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1.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6640-6648, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on sociodemographic disparities in Covid-19 vaccination uptake in the general population are still limited and mostly focused on older adults. This study examined sociodemographic differences in Covid-19 vaccination uptake in the total Swedish population aged 18-64 years. METHODS: National Swedish register data within the SCIFI-PEARL project were used to cross-sectionally investigate sociodemographic differences in Covid-19 vaccination among Swedish adults aged 18-64 years (n = 5,987,189) by 12 October 2021. Using logistic regression models, analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, region of residence, history of Covid-19, and comorbidities. An intersectional analysis approach including several cross-classified subgroups was used to further address the complexity of sociodemographic disparities in vaccination uptake. FINDINGS: By 12 October 2021, 76·0% of the Swedish population 18-64 years old had received at least two doses of Covid-19 vaccine, an additional 5·5% had received only one dose, and 18·5% were non-vaccinated. Non-vaccinated individuals were, compared to vaccinated, more often younger, male, had a lower income, were not gainfully employed, and/or were born outside Sweden. The social patterning for vaccine dose two was similar, but weaker, than for dose one. After multivariable adjustments, findings remained but were attenuated indicating the need to consider different sociodemographic factors simultaneously. The intersectional analysis showed a large variation in vaccine uptake ranging from 32% to 96% in cross-classified subgroups, reflecting considerable sociodemographic heterogeneity in vaccination coverage. INTERPRETATION: Our study, addressing the entire Swedish population aged 18-64 years, showed broad sociodemographic disparities in Covid-19 vaccine uptake but also wide heterogeneities in coverage. The intersectional analysis approach indicates that focusing on specific sociodemographic factors in isolation and group average risks without considering the heterogeneity within such groups will risk missing the full variability of vaccine coverage. FUNDING: SciLifeLab / Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Swedish government ALF agreement, FORMAS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
2.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology ; JOUR:S547, 45(Supplement 4).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2085351

ABSTRACT

Learning Objectives: Review the regulatory landscape of 3D-printed devices and their medical applications in Interventional Radiology (IR). Background(s): The applications of 3D printing extend beyond rapid prototyping, and have the potential to impact hospital systems. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 3D-printing was utilized in point-of-care health centers to make face shields, ventilator components, face mask holders, and nasopharyngeal swabs. And in surgical fields, 3D-printing is utilized in pre-operative planning as well as for the creation of patient-customized implants. In IR, there are exciting applications of 3D-printing of custom grafts, stents, and bioprinted organs. In order to assure the safety and effectiveness of these devices, the FDA is required to formulate guidance on the use of 3D-printed products. Clinical Findings/Procedure Details: Healthcare facilities (HCFs) have traditionally received their medical devices through sales channels from manufacturers. With 3D-printed production systems for medical device use, there are challenges that must be addressed including: safety and efficacy of the 3D-printed device;assurance of specifications with internal controls;level of knowledge and training of staff involved in production systems;and, production-system specific indications for use. We review existing and emerging 3D printing applications in IR. Conclusion and/or Teaching Points: 3D-printed medical devices offer great value in customizing patient care as well as addressing problems of resource availability during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional regulatory guidance and further discussion for safe and efficacious use of these transformative technologies will allow for their integration into clinical practice.

4.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; JOUR:493-494, 31.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083841
5.
Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies ; 6(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079057

ABSTRACT

When in front of a classroom, a skilled teacher can read the room, identifying when students are engaged, frustrated, distracted, etc. In recent years we have seen significant changes in the traditional classroom, with virtual classes becoming a normal learning environment. Reasons for this change are the increased popularity of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and the disruptions imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is difficult for teachers to read the room in these virtual classrooms, and researchers have begun to look at using sensors to provide feedback to help inform teaching practices. The study presented here sought to ground classroom sensor data in the form of electrodermal activities (EDA) captured using a wrist-worn sensing platform (Empatica E4), with observations about students' emotional engagement in the class. We collected a dataset from eleven students over eight lectures in college-level computer science classes. We trained human annotators who provided ground truth information about student engagement based on in-class observations. Inspired by related work in the field, we implemented an automated data analysis framework, which we used to explore momentary assessments of student engagement in classrooms. Our findings surprised us because we found no significant correlation between the sensor data and our trained observers' data. In this paper, we present our study and framework for automated engagement assessment, and report on our findings that indicate some of the challenges in deploying current technology for real-world, automated momentary assessment of student engagement in the classroom. We offer reflections on our findings and discuss ways forward toward an automated reading the room approach. © 2022 Owner/Author.

6.
23rd International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, ICEPT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078212

ABSTRACT

Along with the COVID-19 pandemic and the large-scale application of 5G, IoT has become more critical for our daily lives. GaAs is a promising semiconductor for field effect transistors in IoT applications. Due to the high electron mobility of GaAs, n-type FinFET based on GaAs is expected with a higher conductance and electron velocity than Silicon. FinFET based on GaAs has a lower subthreshold swing (SS) and higher Ion/Ioff than FinFET based on Silicon, particularly at high temperatures.Negative Capacitance FinFET(NC-FinFET) is an important emerging technology for low-power applications. To further enhance the performance of the GaAs FinFET, we incorporate Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films in the gate to achieve Negative Capacitance (NC). The NC effect brings a higher Ion/Ioff and a negative coefficient to reduce the SS of the FinFET. Our simulation research proves the GaAs-NC-FinFET has the slightest SS variation in 300K-400K and maximum Ion/Ioff compared with other FinFETs. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2077311

ABSTRACT

Reading resources are essential for teaching and learning. Today’s students and instructors are used to the Learning Management System (LMS) for teaching and learning. Within the general LMS trend, a variety of electronic course reserves tools have emerged. One particular tool is Leganto which has been increasingly widely deployed, particularly in the wake of COVID-19. This article adopts the Educause reporting model of teaching and learning technologies best practices of “7 things You Should Know About.” The article also presents the authors’ institutional case of adoption, implementation, and data analytics results at Purdue University. © 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

8.
Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology ; 129(5):S53-S53, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2075893
9.
COVID-19 in the Environment: Impact, Concerns, and Management of Coronavirus ; : 325-344, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075808

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the transport of air pollutants around the Yangtze River Delta with an aim to identify if there would be a relationship towards health effects during the COVID-19 lockdown period. It is well-known that due to lockdown, the number of socio-economical activities are reduced and hence there is an observable reduction in air pollution. We would like to investigate if this consequential reduction of air pollution would lead to improvement in health amongst its population. A number of integrated methodologies are utilized, including collection and correlation of statistical data and numerical modeling to correlate the mortality rates difference with and without COVID-19 lockdown. In particular air quality changes during the COVID-19 lockdown period are compared with similar periods of the previous years using Brute Force Method. It is found that in general there is significant reduction in air-pollution related mortality, like stroke, ischemic cardio diseases, obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and acute lower respiratory infection are all reduced as a result of relative improvement in PM2.5 level during the lockdown period. Further investigation of the trajectories suggests that these PM2.5 originate from afar with multiple sources, and do not suggest COVID-19 are transported to the region via long-range transport. Our results demonstrate the need for more stringent policy measure to tackle air pollution as it has strong evidence that it increases mortality rate. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

10.
Hematology, transfusion and cell therapy ; 44:S683-S684, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2072791

ABSTRACT

Introduction During SARS-CoV-2 infection, a severe hypercoagulability state is observed due to the stimulus of multiple mechanisms of hemostasis, such as coagulation, activation of platelets, endothelial cells, monocytes and neutrophils and impaired fibrinolysis. As a consequence, thrombotic complications are common in the course of COVID-19. Microvesicles (MVs) are intracellular transmitters that participate in pathological conditions, such as inflammatory and infectious processes, and are capable of triggering prothrombotic mechanisms. Since MVs release is potentially associated with COVID-19-induced coagulopathy, our aim was to identify during the course of the disease when the stimulus for MVs release occurs and whether this was associated with adverse outcomes. Objective We evaluated changes in the levels of MVs markers during the first month of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients (pts) with severe disease (hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit ‒ ICU) as compared to outpatients. We also evaluated the association between MVs markers with: inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, CRP), hypercoagulability (D-dimer) and death. Methods Blood samples were collected on three occasions: before the 10th day of symptoms, in the 3rd week of symptoms and in the 4th week of symptoms for the quantification of the following MVs markers by flow cytometry: CD41A (platelet activation), CD162 (PSGL-1;leukocyte-platelet interaction), CD31 (endothelium-platelet interaction) and CD142 (tissue factor). Statistical tests of ANOVA with repeated measures, Mann-Whitney and regression methods were used. Results The population studied was 85 pts, being 25 from ICU. Mostly were men (51%), with a median age of 41 years. The concentration of MVs expressing CD31+, CD41+, CD162+ and CD142+ were persistently elevated in pts who required ICU compared to outpatients at the 3 moments studied, except for the levels of MVs-CD31+ and MVs-CD142+ that were similar between ICU and outpatients in the 4th week of symptoms. However, despite the differences between the groups, there were no significant changes in the levels of MVs during the course of the disease within the groups. In subgroup analysis, we observed that increases in the levels of MVs-CD162+ and MVs-CD142+ in the 3rd week of symptoms were associated with the risk of death (p=0.02 and p=0.06, respectively). We also observed that during the course of the disease an association between MVs, coagulability and inflammation was evident. In the 3rd week of symptoms, D-dimer levels were correlated with MV-CD31+ (r=0.52, p<0.0001), MV-CD162+ (r=0.35, p=0.001), MV-CD41A+ (r=0.44, p<0.0001) and MV-CD142+ (r=0.47, p<0.0001) and CRP values were correlated with MV-CD31+ (r=0.56, p=<0.0001), MV-CD162+ (r=0.48, p<0.0001), MV-CD41A+ (r= 0.41, p=0.0001), and MV-CD142+ (r=0.56, p<0.0001). By the 4th week of symptoms, both D-dimers and CRP correlations with the above MVs remained unchanged. Conclusion To conclude, MVs that express antigens related to platelet activation, leukocyte-platelet interaction and endothelium-platelet interaction, as well as those related to tissue factor are released during the course of COVID-19 in pts with severe disease. After the 4th week of symptoms, the release of these MVs was associated with signs of inflammation and hypercoagulability. Additionally, MVs that express tissue factor and leukocyte-platelet interaction antigens were particularly high among non-survivors, suggesting that these MVs may serve as markers of the risk of death. Finally, these findings suggest the participation of innate immunity and tissue factor pathways in the prognosis of COVID-19, and point towards a possible role of MVs as biomarkers of disease prognosis.

11.
Talanta ; 252, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069714

ABSTRACT

Since the last century, animal viruses have posed great threats to the health of humans and the farming industry. Therefore, virus control is of great urgency, and regular, timely, and accurate detection is essential to it. Here, we designed a rapid on-site visual data-sharing detection method for the Newcastle disease virus with smartphone recognition-based immune microparticles. The detection method we developed includes three major modules: preparation of virus detection vectors, sample detection, and smartphone image analysis with data upload. First, the hydrogel microparticles containing active carboxyl were manufactured, which coated nucleocapsid protein of NDV. Then, HRP enzyme-labeled anti-NP nanobody was used to compete with the NDV antibody in the serum for color reaction. Then the rough detection results were visible to the human eyes according to the different shades of color of the hydrogel microparticles. Next, the smartphone application was used to analyze the image to determine the accurate detection results according to the gray value of the hydrogel microparticles. Meanwhile, the result was automatically uploaded to the homemade cloud system. The total detection time was less than 50 min, even without trained personnel, which is shorter than conventional detection methods. According to experimental results, this detection method has high sensitivity and accuracy. And especially, it uploads the detection information via a cloud platform to realize data sharing, which plays an early warning function. We anticipate that this rapid on-site visual data-sharing detection method can promote the development of virus selfchecking at home.

12.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 14(9):6375-6381, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058689

ABSTRACT

From the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020, COVID-19 infection in the pediatric population has aroused great attention. This article presents dynamic epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 infection in pediatric patients from January 2020 to March 2022 in China. These data contributed essential insights and shared experience on the management of COVID-19 in children. To date, the unvaccinated population and events with children need more attention. Copyright © 2022 E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

13.
Journal of Medical Pest Control ; 38(1):60-62, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056258

ABSTRACT

In order to prevent the spread of Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) epidemic in the military barracks and reduce the psychological stress reaction of officers and soldiers during the epidemic situation, this paper synthesizes relevant studies at home and abroad,from the analysis on behavioral factors affecting the transmission of 2019-nCoV by combining psychological crisis intervention methods, raises the plans and measures for psychological intervention and health promotion for officers and soldiers, and explores how to conduct psychological intervention and health promotion on the troops during the COVID-19 epidemic. © 2022, Editorial Department of Medical Pest Control. All rights reserved.

14.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(10): 922-928, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Despite growing concern regarding the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta variant of concern (VOC), the respiratory and physical functions of patients with delta VOC post-discharge have not been investigated compared to those of patients with ancestral SARS-CoV-2.METHODS Sixty-three discharged patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were included. Patients were divided into delta VOC and ancestral SARS-CoV-2 groups. On Day 14 post-discharge, differences in chest computed tomography, modified Medical Research Council and Borg Dyspnoea Scale scores, and Manual Muscle Test scores were compared. Prognoses of respiratory and physical function were compared between patients who recovered from moderate and severe COVID-19.RESULTS Of the 63 patients, respectively 28 and 35 were in the delta VOC and ancestral SARS-CoV-2 groups. On Day 14 post-discharge, 35 patients (56.5%) had abnormalities on imaging. Visual semi-quantitative scores of both lungs were significantly higher in the severe group. However, there was no difference in this or any other score ratings between the groups.CONCLUSION At 14 days post-discharge, ground glass opacities and pleural thickening were the most common residual findings; no difference in respiratory and physical functions during the convalescence period were noted in patients with SARS-CoV-2 delta VOC and ancestral SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aftercare , Humans , Patient Discharge
15.
Political, Economic And Social Dimensions Of Labour Markets: A Global Insight ; : 277-299, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053305

ABSTRACT

This chapter examines the impact of some economic and financial variables on the employment change covering the period of Covid-19 in China. We apply the annual data of China during the period of 1989-2019 by building a long-term model and find that industrial upgrading and economically active population cause economic development, along with the increase of unemployment population. The results show a reverse change in variables of GDP and registered unemployed persons in urban areas. We then apply the quarterly data of 2019-2020 by constructing a short-term model and find that GDP and unemployment conditions still show a reverse change. Because of the lag effect, the increase in national financial expenditure is not associated with a slowdown in the employment market;a rise in GDP or business prosperity is consistent with a fall in unemployment. The Vector Autoregression Model thus provides an empirical prediction of recovery in labour markets of China. © 2022 World Scientific Publishing Company.

16.
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052082

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to have a negative impact on healthcare systems around the world, though the vaccines have been developed and national vaccination coverage rate is steadily increasing. At the current stage, automatically segmenting the lung infection area from CT images is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Thanks to the development of deep learning technology, some deep learning solutions for lung infection segmentation have been proposed. However, due to the scattered distribution, complex background interference and blurred boundaries, the accuracy and completeness of the existing models are still unsatisfactory. To this end, we propose a boundary guided semantic learning network (BSNet) in this paper. On the one hand, the dual-branch semantic enhancement module that combines the top-level semantic preservation and progressive semantic integration is designed to model the complementary relationship between different high-level features, thereby promoting the generation of more complete segmentation results. On the other hand, the mirror-symmetric boundary guidance module is proposed to accurately detect the boundaries of the lesion regions in a mirror-symmetric way. Experiments on the publicly available dataset demonstrate that our BSNet outperforms the existing state-of-the-art competitors and achieves a real-time inference speed of 44 FPS. The code and results of our BSNet can be found from the link of https://github.com/rmcong/BSNet. IEEE

17.
19th IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA 2022 ; : 1830-1835, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052007

ABSTRACT

Recent years, due to the outbreak of the COVID-19, non-contact rehabilitation medical methods gain traction. The master-slave rehabilitation robot system which meet the good isolation effect has become the equipment that rehabilitation hospitals crave. During treatment, long-term ipsilateral rehabilitation guidance will easily cause muscle fatigue in the physiothesrapist's guiding arm, while part of heterolateral control (like foot-hand control) may reduces the rehabilitation effect. In order to balance that, in this paper, a novel master-slave heterolateral elbow joint robot rehabilitation system is proposed. Physiotherapist control the patient's heterolateral elbow joint robotic arm through the MYO armband, enabling the physiotherapist to observe the patient's movements more intuitively while maintaining a safe distance from the patient face to face. The sEMG signal of the physiotherapist's upper arm are transmitted to the system through the surface electromyography (sEMG) sensor in the MYO armband, so that it can realize the motion reconstruction of the driven end, thereby helping patients with heterolateral motion rehabilitation. To confirm the effectiveness of the system, the master-end elbow joint motion angle estimated by the sEMG signal are compared with the actually grasped hetero-slave-end motion angle obtained from the IMU by us. At the moment, the control accuracy of the mechanical system and the recognition accuracy of the prediction period are analyzed by us. The experiment proves the feasibility of this master-slave heterolateral elbow rehabilitation robot system. © 2022 IEEE.

18.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046787

ABSTRACT

Background Studies on sociodemographic disparities in Covid-19 vaccination uptake in the general population are still limited and mostly focused on older adults. This study examined sociodemographic differences in Covid-19 vaccination uptake in the total Swedish population aged 18-64 years. Methods National Swedish register data within the SCIFI-PEARL project were used to cross-sectionally investigate sociodemographic differences in Covid-19 vaccination among Swedish adults aged 18-64 years (n=5,987,189) as of 12 October 2021. Using logistic regression models, analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, region of residence, history of Covid-19, and comorbidities. An intersectional analysis approach including several cross-classified subgroups was used to further address the complexity of sociodemographic disparities in vaccination uptake. Findings By 12 October 2021, 76·0% of the Swedish population 18-64 years old had received at least two doses of Covid-19 vaccine, an additional 5·5% had received only one dose, and 18·5% were non-vaccinated. Non-vaccinated individuals were, compared to vaccinated, more often younger, male, had a lower income, were not gainfully employed, and/or were born outside Sweden. The social patterning for vaccine dose two was similar, but weaker, than for dose one. After multivariable adjustments, findings remained but were attenuated indicating the need to consider different sociodemographic factors simultaneously. The intersectional analysis showed a large variation in vaccine uptake ranging from 32% to 96% in cross-classified subgroups, reflecting considerable sociodemographic heterogeneity in vaccination coverage. Interpretation Our study, addressing the entire Swedish population aged 18-64 years, showed broad sociodemographic disparities in Covid-19 vaccine uptake but also wide heterogeneities in coverage. The intersectional analysis approach indicates that focusing on specific sociodemographic factors in isolation and group average risks without considering the heterogeneity within such groups will risk missing the full variability of vaccine coverage. Funding SciLifeLab / Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Swedish government ALF agreement, FORMAS.

19.
Frontiers in Genetics ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043442

ABSTRACT

Since the occurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has led to a global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 at the genetic level would help combat COVID-19, particularly for long COVID. We performed a genetic analysis of ACE2 and searched for its common potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequency >0.05 in both European and Chinese populations that would contribute to ACE2 gene expression variation. We thought that the variation of the ACE2 expression would be an important biological feature that would strongly affect COVID-19 symptoms, such as “brain fog”, which is highlighted by the fact that ACE2 acts as a major cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2 attachment and is highly expressed in brain tissues. Based on the human GTEx gene expression database, we found rs2106809 exhibited a significant correlation with the ACE2 expression among multiple brain and artery tissues. This expression correlation was replicated in an independent European brain eQTL database, Braineac. rs2106809*G also displays significantly higher frequency in Asian populations than in Europeans and displays a protective effect (p = 0.047) against COVID-19 hospitalization when comparing hospitalized COVID-19 cases with non-hospitalized COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 test-negative samples with European ancestry from the UK Biobank. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated that rs2106809*G could upregulate the transcriptional activity of ACE2. Therefore, integrative analysis and functional experiment strongly support that ACE2 SNP rs2106809 is a functional brain eQTL and its potential involvement in long COVID, which warrants further investigation.

20.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 18(1): 85, 2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted disparities in healthcare, particularly in the United States, even though disparities have existed since the organization of the modern healthcare system. Recruitment of patients from racial and ethnic minority groups is often minimal in phase 3 clinical trials, and is further exacerbated in the case of trials for rare diseases such as hereditary angioedema (HAE). This can lead to a gap in the understanding of minority patients' experiences with these diseases and their response to potential treatment options. METHODS: We reviewed data from phase 3 double-blind (HELP) and open-label extension (HELP OLE) trials of lanadelumab, a monoclonal antibody developed for long-term prophylaxis against attacks of HAE. Efficacy (attack rate reduction) and safety (adverse events) results from White patients were compared descriptively to those from Hispanic/Latino patients, Black/African Americans, and other minority Americans. RESULTS: Not surprisingly, few minorities were recruited across both studies: 9.5% Black, 2.4% Asian, and 7.1% Hispanic/Latino versus 88.1% White and 91.7% non-Hispanic/non-Latino received lanadelumab in HELP, and 4.7% Black, 0.9% Asian, 0.9% other, and 6.1% Hispanic/Latino versus 93.4% White and 93.4% non-Hispanic/non-Latino were enrolled in HELP OLE. Although these studies were conducted in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Jordan, all minorities were from the United States. Despite the number of minority patients being far less than expected for the population, there was no evidence that either efficacy or adverse event profiles differed between ethnic or racial groups. CONCLUSIONS: The HELP and HELP OLE studies described herein recruited far fewer minorities than would be ideal to represent these populations. However, evidence suggests that the effectiveness and tolerance of lanadelumab are similar between the groups. Nonetheless, the disparity in recruitment into research for minorities has significant room for improvement. Trial registration NCT02586805, registered 26 October 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT02586805 . NCT02741596, registered 18 April 2016, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02741596 .

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