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1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 262, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799550

ABSTRACT

Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms behind ADE of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for development of safe and effective therapies. Here, we report that two neutralizing mAbs, MW01 and MW05, could enhance the infection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus on FcγRIIB-expressing B cells. X-ray crystal structure determination and S trimer-binding modeling showed that MW01 and MW05 could bind to RBDs in S trimer with both "up" and "down" states. While, the neutralizing mAb MW07, which has no ADE activity only binds to RBD in S trimer with "up" state. Monovalent MW01 and MW05 completely diminished the ADE activity compared with their bivalent counterparts. Moreover, both macropinocytosis and endocytosis are confirmed involving in ADE of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral infection. Blocking endosome transportation and lysosome acidification could inhibit the ADE activity mediated by MW05. Together, our results identified a novel ADE mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in vitro, FcγRIIB-mediated uptake of SARS-CoV-2/mAb complex with bivalent interaction.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
J Orthop Translat ; 31: A1-A2, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768351
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265279, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745310

ABSTRACT

China is the world's largest importer of agricultural products. Stability of agricultural imports directly affects domestic food availability, and hence influences national food security. This study is important to gauge effects of uncertainty resulting from global and domestic economic policy changes on the stability component of food security in China. Though many studies have explored the determinants and consequences of Chinese agricultural trade, research focusing on stability of agricultural imports is lacking. To fill the gap, this study calculates duration length and survival probability of China's agri-food imports, and estimates effects of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on the stability. Results show that trade duration of the agri-food imports is 12.07 months in China. However, 51.69% of disrupted trade relationships would resume after 2 months and 92.68% of temporarily interrupted trade relationships return to the market after 12 months. Empirical estimations show that global EPU has a larger impact on the stability of agricultural imports than Chinese EPU. Although Chinese EPU has heterogeneous effects on imports of different agri-food products in China, global EPU does not. Stabilized domestic food price and improved domestic agricultural productivity would improve stability of the imports significantly. The study concludes that China's agricultural imports are less dynamic than previous studies claimed. However, EPU significantly erodes the trade stability. To offset negative effects of EPU on the stability, government should pay more attention on stabilizing domestic food price volatility and increasing food productivity, and therefore improve food security in China.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Economic Development , China , Uncertainty
4.
Tour Manag ; 91: 104525, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740220

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought sweeping changes to global tourism alongside large-scale travel restrictions, posing complex challenges to entrepreneurs and firms seeking to find their footing in a turbulent climate. This study presents a theoretical framework linking uncertainty, capital, and innovation to analyse how bed-and-breakfast small and medium-sized enterprises have innovatively responded to unprecedented obstacles during COVID-19 recovery. Three-stage longitudinal interviews were conducted with more than 30 entrepreneurs between April and November 2020 to unpack their ongoing responses to the pandemic. The recovery process was found to be non-linear due to the shifting nature of sources of uncertainty and changes in entrepreneurs' capital. These alterations shaped interviewees' responses, especially in terms of product and marketing innovations, which ultimately generated new uncertainty.

5.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(7): 2253-2260, 2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Plexiform fibromyxoma (PF) is a rare mesenchymal tumor, with limited case reports worldwide. Common clinical symptoms are abdominal discomfort and bleeding signs, which frequently present slow-onset in reported cases. Herein, we report a case of gastric PF presenting as acute onset and with pyemia accom-panying tumor rupture. We resected the tumor as well as the distal gastric, bulbus duodeni and gallbladder for treatment in emergency surgery. Notably, before the onset of the disease, the patient received coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. CASE SUMMARY: A 26-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, due to abdominal pain and fever after having received COVID-19 vaccines. Laboratory examination indicated severe sepsis. Computed tomography scan revealed a large mass in the abdomen. Deformation of the gastrointestinal tract was seen during gastroscopy. After failure of anti-infective treatment and symptoms of shock developed, he received an emergency surgery. We found a huge and partly ruptured mass, with thick purulence. Microscopically, the mass was composed of spindle cells with clarified cytoplasm, accompanied by myxoid stroma and arborizing blood vessels. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumor cells as positive for smooth muscle actin and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B but negative for DOG-1 and CD117. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with gastric PF and discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Gastric PF manifesting as tumor rupture combined with pyemia is rare. Timely surgery is critical for optimal prognosis.

6.
Journal of Zhejiang University ; 48(3):356-367, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1726094

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) epidemic has seriously endangered people's health and hindered rapid economic development. Geographic analysis of spatial and temporal transmission patterns in key regions can help prevent and control the epidemic. This paper takes Zhejiang province as the research area. With the help of POI data, the methods such as textual analysis, mathematical statistics, and spatial regression analysis are used to analyze the socio-demographic characteristics of confirmed cases and the spatio-temporal evolution of the epidemic, and then analyze its influencing factors. The results show that: (1) The age distribution of confirmed cases spanned a wide range, showing normal distribution of "large in the middle and small at both ends." (2) The epidemic period is divided into five stages: the initial period, the outbreak period, the steady decline period, the internal stable period, and the oversea input period. The interval between the onset time and announcing a confirmed case was mostly 0-6 d, and the time interval of non-local cases is longer than that of local cases, and the onset of most of the non-local cases occur on the day the patients leave their original place. There was no significant gender difference in the proportion of daily incidence, and the proportion of age had stage features. (3) The spatial distribution aligned in the direction of "Southeast-Northwest", the evolution trend developed from "single place distribution" to "multi-area cluster cases" and then to "key input" evolution, with "high-high" "high-low" clustering characteristics;The migration path of confirmed cases presented an obvious core-edge structure, and the first significant flow was from the center of Wuhan. (4) By analyzing the factors affecting the distribution of the epidemic,it is found that the ratio of the elderly population, per capita GDP, the proportion of the tertiary industry, the number of industries above the scale, and the distance from Wuhan were the dominant factors. Finally, several suggestions on targeted prevention and control measures are made, and the weaknesses of the study and future directions of efforts are pointed out.

7.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 16, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692632

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) continue to wreak havoc across the globe. Higher transmissibility and immunologic resistance of VOCs bring unprecedented challenges to epidemic extinguishment. Here we describe a monoclonal antibody, 2G1, that neutralizes all current VOCs and has surprising tolerance to mutations adjacent to or within its interaction epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy structure showed that 2G1 bound to the tip of receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein with small contact interface but strong hydrophobic effect, which resulted in nanomolar to sub-nanomolar affinities to spike proteins. The epitope of 2G1 on RBD partially overlaps with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interface, which enables 2G1 to block interaction between RBD and ACE2. The narrow binding epitope but high affinity bestow outstanding therapeutic efficacy upon 2G1 that neutralized VOCs with sub-nanomolar half maximal inhibitory concentration in vitro. In SARS-CoV-2, Beta or Delta variant-challenged transgenic mice and rhesus macaque models, 2G1 protected animals from clinical illness and eliminated viral burden, without serious impact to animal safety. Mutagenesis experiments suggest that 2G1 is potentially capable of dealing with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants in the future. This report characterized the therapeutic antibodies specific to the tip of spike against SARS-CoV-2 variants and highlights the potential clinical applications as well as for developing vaccine and cocktail therapy.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324205

ABSTRACT

Background: Chemokine levels in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been shown to be markedly elevated. But the role of chemokines in mild COVID-19 has not yet been established. According to the epidemiological statistics, most of the COVID-19 cases in Shiyan City, China, have been mild. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of chemokines in mild COVID-19 patients and explore the correlation between chemokines and host immune response. Methods: : In this study, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum levels of chemokines in COVID-19 patients in Shiyan City. Expression of chemokine receptors and of other signaling molecules was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: : We first demonstrated that COVID-19 patients, both sever and mild cases, are characterized by higher level of chemokines. Specifically, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) is expressed at higher levels both in severe and mild cases of COVID-19. The receptor of MCP-1, C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), was expressed at higher levels in mild COVID-19 patients. Finally, we observed a significant negative correlation between expression levels of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and serum levels of MCP-1 in mild COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: Higher expression of MCP-1 in mild COVID-19 patients might be correlated with inhibition of IFN signaling. The finding adds to our understanding of the immunopathological mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and provides potential therapeutic targets and strategies.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323805

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible. Early and rapid testing is necessary to effectively prevent and control the outbreak. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with lateral flow immunoassay can achieve this goal. Antibody detection is especially effective for the detection of asymptomatic infection. Methods: In this study, SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein was expressed by E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. We used the highly stable and sensitive selenium nanoparticle as the labeling probe coupled with the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein to prepare a new SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgM and IgG) detection kit. The sensitivity and specificity of the kit were verified by plasma of COVID-19 patients and health persons. Separate detection of IgM and IgG, such as in this assay, was performed in order to reduce mutual interference and improve the accuracy of the test results. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein was purified on a nickel column, and the final purity was greater than 90%. The sensitivity of the kit was 94.74% and the specificity was 95.12% by 41 negative plasma samples and 19 positive plasma samples detection. Conclusions: The assay kit does not require any special device for reading the results and the readout is a simple color change that can be evaluated with the naked eye. This kit is suitable for rapid and real-time detection of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323626

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic.In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk factors of death from severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Method: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with severe and critical COVID-19 from four hospitals in Wuhan, China, describing the clinical characteristics and laboratory results, and using Cox regression to study the risk factors was conducted. Results: Four hundred and forty-six patients with COVID-19 showed a high case fatality rate(CFR)(20.2%). All patients required oxygen therapy, and 52(12%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation,of which 50(96%) patients died.The univariate Cox proportional hazard model showed a white blood cell count of more than 10 × 10⁹/L(HR3.903,95%CI 2.413 to 6.313),patients’ risk of death significantly increased.The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that older age (HR 1.074, 95% CI 1.050 to 1.098) was an independent risk factor and high white blood cell count(HR 1.119, 95% CI 1.056 to 1.186)was a predictive factor for COVID-19 on admission. Conclusions: COVID-19 is a new disease entity that carries significant risk of morbidity and CFR.Older age was an independent risk factor and high white blood cell was a predictive factor for COVID-19.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323592

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic spread rapidly due to the mass migration during the Spring Festival in China, bringing a significant public health challenge. This study aims to explore the pattern of COVID-19 diffusion related to the Spring festival and provide some suggestions on controlling the epidemic. Methods: : We included 10316 cases from provincial or city Health Commission websites outside Hubei in China from December 30, 2019 to February 27, 2020. Data on the gender, age, occupation, inflow and outflow places were extracted from confirmed cases' detailed records. Results: : The number of confirmed cases who worked in commercial service was the largest, accounting for nearly 55%, followed by sales service (22%) and transport service (13.6%). "Wuhan", "close contact", "quarantine" (15.31) and "fever" (13.43) were the highest-linked centers within the text analysis. Most of the infected are relatives of confirmed cases and people mainly choose the self-driving transportation mode to go to hospitals. The clinical symptoms' expression varies among different age groups. Over time, infected areas and generations have experienced transitions from the nonlocal first to the local third group, and from more males infected to females. The source of the epidemic spreads to the south, then to the north, and finally evolves to the southeast, and the spread direction is from south to north afterward to west, over time. Wuhan and Shenzhen had the biggest influence on the flow as essential points of the flow network. The principal path often originated in Hubei or provincial capital cities and flowed to those cities which are densely populated and economically developed. “Returning home to visit relatives”, “migrant workers returning home” and “returning home after traveling” are the chief migration reasons. Compared with the long-term flows, short-term paths are of shorter distance. About half of confirmed cases migrated with their families. Finally, the flows are always opposite to the gradient mobility pattern of China's labor. Conclusion: Based on the background of the reunion tradition in the Spring Festival, the diffusion of COVID-19 outside Hubei in China presented a pattern tied to person migration to return home. At the macroscopic scale, the pattern shows a linear relocation diffusion from vertical to horizontal. On the microscopic scale, radiation contact diffusion with transit from the nonlocal first to the local third group and male-dominated cases in the early stage to mostly female cases in the later stage were the apparent trend.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315887

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic since December 2019, while the date on the relationship between cardiac injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19 is limited. Methods: : All consecutive lab-confirmed critically ill COVID-19 patients in intensive care unit of Wuhan Red Cross Hospital from December 30, 2019 to March 18, 2020, were enrolled. Data of patients were collected. The prevalence of cardiac injury and its association with in-hospital mortality was analyzed. Results: : Among the 50 ICU patients, 36 patients (72.0%) were complicated with cardiac injury and 14 patients (28.0%) without cardiac injury. Patients with cardiac injury had higher white blood cell counts, values of d-dimer, levels of lactate concentration, APACHE II score and lower PaO 2 /FiO 2 at the time of admission than those without cardiac injury. The in-hospital case fatality ratio was higher in the cardiac injury than non-cardiac injury group (75.0% vs 21.4%;p=0.002).Multivariable-adjusted logistic proportional hazard regression analysis showed that a significantly higher risk of death in patients with cardiac injury than those without cardiac injury (OR, 5.876;95% CI, 1.039–33.228). Conclusions: : Cardiac injury is a common compilation and associated with higher risk of in-hospital death in patients with severe COVID-19.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315786

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Since December 2019, a outbreak of Corona Virus Disease-2019(COVID-19) started in Wuhan, China. Now we comprehended much more about the troublesome disease from studies than the beginning. But more details between admission laboratory test and prognosis of COVID-19 were still confusing. So we focused on the admission biochemical test, and tried to verify their influence to the prognosis of COVID-19. Method: 522 patients from 4 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We collected demographic information, comorbidities and laboratory biochemical indicators, then compared them between survivors’ and nonsurvivors’ group. Logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Linear regression and receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC-curve) was applied to assess the efficiency of risk factors and regression model. Results: Age of nonsurvivors’ group(68.9) was older than survivors group(50.0). Diabetes(68.7%) was the most common comorbidity in the nonsurvivors’ group. In univariate regression analysis, most biochemical tests were related to the mortality except lipid metabolic results. Age, fasting blood glucose and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) were with a p-value less than 0.001 in multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Age, BUN and fasting blood glucose were risk factors associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 related pneumonia.Authors Qi Long, Chen-liang Zhou, Ye-ming Wang, Bin Song, Xiao-bin Cheng, Qiu-fen Dong, and Liu-lin Wang contributed equally to this work.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310882

ABSTRACT

Within one month after the first case occurred in Hainan Province, the number of confirmed cases increased to 168, and there was no increase in nearly three months. As the southernmost province and a famous tourist destination, its frequent economic exchanges and high-intensity movements may affect the spread of epidemic. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to examine the spatiotemporal evolution and diffusion pattern of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hainan Province.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325367

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a serious threat to global public health, including a wide range of metal health problems. Current research focuses mainly on mental health status and related factors among Chinese university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: : Data from 11133 participants was obtained through an online survey of university students in mainland China. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), respectively. Results: : In total, 37.0% of the subjects were experiencing depressive symptoms, 24.9% anxiety symptoms, 20.9% comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, and 7.3% suicidal ideation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed an increased presence of mental health problems in female students, graduate students, and those with personal COVID-19 exposure. Living with family and awareness of COVID-19 were protective factors against depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition, male, depressive and anxiety symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. Living with family, graduate students, prevention and control measures and projections of COVID-19 trends were protective factors against suicidal ideation. Conclusions: : The findings underlined that the mental health of university students should be monitored, and provided important information for healthcare planning during the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324594

ABSTRACT

Background: and objectives: The dynamic change of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been proved to be related to the worse outcomes in various diseases such as pulmonary embolism, acute pancreatitis and acute nonvariceal upper GI bleeding. In the present study, we aimed to identify the association between blood urea nitrogen (BUN) change and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: : This is a retrospective study conducted in the Huoshenshan hospital. Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Feb 5th to March 5th in 2020 who had BUN level tested on admission and on the second day consecutively were included. Patients were stratified into two groups according to the BUN change (increase vs. no increase) during the first 24 hours. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Moreover, other clinical outcomes were also compared. The potential risk factors of in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Results: : There were 266 patients included in the study. The mean change in BUN at 24 hours was 1.0 mg/dL, with 206 patients (77.4%) experiencing no increase in BUN and 60 patients (22.6%) experiencing an increase in BUN. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the BUN increase group compared to no increase group (30.0% vs. 5.8%, P<0.001). BUN increase group also had higher requirement for ICU admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation and incidence of AKI (all P<0.001). After adjusted for related factors, the BUN increase was independently associated with the mortality with an odds ratio of 7.427[95% CI 2.370-23.279]. In the multivariable and survival analysis, BUN increase was also found to be associated with survival regardless of the admission BUN. Conclusions: : In patients with COVID-19, BUN increase at 24 hours was an independent predictor for a composite clinical outcome and in-hospital mortality. The association of BUN increase with worse outcomes further emphasizes the importance of monitoring BUN change and kidney function in the course of COVID-19.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324541

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that began in Wuhan and rapidly spread globally. The speed and scope of spread of COVID-19 makes urgent of the defining clinical characteristics, serological and radiological changes of the affected patients. Method 7 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who admitted to the Third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen university Yuedong hospital from January 2020 to March 2020 were retrospectively enrolled and their clinical features, serological and radiological longitudinal changes were analyzed. Results Among the 7 patients, all (100%) had a clear epidemiological history. The most common symptoms were respiratory symptoms 6 (85.7%), and only 2 (28.6%) of the patients had fever at their first visit. The cohort included 4 (57.1%) common types and 3 (42.9%) severe types. Two (28.6%) common types patients developed to severe type in a short time. All of the 7 patients (100%) had abnormal liver function, normal renal function and normal procalcitonin. The detection time of specific antibody in 7 patients was 5~13d after symptoms. Before the specific antibody could be detected, the absolute value of lymphocytes decreased in 2 (28.6%) common type cases transferred to severe type cases accompanied with obvious progress in pulmonary imaging, and the phenomenon of decreased albumin and elevated globulin occurred in 6 patients (85.7%). The predominant pattern of lung lesions observed was bilateral (71.4%) and mainly near the pleura at the first diagnosis. Bilateral pulmonary involvement occurred in 6 cases (85.7%) during the course of disease. In 4 cases (57.1%) with obvious pulmonary lesions, the absolute value of lymphocytes decreased, albumin decreased and globulin increased during the course of the disease. Conclusion Serum specific antibodies can be detected within 2 weeks of onset. Close observation of the dynamic changes of absolute value of blood lymphocytes, serum albumin and globulin which were related to pulmonary imaging changes in patients will contribute to assessment of COVID-19.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324540

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that began in Wuhan and rapidly spread globally. The speed and scope of spread of COVID-19 makes urgent of the defining clinical characteristics, serological and radiological changes of the affected patients. Method: 7 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who admitted to the Third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen university Yuedong hospital from January 2020 to March 2020 were retrospectively enrolled and their clinical features, serological and radiological longitudinal changes were analyzed . Results: Among the 7 patients, all (100%) had a clear epidemiological history. The most common symptoms were respiratory symptoms 6 (85.7%), and only 2 (28.6%) of the patients had fever at their first visit. The cohort included 4 (57.1%) common types and 3 (42.9%) severe types. Two (28.6%) common types patients developed to severe type in a short time. All of the 7 patients (100%) had abnormal liver function, normal renal function and normal procalcitonin. The detection time of specific antibody in 7 patients was 5~13d after symptoms. Before the specific antibody could be detected, the absolute value of lymphocytes decreased in 2 (28.6%) common type cases transferred to severe type cases accompanied with obvious progress in pulmonary imaging, and the phenomenon of decreased albumin and elevated globulin occurred in 6 patients (85.7%). The predominant pattern of lung lesions observed was bilateral (71.4%) and mainly near the pleura at the first diagnosis. Bilateral pulmonary involvement occurred in 6 cases (85.7%) during the course of disease. In 4 cases (57.1%) with obvious pulmonary lesions, the absolute value of lymphocytes decreased, albumin decreased and globulin increased during the course of the disease. Conclusion: Serum specific antibodies can be detected within 2 weeks of onset. Close observation of the dynamic changes of absolute value of blood lymphocytes, serum albumin and globulin which were related to pulmonary imaging changes in patients will contribute to assessment of COVID-19.

19.
Ann Tour Res ; 92: 103346, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588330

ABSTRACT

This study analyses how Covid-19 shapes individuals' international tourism intentions in context of bounded rationality. It provides a novel analysis of risk which is disaggregated into tolerance/aversion of and competence to manage risks across three different aspects: general, domain (tourism) and situational (Covid-19). The impacts of risk are also differentiated from uncertainty and ambiguity. The empirical study is based on large samples (total = 8962) collected from the world's top five tourism source markets: China, USA, Germany, UK and France. Various risk factors show significant predictive powers of individual's intentions to defer international tourism plans amid Covid-19. Uncertainty and ambiguity intolerance is shown to lead to intentions to take holidays relatively sooner rather than delaying the holiday plans.

20.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1581-1591, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549267

ABSTRACT

Within 1 month after the first case occurred in Hainan Province, China, the number of confirmed cases rose to 168, and there was no increase in almost 3 months. As the southernmost province and a famous tourist destination in China, its regular economic exchanges and high-intensity population movements may affect the spread of the epidemic. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution, the pattern of diffusion, and factors influencing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Hainan Province. Basic and geographic information of confirmed COVID-19 cases was obtained from government websites and other official media. We examined the groups of infection and calculated the diffusion ratio to demonstrate the trend of the epidemic. Map drawing, spatial analysis, and partial least squares regression were used to express the spatiotemporal evolution, the pattern of diffusion, and factors affecting the epidemic. Furthermore, we have made recommendations on the formulation and adaptation of possible future preventive steps. Results show that the COVID-19 epidemic in Hainan Province has substantial spatial heterogeneity but minimal distribution. The tourist city and central city have formed a dual-core pattern for the spread of the epidemic, which could extend to other similar regions. Population density, mobility, and level of urban development have been the major factors of epidemic distribution in the study area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
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