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1.
Academy of Management Journal ; 65(2):606, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1791998

ABSTRACT

Building on psychological research on job demands and executive job demands theory, we explain why executive job demands negatively influence a firm's overall innovation and shift the balance of innovative activities toward a larger share of exploitative innovations at the expense of exploratory innovations, leading to a smaller share of innovations that are exploratory. In addition, we explain how variety in executives' gender, age, and tenure and an innovative climate weaken the negative effects of job demands on both overall innovation and the share of exploratory innovations. Our theory suggests that a controlling climate and employees' education weaken the negative effect of job demands on overall innovation but exacerbate the negative effect of job demands on the share of exploratory innovations. Using surveys collected on-site from 243 Chinese firms, we find support for five of our 10 hypotheses and marginal support for three additional hypotheses but no support for the two moderating effects of innovative climate. This study shifts innovation scholars' attention away from executive cognition and characteristics to their job environment attributes. It also develops executive job demands theory by examining its boundaries and applicability to the domain of innovation management.

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 806149, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785423

ABSTRACT

Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, face-to-face intervention services for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week, online-delivered Project ImPACT program for children with ASD and their parents in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A pilot non-randomized study with a waitlist control group was conducted in 68 children with ASD and their parents in the Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics between April 15, 2020 and March 19, 2021. Participants were allocated to either the intervention (IG) or the waitlist group (WLG) according to their order of recruitment. Parents in the IG immediately received 8 weeks of the online-delivered Project ImPACT program, and the WLG received the same program with a delay when the IG had completed all sessions. Participants in both groups received treatment as usual during the research period. Results: The online-delivered Project ImPACT program significantly improved the parent-reported social communication skills of children with ASD. Furthermore, parent's involvement in the training program produced a collateral reduction in parenting stress and an increase in perceived competence in the parental role. Parents rated the program acceptable in terms of curriculum schedule, session content, homework assignments, and therapist feedback. Conclusions: The 8-week, online-delivered Project ImPACT program is a feasible and effective social skill training program for families of children with ASD in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the methodological limitations, randomized controlled studies with larger sample sizes are suggested to provide more solid evidence.

3.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2133-2138, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777586

ABSTRACT

Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) was frequently assessed in COVID-19 infection and reported to be associated with adverse outcomes. However, there was no consensus regarding the optimal cutoff value for RDW. Records of 98 patients with COVID-19 from the First People's Hospital of Jingzhou were reviewed. They were divided into two groups according to the cutoff value for RDW on admission by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis: ≤11.5% (n = 50) and >11.5% (n = 48). The association of RDW with the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that the RDW was a good discrimination factor for identifying COVID-19 severity (area under the curve = 0.728, 95% CI: 0.626-0.830, p < 0.001). Patients with RDW > 11.5% more frequently suffered from critical COVID-19 than those with RDW ≤ 11.5% (62.5% vs. 26.0%, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed RDW to be an independent predictor for critical illness due to COVID-19 (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.27-4.55, p = 0.007). A similar result was obtained when we included RDW > 11.5% into another model instead of RDW as a continuous variable (OR = 5.41, 95% CI: 1.53-19.10, p = 0.009). RDW, as an inexpensive and routinely measured parameter, showed promise as a predictor for critical illness in patients with COVID-19 infection. RDW > 11.5% could be the optimal cutoff to discriminate critical COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Erythrocyte Indices , Erythrocytes , Humans , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
4.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 28: 249-258, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740077

ABSTRACT

In the past year, the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Yet our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 tropism mechanism is still insufficient. In this study, we examined the chromatin accessibility at the promoters of host factor genes (ACE2, TMPRSS2, NRP1, BSG, CTSL, and FURIN) in 14 tissue types, 23 tumor types, and 189 cell lines. We showed that the promoters of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were accessible in a tissue- and cell-specific pattern, which is accordant with previous clinical research on SARS-CoV-2 tropism. We were able to further verify that type I interferon (IFN) could induce angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in Caco-2 cells by enhancing the binding of HNF1A, the transcription factor of ACE2, to ACE2 promoter without changing chromatin accessibility. We then performed transcription factor (TF)-gene interactions network and pathway analyses and discovered that the TFs regulating host factor genes are enriched in pathways associated with viral infection. Finally, we established a novel model that suggests that open chromatin at the promoter mediates the host factors' supplementary effect and ensures SARS-CoV-2 entry. Our work uncovers the relationship between epigenetic regulation and SARS-CoV-2 tropism and provides clues for further investigation of COVID-19 pathogenesis.

5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2029257, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692309

ABSTRACT

This study is conducted to explore the association between health behaviors and the COVID-19 vaccination based on the risk compensation concept among health-care workers in Taizhou, China. We conducted a self-administered online survey to estimate the health behaviors among the staff in a tertiary hospital in Taizhou, China, from May 18 to 21 May 2021. A total of 592 out of 660 subjects (89.7%) responded to the questionnaire after receiving an e-poster on WeChat. Subjects who had been inoculated with the COVID-19 vaccine were asked to mention the differences in their health behaviors before and after the vaccination. The results showed that there were no statistical differences in health behaviors between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, except in terms of the type of gloves they used (62.8% in the vaccinated group and 49.2% in the unvaccinated group, p = .048). Subjects who received earlier COVID-19 vaccinations exhibited better health behaviors (22.40% increased for duration of wearing masks (P = .007), 25.40% increased for times of washing hands (P = .01), and 20.90% increased for times of wearing gloves (P = .01)). Subjects also revealed better health behaviors (washing hands, wearing gloves, and wearing masks) after vaccination compared to that before. In conclusion, concept of risk compensation was not applied in our findings. The health behaviors did not reduce after the COVID-19 vaccination, which even may improve health behaviors among health-care workers in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324963

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been demonstrated as the cause of pneumonia. Nevertheless, it has not been reported as the cause of acute myocarditis or fulminant myocarditis. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old male was admitted with pneumonia and cardiac symptoms. He was genetically confirmed as COVID-19 by testing sputum on the first day of admission. He also had an elevated troponin-I (Trop I) level and diffuse myocardial dyskinesia along with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on echocardiography. The highest level of Interleukin 6 was 272.40pg/ml. Bedside chest radiograph had typical ground-glass changes of viral pneumonia. The laboratory test results of virus that can cause myocarditis are all negative. The patient conformed to the diagnostic criteria of Chinese expert consensus statement for fulminant myocarditis. After receiving antiviral therapy and mechanical life support, the Trop I reduced to 0.10 g/L, and Interleukin 6 was 7.63 pg/ml. Meanwhile the LVEF of the patient gradually recovered to 68%. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients may develop severe cardiac complications such as myocarditis and heart failure, and this is the first case of COVID-19 infection complicated with fulminant myocarditis. The mechanism of cardiac pathology caused by COVID-19 needs further study.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321868

ABSTRACT

Background: Could nutritional status serve as prognostic factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? The present study evaluated the clinical and nutritional characteristics of COVID-19 patients and explored the relationship between nutritional risk at admission and in-hospital mortality. Methods: : A retrospective, observational study was conducted in two hospitals in Hubei, China. Confirmed cases of COVID-19 were typed as mild/moderate, severe, or critically ill. Clinical data and in-hospital death were collected. Nutritional risk was assessed using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), the Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), and the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) via objective parameters at admission. Results: : 295 patients were enrolled, including 66 severe patients and 41 critically ill patients. 25 deaths were observed, making 8.47% in the whole population and 37.88% in the critically ill subgroup. Patients had significant differences in nutrition-related parameters and inflammatory biomarkers among three types of disease severity. Patients with lower GNRI and PNI score, as well as higher CONUT, had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality. The receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated the good prognostic implication of GNRI and CONUT score. The multivariate logistic regression showed that baseline nutritional status, assessed by GNRI, PNI, or CONUT score, was a prognostic indicator for in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: : Despite variant assessment tools, poor nutritional status was associated with in-hospital death in patients infected with COVID-19. This study highlighted the importance of nutritional screening at admission and the new insight of nutritional monitoring or therapy.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315329

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic, posing a serious threat to public health worldwide. Whether survivors of COVID-19 pneumonia may be at risk of pulmonary fibrosis is still unknown.Methods: This study involves 462 laboratory confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital. A total of 457 patients underwent thin-section chest CT scans during the hospitalization or after discharge to identify the pulmonary lesion. A total of 287 patients were followed up from 90 days to 150 days after the onset of the disease.Finding: 397 (86.87%), 311 (74.40%), 222 (79.56%), 141 (68.12%) and 49 (62.03%) patients developed with pulmonary fibrosis during the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and >120 days after onset, respectively. Reversal of pulmonary fibrosis were found in 18 (4.53%), 61 (19.61%), 40 (18.02%), 54 (38.30%) and 24 (48.98%) COVID-19 patients during the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and >120 days after onset, respectively. It was observed that Age, BMI, Fever, and Highest PCT were predictive factors for sustaining fibrosis even after 90 days from onset. Only a fraction of COVID-19 patients suffered with abnormal lung function after 90 days from onset.Interpretation: Long-term pulmonary fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with older age, high BMI, severe/critical condition, fever, long time to turn the viral RNA negative, pre-existing disease and delay to admission. Fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could be reversed in about a half of the patients after 120 days from onset. The pulmonary function of most of COVID-19 patients with pulmonary fibrosis could turn to normal condition after three months from onset.Funding Statement: Shenzhen Science and Technology Research and Development Project (202002073000001 and 202002073000002), Shenzhen Fund for Guangdong Provincial High-level Clinical Key Specialties (SZGSP011).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was conducted at Shenzhen Third People's Hospital and approved by the Ethics Committees, each patient gave written informed consent.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315174

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of COVID-19 has now spread globally and affected over 110 countries. As of Mar 10 th , using publicly available data and official news reports in Henan province, we tracked a total of 1272 cases and a retrospective study was conducted to investigate the related factors in COVID-19 spread and control. We confirmed 554 primary patients had travel or residential history of Wuhan in the recent 2 weeks. Secondary cases accounted for 77.9% (141/181) among all the patients aged 61 or older, in whom contacted with unconfirmed returnees from Wuhan was responsible for 27.0% (38/141). The median incubate period is 7 (IQR, 4-10) days by analyzing time information in 469 cases. For 442 patients with discharge dates, the duration from onset to cure is 19 (IQR, 15-23) days. The time from onset to seeking care at a hospital varied in age groups, and differed between primary and secondary cases. Patients visiting different hospitals affected the time from seeking care to cure. Thus, our results showed the spread of COVID-19 and factors associated with outcomes of patients in Henan province, which helps to understand the epidemiological features outside of the epidemic area and control the disease in other regions and countries.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313390

ABSTRACT

Background: : Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been confirmed to be a receptor for the newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, cell surface ACE2 expression is reported to be inconsistent with clinical tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2, which complicates understanding of the pathogenesis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The consumption of ACE2 by internalization and shedding processes may explain this discordance. Results: : To understand the discordance between ACE2 expression and the tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2, we examined the chromatin accessibility of ACE2 promoter in hundreds of tissues and cell lines using public DNase-seq and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) data. We find that ACE2 promoter is only accessible in three tissues including lung, large intestine and placenta. Also, we examined tumors tissues and ACE2 promoter is observed accessible in five tumors with reported SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. We confirmed the susceptibility by performing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in several cell lines. Conclusions: : We propose that open chromatin at the promoter mediates the ACE2 supplementary effect and ensures the entry of SARS-CoV-2. This hypothesis provides a new view and potential clues for further investigation of COVID-19 pathogenesis.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308262

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 could be transmitted through aerosols, and aerosol can be produced by atomization inhalation. Preventative aerosol inhalation is prohibited in our hospital during COVID-19, however the number of cases of fever after surgery has not increased significantly. We want to know whether wearing surgical masks coupled with restricting the flow of people in patient wards has same effect with preventive atomization inhalation in preventing fever after surgery, and we wonder whether preventive atomization inhalation is unnecessary during COVID-19, as long as strictly wearing surgical masks and restricting the flow of people in patient wards have been met. Methods: : Eight kinds of common surgery were covered in this retrospective analysis, including total thyroidectomy (for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma), total adrenalectomy (adrenal tumor), radical gastrectomy (gastric cancer), radical nephrectomy (renal cell carcinoma), radical prostatectomy (prostate cancer), radical resection for sigmoid colon cancer, radical resection for rectal cancer and appendectomy (appendicitis). Cases in Group A underwent preventive atomization inhalation whilst cases in group B wore surgical masks and restricted the flow of people in patient wards. Occurrence of fever, occurrence of fever recurrence and the maximum temperature in the first week after surgery were analyzed in this study. Results: : No significant differences can be seen between group A and group B in terms of occurrence of fever, occurrence of fever recurrence and the maximum temperature after surgery in the first week. Conclusion: Wearing surgical masks combined with restricting the flow of people in patient wards has same effect with preventive atomization inhalation in preventing fever after general anesthesia surgery, which means, during COVID-19, preventive atomization inhalation might not be necessary as long as strictly wearing surgical masks and restricting the flow of people in patient wards have been met.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307611

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) have extremely high rates of mortality. This study evaluated the prognostic impact of AKI duration on in-hospital mortality in elder patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 126 patients with confirmed COVID-19 with severe or critical disease who treated in the ICU from February 4, 2020, to April 16, 2020. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine (Scr) criteria. AKI patients were divided into transient AKI and persistent AKI groups based on whether Scr level returned to baseline within 48 h post-AKI. Results: In total, 107 patients were included in the final analysis. The mean age was 70 (64–78) years, and 69 (64.5%) patients were men. AKI occurred in 48 (44.9%) during their ICU stay. Of these, 11 (22.9%) had transient AKI, 37 (77.9%) had persistent AKI. In-hospital mortality was 18.6% (n =11) for patients without AKI, 72.7% (n=8) for patients with transient AKI, and 86.5% (n=32) for patients with persistent AKI (P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier curve analysis revealed that patients with both transient AKI and persistent AKI had significantly higher death rates than those without AKI (log-rank P <0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that transient and persistent AKI were an important risk factor for in-hospital mortality in older patients with severe COVID-19 even after adjustment for variables (hazard ratio [HR]=2.582;95% CI: 1.025–6.505;P =0.044;and HR=6.974;95% CI: 3.334–14.588;P <0.001). Conclusions: AKI duration is a useful parameter to predict of worse clinical outcomes in elder patients with COVID-19 in the ICU. Among AKI patients, those persistent AKI have a lower in-hospital survival rate than those transient AKI, emphasizing the importance of identifying an appropriate treatment window for early intervention.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306701

ABSTRACT

Our motivating application is a real-world problem: COVID-19 classification from CT imaging, for which we present an explainable Deep Learning approach based on a semi-supervised classification pipeline that employs variational autoencoders to extract efficient feature embedding. We have optimized the architecture of two different networks for CT images: (i) a novel conditional variational autoencoder (CVAE) with a specific architecture that integrates the class labels inside the encoder layers and uses side information with shared attention layers for the encoder, which make the most of the contextual clues for representation learning, and (ii) a downstream convolutional neural network for supervised classification using the encoder structure of the CVAE. With the explainable classification results, the proposed diagnosis system is very effective for COVID-19 classification. Based on the promising results obtained qualitatively and quantitatively, we envisage a wide deployment of our developed technique in large-scale clinical studies.Code is available at https://git.etrovub.be/AVSP/ct-based-covid-19-diagnostic-tool.git.

14.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 30(1): 270-275, 2022 Feb.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze and summarize ABO and Rh(D) blood group distribution and related indicators of COVID-19 patients, and understand the relationship between blood group and disease course of COVID-19 patients in Xinjiang. METHODS: A total of 831 patients with confirmed or asymptomatic COVID-19 infection treated in People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from July 2020 to August 2020 were enrolled as study group, and 2 778 healthy people in a third Grade A hospital in the region during the same period were selected as control group. ABO and Rh(D) blood group antigens were identified, and relevant medical data were collected for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The proportion of O-type population and Rh(D) positive population in the study group was 24.79% and 96.27%, which were lower than those in the normal control group (29.73% and 97.73%) (P<0.05). The proportion of AB type and Rh(D) negative population was 14.20% and 3.73%, which was higher than that in control group (10.62% and 2.27%) (P<0.05). The proportion of female patients in Type O group was lower than that in control group. The proportion of female patients in AB group was higher than that in control group (P<0.01), while the proportion of type O patients in the age group less than or equal to 45 years old and greater than 60 years old was lower. Different blood groups of Uygur population showed their own characteristics in different sex, but there was no statistical significance due to the limited sample (P>0.05). Moreover, the course of disease and clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 patients were different among different blood groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study found that the blood type distribution of COVID-19 patients in Xinjiang has its own characteristics, and the blood type is related to the course and clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. In the future, the data can be widely included in people from different ethnic groups and different regions to improve relevant studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 725505, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633352

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to analyze the early mental health (MH) and quality of life (QoL) of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which can provide a scientific basis for the further development of intervention programs. Methods: In total, 108 subjects participated in this study, including an experimental group (90 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from March to April 2020 and hospitalized in Wuhan China Resources & WISCO General Hospital, Wuhan, China, 83.3%) and a control group (18 healthy participants, 16.7%). Their MH and QoL were measured through the 12-item Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2), the Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), the Self-rating depression scale (SDS), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The results of questionnaires were compared between these two groups. Results: (1) Comparison of anxiety status: among 90 discharged patients with COVID-19, 30 patients (33.3%) had a state of anxiety. Compared with healthy participants and the general population, patients with COVID-19 in the early stages of discharge had a higher incidence of anxiety and more severe anxiety symptoms (P < 0.05). (2) Comparison of depression status: among 90 discharged patients with COVID-19, 29 patients (32.2%) had a state of depression. Compared with healthy participants and the general population, patients with COVID-19 in the early stages of discharge had a higher incidence of depression and more severe depression symptoms (P < 0.05). (3) Comparison of QoL: 78 patients (86.7%) presented a decrease in physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and 73 patients (81.1%) presented a decrease in psychology-related QoL. The SF-12v2 physical component summary (PCS) and the SF-12v2 mental component summary (MCS) of patients were significantly lower than those of healthy people, especially in physical function (PF), vitality (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) (all P < 0.05). (4) Gender differences in mental health and the QoL among patients with COVID-19: women had more severe anxiety/depression symptoms than men (P < 0.05). The scores of women in all dimensions of SF-12V2 were lower than those of men, and there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in PCS, PF, general health (GH), VT, and role-emotional (RE) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: During the early phase after being discharged, patients with COVID-19 might experience negative emotions, such as anxiety or depression, and also problems with reduced QoL, especially among female patients. Therefore, an intervention plan should focus on strengthening psychological condition and improving physical function, and gender-specific rehabilitation programmes should be adapted to improve psychological status and QoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 128037, 2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575585

ABSTRACT

High contents of heavy metals and Cl are major challenges for incineration residue disposal. Classification by the Chinese government and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic have changed the characteristics of incineration residues, thereby increasing the difficulty of disposal. In this study, medical waste incineration fly ash (MWI FA) was proposed as an additive to promote chlorination volatilization of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) and medical waste incineration slag (MWI S). When the mixing ratio of MWI FA to MSWI FA was 1:3, the chlorination volatilization efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd at 1000 °C for 60 min were 50.2%, 99.4%, 99.7%, and 97.9%, respectively. When MWI FA was mixed with MWI S at a ratio of 1:1, the chlorination volatilization efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd at 1200 °C for 40 min were 88.9%, 99.7%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively. Adding MWI FA can replenish Cl in MSWI FA and MWI S while increasing the surface area and forming pore structures by sublimation of NaCl and decomposition of CaSO4, or can reduce the melting point and viscosity by Na2O destroying the glass matrix. Therefore, MWI FA can be co-disposed with MSWI FA and MWI S respectively to enhance the chlorination volatilization of heavy metals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Waste , Metals, Heavy , Refuse Disposal , Carbon , Coal Ash , Halogenation , Humans , Incineration , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Particulate Matter , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Waste , Volatilization
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 572989, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488436

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has hit hard on the world and causes panic since the virus causes serious infectious respiratory illness and easily leads to severe conditions such as immune system overactivation or cytokine storm. Due to the limited knowledge on the course of infection of this coronavirus and the lack of an effective treatment for this fatal disease, mortality remains high. The emergence of a cytokine storm in patients with a severe condition has been reported as the top reason of the death of patients with COVID-19 infection. However, the causative mechanism of cytokine storm remains elusive. Thus, we aim to observe the association of coagulopathy (D-dimer) with cytokine (i.e., IL-6) and CT imaging in COVID-19-infected patients. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, we systematically analyzed the comprehensive clinical laboratory data of COVID-19-positive patients in different illness groups of mild, moderate, and severe conditions according to the Chinese Clinical Guidance for COVID-19 Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment (7th edition). T tests and chi-square tests were used for two-group comparisons. One-way ANOVA was used for three-group comparisons. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients of the D-dimer level with IL-6 and CT imaging were computed at baseline. With regular liquid biopsy approach, D-dimer, IL-6, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were recorded repeatedly with a time curve to investigate disease progression, along with CT imaging, and other indicators. Results: All the 64 patients were clinically evaluated and classified into three groups of mild (32 cases), moderate (23 cases), and severe (nine cases) conditions. The D-dimer level positively correlated with IL-6 (R = 0.5) at baseline when the COVID-19-infected patients were admitted. In addition, we observed that D-dimer rises earlier than the cytokine storm represented by IL-6 surge, which suggests that coagulopathy might act as a trigger to potentiate a cytokine storm. Conclusion: Integrated analysis revealed a positive correlation of coagulopathy with cytokine storm in COVID-19-infected patients; the D-dimer rises early, which indicates that coagulopathy acts as a prodrome of cytokine storm. Coagulopathy can be used to monitor early cytokine storm in COVID-19-infected patients.

18.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(1): 165-174, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the global outbreak of COVID-19, there has been a significant reduction in pediatric outpatient and emergency visits for infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in respiratory viruses in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Shanghai in the past 10 years, especially in the first year after COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study; the results for eight common respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus A and B, parainfluenza virus 1-3 (PIV), adenovirus (ADV) and human metapneumovirus) tested by direct fluorescent antibody assays in hospitalized CAP cases in Children's Hospital of Fudan University during 2010-2020 were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 5544 hospitalized CAP patients included in this study, 20.2% (1125/5544) were positive for the eight respiratory viruses. The top three pathogens were RSV, PIV3 and ADV, detected from 9.8% (543/5544), 5.3% (294/5544) and 2.0% (111/5544) of the samples, respectively. RSV had the highest positive rates among children < 2 years old. In 2020, the detection rate of all viruses showed a sharp decline from February to August compared with the previous 9 years. When the Shanghai community reopened in August 2020, the detection rate of eight viruses rebounded significantly in September. CONCLUSIONS: These eight respiratory viruses, especially RSV and PIV, were important pathogens of CAP in Shanghai children in the past 10 years. The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the detection rates for eight respiratory viruses in children with CAP in Shanghai.

19.
Front Physiol ; 12: 732709, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468360

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explore the appropriate controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols in infertility patients who received the in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the efficiency of the early follicular-phase long-acting GnRH-agonist long (EFLL) protocol (a new protocol developed by Chinese clinicians), prolonged pituitary down-regulation of EFLL protocol (Pro-EFLL), and the GnRH-ant protocol for couples meeting the study criteria between February 2020 and June 2020 who were treated by the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University during the COVID-19 pandemic, and compared the pregnancy rates and miscarriage rates per fresh transfer cycle, number of retrieved oocytes, endometrial thickness on the day of hCG injection and the number of fertilized oocytes, mature oocytes, fertilized oocytes, and transferable embryos among the three protocols. Results: We found that the prolonged pituitary down-regulation during the COVID-19 pandemic by utilizing a full-dose of GnRH-a administrated in infertility patients were no differences in clinical outcomes than other protocols, The prolonged pituitary down-regulation protocol and EFLL protocol were associated with a higher Endometrial thickness on the day of hCG injection (12.67 ± 2.21 vs. 12.09 ± 2.35 vs. 10.79 ± 2.38, P < 0.001), retrieved oocytes (14.49 ± 6.30 vs. 15.02 ± 7.93 vs. 10.06 ± 7.63, P < 0.001), mature oocytes (11.60 ± 5.71 vs. 11.96 ± 6.00 vs. 7.63 ± 6.50, P < 0.001), fertilized oocytes (9.14 ± 5.43 vs. 8.44 ± 5.34 vs. 5.42 ± 5.20, P < 0.001), and transferable embryos (4.87 ± 2.96 vs. 6.47 ± 5.12 vs. 3.00 ± 3.28 vs. P < 0.001) in the GnRH-antagonist protocol. Conclusion: We recommend that patients start Gn injections 33-42 days after a pituitary downregulated full dose (3.75 mg) of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist during the COVID-19 pandemic, even a delay of 2-4 weeks does not affect the implantation rate. The study can provide a more detailed estimate and clinical management strategies for infertile couples during the COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166260, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-induced inflammatory responses are largely responsible for the death of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers inflammatory responses remains unclear. Here, we aimed to explore the regulatory role of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in infected cells and attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirions (SCV-2-S) were generated using the spike-expressing virus packaging system. Western blot, mCherry-GFP-LC3 labeling, immunofluorescence, and RNA-seq were performed to examine the regulatory mechanism of SCV-2-S in autophagic response. The effects of SCV-2-S on apoptosis were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), Western blot, and flow cytometry analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to examine the mechanism of SCV-2-S in inflammatory responses. RESULTS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-mediated SCV-2-S infection induced autophagy and apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells. Mechanistically, SCV-2-S inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by upregulating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, thus promoting the autophagic response. Ultimately, SCV-2-S-induced autophagy triggered inflammatory responses and apoptosis in infected cells. These findings not only improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced pathogenic inflammation but also have important implications for developing anti-inflammatory therapies, such as ROS and autophagy inhibitors, for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Apoptosis/immunology , Autophagy/physiology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Vero Cells
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