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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862786

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 epidemic outbreak at the end of 2019, many studies regarding the impact of meteorological factors on the attack have been carried out, and inconsistent conclusions have been reached, indicating the issue's complexity. To more accurately identify the effects and patterns of meteorological factors on the epidemic, we used a combination of logistic regression (LgR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) modeling to investigate the possible effects of common meteorological factors, including air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and surface pressure, on the transmission of the COVID-19 epidemic. Our analysis shows that: (1) Different countries and regions show spatial heterogeneity in the number of diagnosed patients of the epidemic, but this can be roughly classified into three types: "continuous growth", "staged shock", and "finished"; (2) Air temperature is the most significant meteorological factor influencing the transmission of the COVID-19 epidemic. Except for a few areas, regional air temperature changes and the transmission of the epidemic show a significant positive correlation, i.e., an increase in air temperature is conducive to the spread of the epidemic; (3) In different countries and regions studied, wind speed, relative humidity, and surface pressure show inconsistent correlation (and significance) with the number of diagnosed cases but show some regularity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Meteorology , Wind
2.
Applied Sciences ; 12(9):4308, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837824

ABSTRACT

With the rapid expansion of prefabricated construction in China, significant changes in safety performance are still unapparent for numerous prefabricated constructions, and safety accidents are constantly exposed in public. The ignorance of interactions among safety risks impedes efficacious improvement, which instructs the need for a thorough analysis of these interactions based on complex network theory. This paper starts with the identification of 37 safety risks refined through literature review and expert interviews, and 90 interrelationships among them verified by virtue of the questionnaire survey, laying a foundation for the establishment of a prefabricated construction safety risk network (PCSRN). The topological analysis results prove that PCSRN is a scale-free as well as a small-world network, which indicates the high-efficiency propagation and diffusion among safety risks in prefabricated constructions. Moreover, eight critical nodes are identified with four different ranking criteria, and corresponding safety strategies are proposed to address them. The developed method not only provides a novel insight to interpret the safety risks of prefabricated construction but also has the potential to advance safety performance of this sector.

3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the level of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among medical students in Wuhan, China, and to identify the factors and barriers associated with their vaccination decision. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was launched with 612 medical students recruited by convenience sampling from 6 universities. Data collection measures mainly included a demographic questionnaire, COVID-19 vaccine knowledge questionnaire, and the vaccine hesitancy scale. RESULTS: A total of 58.2% of medical students reported vaccine hesitancy. The most common reasons for this were worrying about the side effects of vaccines (44.4%), uncertainty about vaccine safety (40.4%), and underestimating the risk of exposure to COVID-19 (27.9%). The main factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among participants were their knowledge about COVID-19 vaccine, training related to COVID-19 vaccines, family address, and education level (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The government, health department and universities in China need to work together and actively communicate with vaccine-hesitant students, establish a standardized COVID-19 vaccine course, and provide on-campus vaccination services.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): 352-353, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319147

Subject(s)
Methotrexate , Humans
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): 1678-1680, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223326
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 169, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199270

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations are frequently reported in the COVID-19 patients. Neuromechanism of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism via our established non-human primate model of COVID-19. In rhesus monkey, SARS-CoV-2 invades the CNS primarily via the olfactory bulb. Thereafter, viruses rapidly spread to functional areas of the central nervous system, such as hippocampus, thalamus, and medulla oblongata. The infection of SARS-CoV-2 induces the inflammation possibly by targeting neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in the CNS. Consistently, SARS-CoV-2 infects neuro-derived SK-N-SH, glial-derived U251, and brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion in the NHP model, which provides important insights into the CNS-related pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Microglia/metabolism , Microglia/pathology , Microglia/virology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 585021, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110321

ABSTRACT

In Feb 2020, we developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and integrated in vitro anti-viral effect to support dosing design of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients in China. This, along with emerging research and clinical findings, supported broader uptake of HCQ as a potential treatment for COVID-19 globally at the beginning of the pandemics. Therefore, many COVID-19 patients have been or will be exposed to HCQ, including specific populations with underlying intrinsic and/or extrinsic characteristics that may affect the disposition and drug actions of HCQ. It is critical to update our PBPK model of HCQ with adequate drug absorption and disposition mechanisms to support optimal dosing of HCQ in these specific populations. We conducted relevant in vitro and in vivo experiments to support HCQ PBPK model update. Different aspects of this model are validated using PK study from 11 published references. With parameterization informed by results from monkeys, a permeability-limited lung model is employed to describe HCQ distribution in the lung tissues. The updated model is applied to optimize HCQ dosing regimens for specific populations, including those taking concomitant medications. In order to meet predefined HCQ exposure target, HCQ dose may need to be reduced in young children, elderly subjects with organ impairment and/or coadministration with a strong CYP2C8/CYP2D6/CYP3A4 inhibitor, and be increased in pregnant women. The updated HCQ PBPK model informed by new metabolism and distribution data can be used to effectively support dosing recommendations for clinical trials in specific COVID-19 patients and treatment of patients with malaria or autoimmune diseases.

8.
Front Psychol ; 11: 634375, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079611

ABSTRACT

This study discusses the impact of different economic indicators on economic stability, including honest leadership, improved infrastructure, revenue generation, and CPEC taking into account the double mediating role of environmental sustainability and sustainable development, while considering the latest COVID-19 situation. This study adopted primary data collection methods and obtained data from the employees of CPEC by using questionnaires and smart-PLS for analysis purposes. The results revealed that honest leadership, improved infrastructure, revenue generation, and CPEC have a positive nexus with economic stability. Despite the severe impact of COVID-19 on the country's economy, the economic corridor plays a vital role in stabilizing the state's economy and supports all those related to this phenomenal project either directly or indirectly.

9.
Glob Health Med ; 3(2): 112-114, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077100

ABSTRACT

Many large international cities, such as Shanghai, are facing the threat of more imported cases of COVID-19 because of the frequent flow of people and objects at home and abroad. In the face of the complex and changing disease status of the international community, dealing with this disease effectively is a great challenge to the city's existing public health emergency response capacity and also a major test of designated COVID-19 hospitals. Here, we share our experience as a designated COVID-19 hospital in Shanghai, China in terms of i) A Professional Multi-disciplinary Team, ii) Personalized Treatment Plans for Patients in Severe or Critically Ill Condition, iii) Well-organized Classification of Patients, iv) Establishment of Transitional Wards, v) Nosocomial Infection Prevention and Control, and vi) Identification and Reporting of the Asymptomatic in the hopes that these approaches can serve as a reference for healthcare providers and medical staff who are fighting the pandemic.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1647-1661, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been increasingly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the roles of the GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not fully understood. We investigated how the GI tract is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection to elucidate the pathogenesis of COVID-19. METHODS: Our previously established nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 was modified in this study to test our hypothesis. Rhesus monkeys were infected with an intragastric or intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2. Clinical signs were recorded after infection. Viral genomic RNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated by examining inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, histopathology, and mucin barrier integrity. RESULTS: Intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 led to infections and pathologic changes not only in respiratory tissues but also in digestive tissues. Expectedly, intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the productive infection of digestive tissues and inflammation in both the lung and digestive tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were induced by both types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the increased expression of CD68. Immunohistochemistry and Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining showed decreased Ki67, increased cleaved caspase 3, and decreased numbers of mucin-containing goblet cells, suggesting that the inflammation induced by these 2 types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 impaired the GI barrier and caused severe infections. CONCLUSIONS: Both intranasal and intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and GI dysfunction in our rhesus monkey model. Inflammatory cytokines are possible connections for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 between the respiratory and digestive systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gastroenteritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung/pathology , Animals , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa , Gastroenteritis/metabolism , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Goblet Cells/pathology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Intestine, Small/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Nasal Mucosa , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/metabolism , Rectum/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/pathology
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22847, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998541

ABSTRACT

Numerous cases of pneumonia from a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China during December 2019.We determined the correlations of patient parameters with disease severity in patients with COVID-19.A total of 132 patients from Wuhan Fourth Hospital who had COVID-19 from February 1 to February 29 in 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Ninety patients had mild disease, 32 had severe disease, and 10 had critical disease. The severe/critical group was older (P < .05), had a higher proportion of males (P < .05), and had a greater mortality rate (0% vs 61.9%, P < .05). The main symptoms were fever (n = 112, 84.8%) and cough (n = 96, 72.7%). Patients were treated with antiviral agents (n = 94, 71.2%), antibiotics (n = 92, 69.7%), glucocorticoids (n = 46, 34.8%), intravenous immunoglobulin (n = 38, 27.3%), and/or traditional Chinese medicine (n = 40, 30.3%). Patients in the severe/critical group received mechanical ventilation (n = 22, 16.7%) or high-flow nasal can-nula oxygen therapy (n = 6, 4.5%). Chest computed tomography (CT) indicated bilateral pneumonia in all patients. Relative to the mild group, the severe/critical group had higher levels of leukocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes (P < .05), and decreased levels of lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure (P < .05).The main clinical symptoms of patients from Wuhan who had COVID-19 were fever and cough. Patients with severe/critical disease were more likely to be male and elderly. Disease severity correlated with increased leukocytes, CRP, PCT, BNP, D-dimer, liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes, and with decreased lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 574720, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972268

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been challenged in treating COVID-19 patients and still under debate due to the uncertainty regarding the effectiveness and safety, and there is still lack of the systematic study on the toxicity of these two drugs. To further uncover the toxicity profile of CQ and HCQ in different tissues, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of them in eight cell lines and further adopted the physiologically based pharmacokinetic models to predict the tissue risk, respectively. Retina, myocardium, lung, liver, kidney, vascular endothelium, and intestinal epithelium originated cells were included in the toxicity evaluation of CQ and HCQ, respectively. The proliferation pattern was monitored in 0-72 h by IncuCyte S3. CC50 and the ratio of tissue trough concentrations to CC50 (RTTCC) were brought into predicted toxicity profiles. Compared to CQ, HCQ was found to be less toxic in six cell types except Hep3B and Vero cells. In addition, RTTCC was significantly higher in CQ treatment group compared to HCQ group, which indicates relative safety of HCQ. To further simulate the situation of the COVID-19 patients who suffered the dyspnea and hypoxemia, we also tested the cytotoxicity upon hypoxia and normoxia (1, 5 vs. 21% O2). It was found that the cytotoxicity of CQ was more sensitive to hypoxia compared with that of HCQ, particularly in liver originated cells. Both CQ and HCQ showed cytotoxicity in time-dependent manner which indicates the necessity of short period administration clinically.

15.
Gastroenterology ; 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-967289

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background and Aims Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been increasingly reported in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, the roles of the GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not fully understood. We investigated how the GI tract is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection to elucidate the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Methods Our previously established nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 was modified in this study to test our hypothesis. Rhesus monkeys were infected with an intragastric or intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2. Clinical signs were recorded after infection. Viral genomic RNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated by examining inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, histopathology and mucin barrier integrity. Results Intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 led to infections and pathological changes not only in respiratory tissues but also in digestive tissues. Expectedly, intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the productive infection of digestive tissues and inflammation in both the lung and digestive tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were induced by both types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the increased expression of CD68. Immunohistochemistry and alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining showed decreased Ki67, increased cleaved caspase 3 and decreased numbers of mucin-containing goblet cells, suggesting that the inflammation induced by these two types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 impaired the GI barrier and caused severe infections. Conclusions Both intranasal and intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and GI dysfunction in our rhesus monkey model. Inflammatory cytokines are possible connections for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 between the respiratory and digestive systems.

16.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 77(4): 583-593, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926186

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Chloroquine (CQ) has been repurposed to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the pharmacokinetics (PK) in COVID-19 patients is essential to study its exposure-efficacy/safety relationship and provide a basis for a possible dosing regimen optimization. SUBJECT AND METHODS: In this study, we used a population-based meta-analysis approach to develop a population PK model to characterize the CQ PK in COVID-19 patients. An open-label, single-center study (ethical review approval number: PJ-NBEY-KY-2020-063-01) was conducted to assess the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of CQ in patients with COVID-19. The sparse PK data from 50 COVID-19 patients, receiving 500 mg CQ phosphate twice daily for 7 days, were combined with additional CQ PK data from 18 publications. RESULTS: A two-compartment model with first-order oral absorption and first-order elimination and an absorption lag best described the data. Absorption rate (ka) was estimated to be 0.559 h-1, and a lag time of absorption (ALAG) was estimated to be 0.149 h. Apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent central volume of distribution (V2/F) was 33.3 l/h and 3630 l. Apparent distribution clearance (Q/F) and volume of distribution of peripheral compartment (Q3/F) were 58.7 l/h and 5120 l. The simulated CQ concentration under five dosing regimens of CQ phosphate were within the safety margin (400 ng/ml). CONCLUSION: Model-based simulation using PK parameters from the COVID-19 patients shows that the concentrations under the currently recommended dosing regimen are below the safety margin for side-effects, which suggests that these dosing regimens are generally safe. The derived population PK model should allow for the assessment of pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) relationships for CQ when given alone or in combination with other agents to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Repositioning , Models, Biological , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Gastrointestinal Absorption , Humans , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
17.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153403, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, countries are struggling with a shortage of medical capacities. It would be essential if the risk for preventable comorbidities, such as the common cold, can be reduced or prevented, so that the scarce medical resources and facilities can be focused on COVID-19. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of two herbal medicines (Jinhaoartemisia antipyretic granules and Huoxiangzhengqi oral liquids) in reducing the risk of the common cold in community-dwelling residents in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective open-label, parallel-group, cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT), was conducted in Chengdu, China. METHODS: A total of 22,065 participants from 11 communities were recruited during a period of one month. The trial started on 30 January and participants were followed up till 29 February 2020. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a five-day herbal medicine therapy plus a reference manual or a reference manual only if they were allocated to the control group. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of patient-reported common cold symptoms. The secondary endpoint was the time in days from the receipt of herbal drugs/reference manual and the occurrence of the common cold symptoms. RESULTS: Use of herbal medicine reduced the risk of the common cold by 89.6% (95% CI, 52.9% to 97.7%) in all community-dwelling residents, and by 94.0% (95% CI, 52.1% to 99.2%) in residents aged between 16 and 59 years old. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. CONCLUSION: This community-based RCT found that the use of a herbal medicine therapy (Jinhaoartemisia antipyretic granules and Huoxiangzhengqi oral liquids) could significantly reduce the risks of the common cold among community-dwelling residents, suggesting that herbal medicine may be a useful approach for public health intervention to minimize preventable morbidity during COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
19.
Curr Drug Metab ; 21(6): 427-435, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-881266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infected people is greatly increasing worldwide, the international medical situation becomes very serious. Potential therapeutic drugs, vaccine and stem cell replacement methods are emerging, so it is urgent to find specific therapeutic drugs and the best treatment regimens. After the publications on hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with anti- SARS-COV-2 activity in vitro, a small, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial showed that HCQ treatment was significantly associated with reduced viral load in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Meanwhile, a large prophylaxis study of HCQ sulfate for COVID-19 has been initiated in the United States. HCQ offered a promising efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19, but the optimal administration is still being explored. METHODS: We used the keyword "hydroxychloroquine" to conduct a literature search in PubMed to collect relevant literature on the mechanism of action of HCQ, its clinical efficacy and safety, pharmacokinetic characteristics, precautions for clinical use and drug interactions to extract and organize information. RESULTS: This paper reviews the mechanism, clinical efficacy and safety, pharmacokinetic characteristics, exposureresponse relationship and precautions and drug interactions of HCQ, and summarizes dosage recommendations for HCQ sulfate. CONCLUSION: It has been proved that HCQ, which has an established safety profile, is effective against SARS-CoV-2 with sufficient pre-clinical rationale and evidence. Data from high-quality clinical trials are urgently needed worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16007, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809120

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a pandemic event in the world, it has not only caused huge economic losses, but also a serious threat to global public health. Many scientific questions about SARS-CoV-2 and Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were raised and urgently need to be answered, including the susceptibility of animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we tested whether tree shrew, an emerging experimental animal domesticated from wild animal, is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. No clinical signs were observed in SARS-CoV-2 inoculated tree shrews during this experiment except the increasing body temperature particularly in female animals. Low levels of virus shedding and replication in tissues occurred in all three age groups. Notably, young tree shrews (6 months to 12 months) showed virus shedding at the earlier stage of infection than adult (2 years to 4 years) and old (5 years to 7 years) animals that had longer duration of virus shedding comparatively. Histopathological examine revealed that pulmonary abnormalities were the main changes but mild although slight lesions were also observed in other tissues. In summary, tree shrew is less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the reported animal models and may not be a suitable animal for COVID-19 related researches. However, tree shrew may be a potential intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 as an asymptomatic carrier.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Host Specificity/physiology , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Tupaiidae/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Female , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Virus Shedding/physiology
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