥80. Cerebrospinal fluid IGF-1 levels also significantly decreased in AD subjects (3 studies; SMD, -2.40; 95%CI, -4.36 to -0.43). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that decreased peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid IGF-1 levels might be a potential marker for the cognitive decline and progression of AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/cerebrospinal fluid , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/cerebrospinal fluid , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans
18.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 107, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accelerated long-term forgetting has been identified in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is attributed to a selective impairment of memory consolidation in which the hippocampus plays a key role. As blood may contain multiple senescence-related factors that involved in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, we tested whether there is an association between blood-borne factors and accelerated long-term forgetting in asymptomatic individuals from families with autosomal dominant AD (ADAD). METHODS: We analyzed data of 39 asymptomatic participants (n = 18 ADAD mutation carriers, n = 21 non-carriers) from the Chinese Familial Alzheimer's Disease Network (CFAN) study. Long-term forgetting rates were calculated based on recall or recognition of two materials (word list and complex figure) at three delays comprising immediate, 30 min, and 7 days. Peripheral blood concentrations of candidate pro-aging factors (CC chemokine ligand 11 [CCL11] and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP1]) and rejuvenation factors (growth differentiation factor 11 [GDF11], thrombospondin-4 [THBS4], and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine like 1 [SPARCL1]) were evaluated in all participants. RESULTS: Despite normal performance on standard 30-min delayed testing, mutation carriers exhibited accelerated forgetting of verbal and visual material over 7 days in comparison with matched non-carriers. In the whole sample, lower plasma THBS4 was associated with accelerated long-term forgetting in list recall (ß = -0.46, p = 0.002), figure recall (ß = -0.44, p = 0.004), and list recognition (ß = -0.37, p = 0.010). Additionally, higher plasma GDF11 and CCL11 were both associated with accelerated long-term forgetting (GDF11 versus figure recall: ß = 0.39, p = 0.007; CCL11 versus list recognition: ß = 0.44, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated long-term forgetting is a cognitive feature of presymptomatic AD. Senescence-related blood-borne factors, especially THBS4, GDF11, and CCL11, may be promising biomarkers for the prediction of accelerated long-term forgetting.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins , Calcium-Binding Proteins , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Growth Differentiation Factors , Humans , Memory Disorders/genetics , Mental Recall , Neuropsychological Tests , Osteonectin , Recognition, Psychology
19.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(1): 667, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986832

ABSTRACT

Ginsenosides are important active components in Panax ginseng. In the present study, total ginsenosides (TGNs) were demonstrated to enhance autophagy by promoting acidic vacuole organelle formation, recruitment of enhanced green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 and expression of autophagy-related factors in cervical cancer cell lines. TGN markedly increased the expression of p62 at the transcriptional level, but decreased p62 protein expression in the presence of actinomycin D. The autophagic regulatory effect was reversible. TGN (≤120 µg/ml) did not affect the proliferation of cervical cancer cells under normal culture conditions, but markedly inhibited the growth of serum-deprived cells. Treatment with an inhibitor of autophagy (3-methyladenine) impaired TGN-induced cell death. This suggested that TGN caused autophagic cell death. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein level of bone marrow stromal antigen-2 (BST-2) was downregulated by TGN. Upregulation of BST-2 reduced cell death. The results of the combined actions of various monomeric ginsenosides in TGN provide the molecular basis to develop TGN as a promising candidate for cancer therapy.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(9): 811-822, 2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835157

ABSTRACT

To identify novel risk genes and better understand the molecular pathway underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD), whole-exome sequencing was performed in 215 early-onset AD (EOAD) patients and 255 unrelated healthy controls of Han Chinese ethnicity. Subsequent validation, computational annotation and in vitro functional studies were performed to evaluate the role of candidate variants in EOAD. We identified two rare missense variants in the phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) gene in individuals with EOAD. Both variants are located in evolutionarily highly conserved amino acids, are predicted to alter the protein conformation and are classified as pathogenic. Furthermore, we found significantly decreased protein levels of PDE11A in brain samples of AD patients. Expression of PDE11A variants and knockdown experiments with specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for PDE11A both resulted in an increase of AD-associated Tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple epitopes in vitro. PDE11A variants or PDE11A shRNA also caused increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, protein kinase A (PKA) activation and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. In addition, pretreatment with a PKA inhibitor (H89) suppressed PDE11A variant-induced Tau phosphorylation formation. This study offers insight into the involvement of Tau phosphorylation via the cAMP/PKA pathway in EOAD pathogenesis and provides a potential new target for intervention.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , 3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Exome/genetics , Humans , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/genetics , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , Whole Exome Sequencing
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