Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 85
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
COVID ; 2(1):5-17, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1580968

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with a range of respiratory symptoms. The discovery of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and SARS-CoV-2 pose a significant threat to human health. In this study, we developed a method (HCoV-MS) that combines multiplex PCR with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), to detect and differentiate seven HCoVs simultaneously. The HCoV-MS method had high specificity and sensitivity, with a 1–5 copies/reaction detection limit. To validate the HCoV-MS method, we tested 163 clinical samples, and the results showed good concordance with real-time PCR. Additionally, the detection sensitivity of HCoV-MS and real-time PCR was comparable. The HCoV-MS method is a sensitive assay, requiring only 1 μL of a sample. Moreover, it is a high-throughput method, allowing 384 samples to be processed simultaneously in 30 min. We propose that this method be used to complement real-time PCR for large-scale screening studies.

2.
Complex Intell Systems ; : 1-19, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588643

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has greatly threatened global public health and produced social problems, which includes relative online collective actions. Based on the life cycle law, focusing on the life cycle process of COVID-19 online collective actions, we carried out both macro-level analysis (big data mining) and micro-level behaviors (Agent-Based Modeling) on pandemic-related online collective actions. We collected 138 related online events with macro-level big data characteristics, and used Agent-Based Modeling to capture micro-level individual behaviors of netizens. We set two kinds of movable agents, Hots (events) and Netizens (individuals), which behave smartly and autonomously. Based on multiple simulations and parametric traversal, we obtained the optimal parameter solution. Under the optimal solutions, we repeated simulations by ten times, and took the mean values as robust outcomes. Simulation outcomes well match the real big data of life cycle trends, and validity and robustness can be achieved. According to multiple criteria (spans, peaks, ratios, and distributions), the fitness between simulations and real big data has been substantially supported. Therefore, our Agent-Based Modeling well grasps the micro-level mechanisms of real-world individuals (netizens), based on which we can predict individual behaviors of netizens and big data trends of specific online events. Based on our model, it is feasible to model, calculate, and even predict evolutionary dynamics and life cycles trends of online collective actions. It facilitates public administrations and social governance.

3.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-293992

ABSTRACT

Biological architecture is intrinsically tensorial. The permittivity tensor (PT) of biological material reports the density, angular anisotropy, symmetry, and 3D orientation of biomolecules. High-resolution measurement of PT can enable quantitative and label-free analysis of organelle, cell, and tissue architecture, but remains challenging. We report uniaxial permittivity tensor imaging (uPTI), a label-free computational imaging method for volumetric measurement of PT with diffraction-limited resolution. uPTI encodes the components of PT into intensity modulations using oblique illumination and polarization-resolved imaging. The high-dimensional data is decoded with a vectorial image formation model and a multi-channel convex optimization, assuming that the molecular distribution in each voxel has uniaxial symmetry. We describe a modular implementation of uPTI that can be multiplexed with complementary imaging modalities. We report volumes of uPT in mouse brain tissue, SARS-CoV-2 infected cardiomyocytes, RSV infected A549 cells, H&E stained tissue sections, isotropic beads, and anisotropic glass targets. uPTI enabled volumetric imaging of the 3D orientation and symmetry of organelles, cells, and tissue components with higher spatio-angular resolution than current vectorial tomography, ptychography, and light-field microscopy methods. We provide an open source implementation of the image formation model and reconstruction algorithms.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 735223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551527

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne virus causing serious infectious disease with a high case-fatality of up to 50% in severe cases. Currently, no effective drug has been approved for the treatment of SFTSV infection. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening of a natural extracts library for compounds with activities against SFTSV infection. Three hit compounds, notoginsenoside Ft1, punicalin, and toosendanin were identified for displaying high anti-SFTSV efficacy, in which, toosendanin showed the highest inhibition potency. Mechanistic investigation indicated that toosendanin inhibited SFTSV infection at the step of virus internalization. The anti-viral effect of toosendanin against SFTSV was further verified in mouse infection models, and the treatment with toosendanin significantly reduced viral load and histopathological changes in vivo. The antiviral activity of toosendanin was further expanded to another bunyavirus and the emerging SARS-CoV-2. This study revealed a broad anti-viral effect of toosendanin and indicated its potential to be developed as an anti-viral drug for clinical use.

5.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 46, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546804

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization described herd immunity, also known as population immunity, as the indirect fortification from an infectious disease that happens when a population is immune either through vaccination or immunity developed through previous exposure to infection. The emergence of COVID-19 vaccine is a step towards the achievement of herd immunity. Over one billion people across the globe have been vaccinated and Africa recorded only 2%. The objective of this article was to develop a forecast of the number of people to be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity in the 13 WHO-identified priority African countries for COVID-19. Herd immunity is achieved when one infected person in a population causes less than one secondary case on average, corresponding to the effective basic reproduction number (R0). Vaccine delivery and distribution infrastructure including the cold chain remains weak. Vaccine hesitancy is also one of the limiting factors that may hinder herd immunity in Africa. In order to achieve herd immunity globally, African countries should not be excluded in fair and equal distribution of vaccines. Relevant stakeholders should foster commitment as well as community sensitization on COVID-19 vaccines and integration of COVID-19 vaccines in existing healthcare services.

6.
Curr Med Sci ; 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms, which are related to gut microbiota dysbiosis (GMD). Whether washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) is an effective treatment for COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD by restoring the gut microbiota is unknown. This study is designed to explore the efficacy and safety of WMT in COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD. METHODS: This is a randomized, multicenter, single-blind prospective study. COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD will be randomly divided to receive routine treatment only or to receive routine treatment and WMT. The frequency of WMT will be once a day for three consecutive days. Laboratory and imaging examinations will be performed at admission, 1 and 2 weeks after treatment, and on the day of discharge. Then a telephone follow-up will be conducted at 1st week, 2nd week, and 6th month after discharge. The clinical efficacy and safety of WMT in COVD-19 patients suspected of having GMD and the effects of WMT on the organ function, homeostasis, inflammatory response, intestinal mucosal barrier function, and immunity of the patients will be evaluated. RESULTS: By following the proposed protocol, WMT is expected to be efficacious and safe for the treatment of COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD, and the therapeutic effect is expected to be associated with improvement of the intestinal mucosal barrier function, inflammatory response, and immunity. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study may offer a new approach for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD.

7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 198: 113788, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520725

ABSTRACT

Knowing how heavily the body is burdened by SARS-CoV-2 infection is all important to avoid tragic outcomes. This demands fast and convenient assays with minimum requirement for instruments and reagents. Therefore, a short synthetic peptide is developed to perform direct serum assay, using portable hand-held potentiostat, in a reagent-less manner. The target is angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protein secreted by the body into the blood to restrict viral invasion. Specifically, under electrochemical potential scanning, the peptide can covalently capture ACE2 from the serum, and then form a covalent gel-like 2D protein network with the serum proteins, in an ACE2-specific fashion. This formation of a covalent biosensing complex enables sensitive detection in serum samples of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The detected serum level of ACE2 can not only serve as an index of viral load, but may also hint at the associated risk of potential male infertility. These results may point to field application of this simple design in the clinical practice in treating COVID-19 in the near future.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e513-e522, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For pediatric pneumonia, the meteorological and air pollution indicators have been frequently investigated for their association with viral circulation but not for their impact on disease severity. METHODS: We performed a 10-year prospective, observational study in 1 hospital in Chongqing, China, to recruit children with pneumonia. Eight commonly seen respiratory viruses were tested. Autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) and random forest (RF) models were used to fit monthly detection rates of each virus at the population level and to predict the possibility of severe pneumonia at the individual level, respectively. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2018, 6611 pediatric pneumonia patients were included, and 4846 (73.3%) tested positive for at least 1 respiratory virus. The patient median age was 9 months (interquartile range, 4‒20). ADL models demonstrated a decent fitting of detection rates of R2 > 0.7 for respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, and human metapneumovirus. Based on the RF models, the area under the curve for host-related factors alone was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], .87‒.89) and 0.86 (95% CI, .85‒.88) for meteorological and air pollution indicators alone and 0.62 (95% CI, .60‒.63) for viral infections alone. The final model indicated that 9 weather and air pollution indicators were important determinants of severe pneumonia, with a relative contribution of 62.53%, which is significantly higher than respiratory viral infections (7.36%). CONCLUSIONS: Meteorological and air pollution predictors contributed more to severe pneumonia in children than did respiratory viruses. These meteorological data could help predict times when children would be at increased risk for severe pneumonia and when interventions, such as reducing outdoor activities, may be warranted.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Weather
9.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(6): 1409-1422, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493008

ABSTRACT

Arenaviruses are a large family of enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that include several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers. Currently, there are no FDA-licensed drugs to treat arenavirus infection except for the off-labeled use of ribavirin. Here, we performed antiviral drug screening against the Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) using an FDA-approved drug library. Five drug candidates were identified, including mycophenolic acid, benidipine hydrochloride, clofazimine, dabrafenib, and apatinib, for having strong anti-LCMV effects. Further analysis indicated that benidipine hydrochloride inhibited LCMV membrane fusion, and an adaptive mutation on the LCMV glycoprotein D414 site was found to antagonize the anti-LCMV activity of benidipine hydrochloride. Mycophenolic acid inhibited LCMV replication by depleting GTP production. We also found mycophenolic acid, clofazimine, dabrafenib, and apatinib can inhibit the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Owing to their FDA-approved status, these drug candidates can potentially be used rapidly in the clinical treatment of arenavirus and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
10.
Journal of Environmental Sciences ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1472038

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is disrupting the world from many aspects. In this study, the impact of emission variations on PM2.5-bound elemental species and health risks associated to inhalation exposure has been analyzed based on real-time measurements at a remote coastal site in Shanghai during the pandemic. Most trace elemental species decreased significantly and displayed almost no diel peaks during the lockdown. After the lockdown, they rebounded rapidly, of which V and Ni even exceeded the levels before the lockdown, suggesting the recovery of both inland and shipping activities. Five sources were identified based on receptor modeling. Coal combustion accounted for more than 70% of the measured elemental concentrations before and during the lockdown. Shipping emissions, mineral/fugitive dust, and waste incineration all showed elevated contributions after the lockdown. The total non-carcinogenic risk (HQ) for the target elements exceeded the risk threshold for both children and adults with chloride as the predominant species contributing to HQ. Whereas, the total carcinogenic risk (TR) for adults was above the acceptable level and much higher than that for children. Waste incineration was the largest contributor to HQ, while manufacture processing and coal combustion were the main sources of TR. Lockdown control measures were beneficial for lowering the carcinogenic risk while unexpectedly increased the non-carcinogenic risk. From the perspective of health effects, priorities of control measures should be given to waste incineration, manufacture processing, and coal combustion. A balanced way should be reached between both lowering the levels of air pollutants and their health risks.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 696976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450816

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous research suggested that Chinese Medicine (CM) Formula Huashibaidu granule might shorten the disease course in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This research aimed to investigate the early treatment effect of Huashibaidu granule in well-managed patients with mild COVID-19. Methods: An unblinded cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Dongxihu FangCang hospital. Two cabins were randomly allocated to a CM or control group, with 204 mild COVID-19 participants in each cabin. All participants received conventional treatment over a 7 day period, while the ones in CM group were additionally given Huashibaidu granule 10 g twice daily. Participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint. The primary outcome was worsening symptoms before the clinical endpoint. The secondary outcomes were cure and discharge before the clinical endpoint and alleviation of composite symptoms after the 7 days of treatment. Results: All 408 participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint and included in statistical analysis. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). The number of worsening patients in the CM group was 5 (2.5%), and that in the control group was 16 (7.8%) with a significant difference between groups (P = 0.014). Eight foreseeable mild adverse events occurred without statistical difference between groups (P = 0.151). Conclusion: Seven days of early treatment with Huashibaidu granule reduced the likelihood of worsening symptoms in patients with mild COVID-19. Our study supports Huashibaidu granule as an active option for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in similar well-managed medical environments. Clinical Trial Registration:www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=49408, identifier: ChiCTR2000029763.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(82): 10771-10774, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442812

ABSTRACT

We have established a new protocol for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using a peptidomimetic to covalently detect a viral marker protease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteases/isolation & purification , Biological Assay/economics , Biosensing Techniques/economics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Cost Savings , Electrochemical Techniques/economics , Humans , Peptidomimetics/chemistry , Tyrosine/chemistry , Viral Proteases/chemistry
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 346, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437668

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses to viral infection are a form of antibody regulated immune responses mediated through the Fc fragment. Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggered ADCC responses contributes to COVID-19 disease development is currently not well understood. To understand the potential correlation between ADCC responses and COVID-19 disease development, we analyzed the ADCC activity and neutralizing antibody response in 255 individuals ranging from asymptomatic to fatal infections over 1 year post disease. ADCC was elicited by 10 days post-infection, peaked by 11-20 days, and remained detectable until 400 days post-infection. In general, patients with severe disease had higher ADCC activities. Notably, patients who had severe disease and recovered had higher ADCC activities than patients who had severe disease and deceased. Importantly, ADCC activities were mediated by a diversity of epitopes in SARS-COV-2-infected mice and induced to comparable levels against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) as that against the D614G mutant in human patients and vaccinated mice. Our study indicates anti-SARS-CoV-2 ADCC as a major trait of COVID-19 patients with various conditions, which can be applied to estimate the extra-neutralization level against COVID-19, especially lethal COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle Aged
15.
Environ Chem Lett ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432563

ABSTRACT

Airborne black carbon is a strong warming component of the atmosphere. Therefore, curbing black carbon emissions should slow down global warming. The 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is a unique opportunity for studying the response of black carbon to the varied human activities, in particular due to lockdown policies. Actually, there is few knowledge on the variations of black carbon in China during lockdowns. Here, we studied the concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon before, during, and after the lockdown in nine sites of the Yangtze River Delta in Eastern China. Results show 40-60% reduction of PM2.5 and 40-50% reduction of black carbon during the lockdown. The classical bimodal peaks of black carbon in the morning and evening rush hours were highly weakened, indicating the substantial decrease of traffic activities. Contributions from fossil fuels combustion to black carbon decreased about 5-10% during the lockdown. Spatial correlation analysis indicated the clustering of the multi-site black carbon concentrations in the Yangtze River Delta during the lockdown. Overall, control of emissions from traffic and industrial activities should be efficient to curb black carbon levels in the frame of a 'green public transit system' for mega-city clusters such as the Yangtze River Delta. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10311-021-01327-3.

16.
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine ; 30(3):269-271, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1408647

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a lot of unknowns have been discovered successively in Wuhan City, Hubei Province regarding the cause of pneumonia. COVID-19 has successively appeared infected cases all over the country. At the end of January 2015, this article supports Wuhan to participate in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. This article presents realisations regarding the treatment of COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia.

17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 194: 113579, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370452

ABSTRACT

The poor situational awareness about the spreading of the virus especially in the underdeveloped regions calls for novel virus assays of low cost and simple operation. Currently, such assays are exclusively restricted to nucleic acid detection. In this investigation, a virus protein serum assay has been proposed in a one-step and reagent-less route. Specifically, in this assay, the main protease of the virus is targeted by a short probe mimicking its substrate. While the probe-protein interaction brings them together, a fluorescent thiol targeting molecule reacts with the free thiol groups on the target protein near the probe, generating a fluorescence signal proportional to the concentration of the target. This induces an electroactive 2D peptide nano-network on the sensing surface only in the presence of the target protein. The sensitivity of the method is enhanced through potential electrochemical scanning during incubation with serum samples. The successful detection of the virus marker protein in the serum of the infected patients encourages further development of incorporation of this method into clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/isolation & purification , Blood Proteins , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/blood , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfhydryl Compounds
18.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 145, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Chinese government has taken strong prevention and control measures against the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the pandemic is far from over, it has been effectively controlled in China. The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to study the influence of governmental prevention and control response on orthopedic trauma in minors. METHODS: We collected and reviewed data and information on minor's orthopedic trauma from 1 January to 30 June of the past three year (2018, 2019 and 2020). The data were divided according to the time of prevention and control response level in 2020 (the first level response is from January 24 to March 22, the second level response is from March 23 to May 7, and the third level response is May 8 to now). By comparing the relevant data from orthopedic emergency and operating rooms from the past three years, the influence of governmental pandemic prevention measures on orthopedic trauma in minors was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 36,301 minors were included in the study cohort. Before the prevention and control response, the data of the orthopedic emergency department of National Children Medical Center (Shanghai) in 2020 was the same as the previous two years. The condition of children undergoing surgery at the time of injury is significantly different under different levels of prevention and control response. Under the first-level response, the number of fractures, open injuries, radial head subluxation, and surgery were significantly reduced, and the severity of patients with surgery was also significantly reduced. Under the second-level response, the number of operations began to increase, and the severity of the disease also began to rise. Under the third-level response control, the number of fractures, open injuries, and operations have returned to the levels of the previous two years. The severity of the operation has also returned to its previous level. The number of subluxations of the radial head is still different from before. CONCLUSION: The prevention and control response for the pandemic of COVID-19 can reduce the incidence of orthopedic trauma in minors by strengthening the guardian's care and restricting children's outdoor activities. With the control of the pandemic, the amount of orthopedic trauma in minors will not be affected by low-level prevention and control.

20.
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...