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ACS Nano ; 16(11): 18936-18950, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087127


Ionizable cationic lipid-containing lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are the most clinically advanced non-viral gene delivery platforms, holding great potential for gene therapeutics. This is exemplified by the two COVID-19 vaccines employing mRNA-LNP technology from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. Herein, we develop a chemical library of ionizable cationic lipids through a one-step chemical-biological enzyme-catalyzed esterification method, and the synthesized ionizable lipids were further prepared to be LNPs for mRNA delivery. Through orthogonal design of experiment methodology screening, the top-performing AA3-DLin LNPs show outstanding mRNA delivery efficacy and long-term storage capability. Furthermore, the AA3-DLin LNP COVID-19 vaccines encapsulating SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNAs successfully induced strong immunogenicity in a BALB/c mouse model demonstrated by the antibody titers, virus challenge, and T cell immune response studies. The developed AA3-DLin LNPs are an excellent mRNA delivery platform, and this study provides an overall perspective of the ionizable cationic lipids, from aspects of lipid design, synthesis, screening, optimization, fabrication, characterization, and application.

COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Mice , Animals , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines , Lipids/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Liposomes , Cations , Catalysis
Adv Funct Mater ; 32(40): 2204462, 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955883


SARS-CoV-2 has led to a worldwide pandemic, catastrophically impacting public health and the global economy. Herein, a new class of lipid-modified polymer poly (ß-amino esters) (L-PBAEs) is developed via enzyme-catalyzed esterification and further formulation of the L-PBAEs with poly(d,l-lactide-coglycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) leads to self-assembly into a "particle-in-particle" (PNP) nanostructure for gene delivery. Out of 24 PNP candidates, the top-performing PNP/C12-PBAE nanoparticles efficiently deliver both DNA and mRNA in vitro and in vivo, presenting enhanced transfection efficacy, sustained gene release behavior, and excellent stability for at least 12 months of storage at -20 °C after lyophilization without loss of transfection efficacy. Encapsulated with spike encoded plasmid DNA and mRNA, the lipid-modified polymeric PNP COVID-19 vaccines successfully elicit spike-specific antibodies and Th1-biased T cell immune responses in immunized mice even after 12 months of lyophilized storage at -20 °C. This newly developed lipid-polymer hybrid PNP nanoparticle system demonstrates a new strategy for both plasmid DNA and mRNA delivery with the capability of long-term lyophilized storage.

Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(8): e2001812, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384089


Nucleic acid vaccines are a method of immunization aiming to elicit immune responses akin to live attenuated vaccines. In this method, DNA or messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences are delivered to the body to generate proteins, which mimic disease antigens to stimulate the immune response. Advantages of nucleic acid vaccines include stimulation of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity, ease of design, rapid adaptability to changing pathogen strains, and customizable multiantigen vaccines. To combat the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and many other diseases, nucleic acid vaccines appear to be a promising method. However, aid is needed in delivering the fragile DNA/mRNA payload. Many delivery strategies have been developed to elicit effective immune stimulation, yet no nucleic acid vaccine has been FDA-approved for human use. Nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the top candidates to mediate successful DNA/mRNA vaccine delivery due to their unique properties, including unlimited possibilities for formulations, protective capacity, simultaneous loading, and delivery potential of multiple DNA/mRNA vaccines. This review will summarize the many varieties of novel NP formulations for DNA and mRNA vaccine delivery as well as give the reader a brief synopsis of NP vaccine clinical trials. Finally, the future perspectives and challenges for NP-mediated nucleic acid vaccines will be explored.

COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , DNA , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2