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2.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in the intestines and feces, but its clinical significance is not completely clear. We aim to characterize the longitudinal test results of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs and to explore the association with disease severity. METHODS: We included laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, who were hospitalized in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital and excluded those who had not received anal swabs for SARS-COV-2 RNA testing. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained. Throat swabs and anal swabs were collected periodically for SARS-COV-2 RNA detection. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventeen eligible patients (median aged 50 years, 50.2% were females) were analyzed. 21.2% (46/217) of the patients were detected with SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs. The duration of viral RNA was longer, but the viral load was lower in anal swabs than throat swabs in the early stage of the disease. During a median follow-up of 20 days, 30 (13.8%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for high-flow nasal cannula or higher-level oxygen support measures to correct hypoxemia. Detectable viral RNA in anal swabs (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-5.24), increased C-reactive protein (aHR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.35-7.32) and lymphocytopenia (aHR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.46-6.67) were independently associated with ICU admission. The cumulative incidence of ICU admission was higher among patients with detectable viral RNA in anal swabs (26.3% vs 10.7%, P = .006). CONCLUSION: Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the digestive tract was a potential warning indicator of severe disease.

3.
QJM: An International Journal of Medicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-756958
4.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 614-617, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696956

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei province of China in January 2020. This study aims to investigate the effects of different temperature and time durations of virus inactivation on the results of PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2. Twelve patients at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 were selected on February 13, 2020 and throat swabs were taken. The swabs were stored at room temperature (20-25°C), then divided into aliquots and subjected to different temperature for different periods in order to inactivate the viruses (56°C for 30, 45, 60 min; 65, 70, 80°C for 10, 15, 20 min). Control aliquots were stored at room temperature for 60 min. Then all aliquots were tested in a real-time fluorescence PCR using primers against SARS-CoV-2. Regardless of inactivation temperature and time, 7 of 12 cases (58.3%) tested were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR, and cycle threshold values were similar. These results suggest that virus inactivation parameters exert minimal influence on PCR test results. Inactivation at 65°C for 10 min may be sufficient to ensure safe, reliable testing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Virus Inactivation , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Medical Laboratory Personnel , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Temperature , Time Factors
5.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115337, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696777
6.
Nonlinear Dyn ; : 1-11, 2020 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692680

ABSTRACT

Wuhan shutdown was implemented on January 23 and the first level response to public health emergencies (FLRPHE) was launched over the country, and then China got the outbreak of COVID-19 under control. A mathematical model is established to study the transmission of COVID-19 in Wuhan. This research investigates the spread of COVID-19 in Wuhan and assesses the effectiveness of control measures including the Wuhan city travel ban and FLRPHE. Based on the dynamical analysis and data fitting, the transmission of COVID-19 in Wuhan is estimated and the effects of control measures including Wuhan city travel ban and FLRPHE are investigated. According to the assumptions, the basic reproduction number for COVID-19 estimated that for Wuhan equal to 7.53 and there are 4.718 × 10 4 infectious people in Wuhan as of January 23. The interventions including the Wuhan city travel ban and FLRPHE reduce the size of peak and the cumulative number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan by 99%. The extraordinary efforts implemented by China effectively contain the transmission of COVID-19 and protect public health in China.

7.
Front. Public Health ; (8)20200707.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-690601

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks of COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2 has caused serious physical and psychological damage to global human health. COVID-19 spread rapidly around the world in a short time. Confronted with such a highly infectious respiratory disease, the research and development of anti-COVID-19 drugs became an urgent work due to the lack of specific drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. Nevertheless, several existing drugs are available to relieve the clinical symptoms of COVID-19. We reviewed information on selected anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidate therapeutic agents published until June 2, 2020. We also discussed the strategies of the development of anti-COVID-19 drugs in the future. Our review provides a novel insight into the future development of a safer, efficient, and toxic-less anti-COVID-19 drug.

8.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(11): 1522-1531, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647086

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 posed a great threat to global human health, which urgently requires us to understand comprehensively the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, distribution of which may indicate the risk of different human organs vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Previous studies investigating the distribution of ACE2 mRNA in human tissues only involved a limited size of the samples and a lack of determination for ACE2 protein. Given the heterogeneity among humans, the datasets covering more tissues with a larger size of samples should be analyzed. Indeed, ACE2 is a membrane and secreted protein, while the expression of ACE2 in blood and common blood cells remains unknown. Herein, the proteomic data in HIPED and the antibody-based immunochemistry result in HPA were collected to analyze the distribution of ACE2 protein in human tissues. The bulk RNA-seq profiles from three separate public datasets including HPA tissue Atlas, GTEx, and FANTOM5 CAGE were also obtained to determine the expression of ACE2 in human tissues. Moreover, the abundance of ACE2 in human blood and blood cells was determined by analyzing the data in the PeptideAtlas and the HPA Blood Atlas. We found that the mRNA expression cannot reflect the abundance of ACE2 factor due to the strong differences between mRNA and protein quantities of ACE2 within and across tissues. Our results suggested that ACE2 protein is mainly expressed in the small intestine, kidney, gallbladder, and testis, while the abundance of which in brain-associated tissues and blood common cells is low. HIPED revealed enrichment of ACE2 protein in the placenta and ovary despite a low mRNA level. Further, human secretome shows that the average concentration of ACE2 protein in the plasma of males is higher than those in females. Our research will be beneficial for understanding the transmission routes and sex-based differences in susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , Databases, Protein , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Pandemics , Proteomics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Tissue Distribution , Transcriptome
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1537-1545, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611841

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is prevalent around the world. We aimed to describe epidemiological features and clinical course in Shanghai. Methods: We retrospectively analysed 325 cases admitted at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, between January 20 and February 29, 2020. Results: 47.4% (154/325) had visited Wuhan within 2 weeks of illness onset. 57.2% occurred in 67 clusters; 40% were situated within 53 family clusters. 83.7% developed fever during the disease course. Median times from onset to first medical care, hospitalization and negative detection of nucleic acid by nasopharyngeal swab were 1, 4 and 8 days. Patients with mild disease using glucocorticoid tended to have longer viral shedding in blood and feces. At admission, 69.8% presented with lymphopenia and 38.8% had elevated D-dimers. Pneumonia was identified in 97.5% (314/322) of cases by chest CT scan. Severe-critical patients were 8% with a median time from onset to critical disease of 10.5 days. Half required oxygen therapy and 7.1% high-flow nasal oxygen. The case fatality rate was 0.92% with median time from onset to death of 16 days. Conclusion: COVID-19 cases in Shanghai were imported. Rapid identification, and effective control measures helped to contain the outbreak and prevent community transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Status Indicators , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
10.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610401

ABSTRACT

The serological testing of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and/or IgM is widely used in the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, its diagnostic efficacy remains unclear. In this study, we searched for diagnostic studies from the Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases to calculate the pooled diagnostic accuracy measures using bivariate random-effects model meta-analysis. As a result, 22 from a total of 1613 articles, including 2282 patients with SARS-CoV-2 and 1485 healthy persons or patients without SARS-CoV-2, were selected for a meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and area under curve of the summary receiver operator curve (SROC) were: (a) 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.90), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1.00), and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-0.99) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and (b) 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65-0.81), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00), and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93-0.97) for IgM. A subgroup analysis among detection methods indicated the sensitivity of IgG and IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were slightly lower than those using gold immunochromatography assay (GICA) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (P > .05). These results showed that the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM had high diagnostic efficiency to assist the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. And, GICA might be used as the preferred method for its accuracy and simplicity.

11.
Chest ; 2020 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592118
13.
Int Orthop ; 44(8): 1489-1495, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401811

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Currently, COVID-19 has rapidly spread around the globe, there are already many nosocomial infections in medical staff. The purpose of this study is to provide some medical management experience from the orthopaedics department of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, to provide reference for orthopaedists. METHODS: This study is a summary of the orthopaedic medical management of Tongji Hospital. It systematically summarized the Chinese experience including orthopaedic outpatient and emergency department management, and orthopaedic surgery and preventive management during the pandemic. RESULTS: We described some challenges in the orthopaedic department during the epidemic and formulated a set of medical management procedures to find an balance between effective treatment and infection prevention. CONCLUSION: These experiences and strategies could help orthopedists to work safely and effectively, and prevent nosocomial infections during the global pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Orthopedic Procedures , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals , Humans , Orthopedics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
14.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 6(51): 1463-1475, 20200328.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-378454

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been developing rapidly since the outbreak of Wuhan in December 2019. It has spread to many regions in the world in the short term, which has attracted wide attention at home and abroad. With the active intervention of traditional medicine, the epidemic situation has been effectively controlled, especially for the treatment of severe and critical patients, which shows its unique advantages. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, ethnic medical practitioners have made suggestions on the understanding and prevention measures of COVID-19 based on the theory of ethnic medicine. We should optimize the individual internal environment of patients with individualized traditional medicine prescription, combine the environmental factors such as the soil and space for the emergence and spread of the disease, and contribute our own strength to fighting against the epidemic as soon as possible and ensure the life and health of the minority people. It was suggested to set up a project to excavate, sort out, research and develop the preparations of medical institutions for the prevention and treatment of “pestilence” by national medicine, and make sufficient preparations for the prevention and treatment of “pestilence” caused by various viruses that may occur frequently, so as to protect human health.

15.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; : 1-7, 2020 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342980

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic first broke out in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has now spread worldwide. Laboratory findings have been only partially described in some observational studies. To date, more comprehensive systematic reviews of laboratory findings on COVID-19 are missing. We performed a systematic review with a meta-analysis to assess laboratory findings in patients with COVID-19. Observational studies from three databases were selected. We calculated pooled proportions and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using the random-effects model meta-analysis. A total of 1106 articles were identified from PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI (China), and other sources. After screening, 28 and 7 studies were selected for a systematic review and a meta-analysis, respectively. Of the 4,663 patients included, the most prevalent laboratory finding was increased C-reactive protein (CRP; 73.6%, 95% CI 65.0-81.3%), followed by decreased albumin (62.9%, 95% CI 28.3-91.2%), increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (61.2%, 95% CI 41.3-81.0%), decreased eosinophils (58.4%, 95% CI 46.5-69.8%), increased interleukin-6 (53.1%, 95% CI 36.0-70.0%), lymphopenia (47.9%, 95% CI 41.6-54.9%), and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 46.2%, 95% CI 37.9-54.7%). A meta-analysis of seven studies with 1905 patients showed that increased CRP (OR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.1-4.4), lymphopenia (OR 4.5, 95% CI: 3.3-6.0), and increased LDH (OR 6.7, 95% CI: 2.4-18.9) were significantly associated with severity. These results demonstrated that more attention is warranted when interpreting laboratory findings in patients with COVID-19. Patients with elevated CRP levels, lymphopenia, or elevated LDH require proper management and, if necessary, transfer to the intensive care unit.

16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1509-1514, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324711

ABSTRACT

Viral pneumonia is caused by a spreading of lung infection caused by respiratory viruses. Some virus infections were found to be highly aggressive, leading to lung inflammation and severe damage in respiratory system with high fatality rate. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic drugs in the clinic. The common clinical symptoms of viral pneumonias include fever, rhinitis, runny nose, nonproductive cough, fatigue, myalgias and headaches after the immune system being tricked by driving cytokines and overactivated immune response induced by cytokine storms. Patients with severe symptoms could get persistent high fever, dysfunctional breathing, consciousness disorders and even respiratory failure, post-inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis, multi-organ damages, shock and so on. Most clinical treatments are used to inhibit virus replication, relieve symptoms, inhibit excessive inflammatory response, regulate immune balance and protect organs. Both applied and basic research demonstrate that Chinese patent medicine has certain anti-viral effects, effectively inhibiting viral pneumonia transiting from mild to severe, rapid relieving of patient symptoms because of their multi-component and multi-target integrated roles. This review has summarized the reports on the treatment of viral pneumonia. Based on the pathogenic characteristics of viral pneumonia, this paper summarizes the diverse roles of the marketed Chinese patent medicine, such as their effects in inhibiting the progress of viral replication and overactivated inflammatory response, regulating immune balance, attenuating pulmonary fibrosis and so forth. Our paper summarizes the advantages of Chinese patient medicine in the treatment of viral pneumonia, based on which improvements of clinical therapy are expected to be made soon.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral , Cough , Fever , Humans , Nonprescription Drugs
19.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20094854

ABSTRACT

Background To investigate the impact of goggles on their health and clinical practice during management of patients with COVID-19. Methods 231 nurse practitioners were enrolled who worked in isolation region in designated hospitals to admit patients with COVID-19 in China. Demographic data, goggle-associated symptoms and underlying reasons, incidence of medical errors or exposures, the effects of fog in goggles on practice were all collected. Data were stratified and analyzed by age or working experience. Risk factors of goggle-associated medical errors were analyzed by multivariable logistical regression analysis. Findings Goggle-associated symptoms and foggy goggles widely presented in nurses. The most common symptoms were headache, skin pressure injury and dizziness. Headache, vomit and nausea were significantly fewer reported in nurses with longer working experience while rash occurred higher in this group. The underlying reasons included tightness of goggles, unsuitable design and uncomfortable materials. The working status of nurses with more working experience was less impacted by goggles. 11.3% nurses occurred medical exposures in clinical practice while 19.5% nurses made medical errors on patients. The risk factors for medical errors were time interval before adapting to goggle-associated discomforts, adjusting goggles and headache. Interpretation Goggle-associated symptoms and fog can highly impact the working status and contribute to medical errors during management of COVID-19. Increased the experience with working in PPE through adequate training and psychological education may benefit for relieving some symptoms and improving working status. Improvement of goggle design during productive process was strongly suggested to reduce incidence of discomforts and medical errors.

20.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2020 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245352
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