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1.
Pers Individ Dif ; 188: 111447, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562006

ABSTRACT

What influences people's vaccine attitudes and intentions in the combat against the COVID-19 pandemic? Extending beyond health factors, the present research examines whether non-health-specific factors-such as one's self-control ability-influence individual attitudes toward vaccination. Drawing on the social psychology literature, we propose that self-control, which is often associated with adherence to social norms and with engagement in socially desirable behaviors, can lead to more favorable attitudes toward vaccines. Study 1 provided correlational evidence for our theoretical perspective that students scoring high on trait self-control expressed less vaccine hesitancy than students scoring low on self-control. Employing a more representative population, Study 2 examined the relationship with behaviors. It was found that non-student adults with higher self-control strength levels were more likely to accept vaccine appointments opportunities than those with lower self-control strength levels. Using an experimental design, Study 3 found that participants exerting a high level of effort for attentional self-control in the incongruent Stroop task condition showed lower COVID-19 vaccine acceptance than participants in the congruent condition. In sum, our research provides the first experimental evidence that high self-control can have a reliable impact on individual perceptions of vaccination.

2.
Psychol Rep ; : 332941211051985, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555686

ABSTRACT

Following preventive measures is crucial for slowing the rate of COVID-19 spread. To date, most research has focused on the role of individual differences and personality in compliance with preventive measures to COVID-19. Building on findings that interpersonal touch instills a feeling of security, we propose that interpersonal touching behavior, an underexplored factor tied to social interaction, leads to more breaches of coronavirus restrictions by inducing security feelings. In a lab experiment (Experiment 1) and a field study (Experiment 2), we demonstrated that a female experimenter's fleeting and comforting pat on the shoulder made people less willing to abide by preventive measures in their self-report and actual behavior. Further, we excluded a potential alternative explanation that touch intervention by the experimenter presents the defiance of COVID-19 rules because the effect cannot be observed when the touch consists of a handshake rather than a comforting pat on the shoulder (Experiment 3). Finally, consistent with our theoretical perspective, the results revealed that sense of security mediated the effect of interpersonal touch on violation of instructions to follow coronavirus precautions. Taken together, interpersonal touch not only enhances trust and security, but also can push people away from health guidelines.

3.
Cell Rep ; : 110112, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530687

ABSTRACT

An ideal vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is expected to elicit broad immunity to prevent viral infection and disease, with efficient viral clearance in the upper respiratory tract (URT). Here, the N protein and prefusion-full S protein (SFLmut) are combined with flagellin (KF) and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) to generate a candidate vaccine, and this vaccine elicits stronger systemic and mucosal humoral immunity than vaccines containing other forms of the S protein. Furthermore, the candidate vaccine administered via intranasal route can enhance local immune responses in the respiratory tract. Importantly, human ACE2 transgenic mice given the candidate vaccine are protected against lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge, with superior protection in the URT compared with that in mice immunized with an inactivated vaccine. In summary, the developed vaccine can elicit a multifaceted immune response and induce robust viral clearance in the URT, which makes it a potential vaccine for preventing disease and infection of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0135221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526454

ABSTRACT

The emerging new lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have marked a new phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the recognition mechanisms of potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) against the spike protein is pivotal for developing new vaccines and antibody drugs. Here, we isolated several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) from the B cell receptor repertoires of a SARS-CoV-2 convalescent. Among these MAbs, the antibody nCoV617 demonstrates the most potent neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies against the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transgenic mouse model in vivo. The crystal structure of S-RBD in complex with nCoV617 reveals that nCoV617 mainly binds to the back of the "ridge" of RBD and shares limited binding residues with ACE2. Under the background of the S-trimer model, it potentially binds to both "up" and "down" conformations of S-RBD. In vitro mutagenesis assays show that mutant residues found in the emerging new lineage B.1.1.7 of SARS-CoV-2 do not affect nCoV617 binding to the S-RBD. These results provide a new human-sourced neutralizing antibody against the S-RBD and assist vaccine development. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious threat to global health and the economy, so it is necessary to find safe and effective antibody drugs and treatments. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It contains a variety of dominant neutralizing epitopes and is an important antigen for the development of new coronavirus antibodies. The significance of our research lies in the determination of new epitopes, the discovery of antibodies against RBD, and the evaluation of the antibodies' neutralizing effect. The identified antibodies here may be drug candidates for the development of clinical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects
5.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 3135-3149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523551

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on sleep hygiene, anxiety levels, perceived stress, and research output among postgraduate research students in Hong Kong. Methods: An online survey was developed and distributed to Hong Kong postgraduate research students. The sleep hygiene, anxiety levels, and perceived stress during the outbreak of COVID-19 were assessed. Questions about COVID-19's impact on research outputs were asked. Results: A total of 108 (response rate, 72%) full-time postgraduate students (PhD, 64%; M Phil, 8%; and Masters, 28%) participated. Approximately 83% of students reported poor sleep hygiene. Similarly, nearly 76% of students reported mild to severe levels of self-perceived anxiety levels. Most of the respondents (89%) expressed a moderate level of perceived stress. Sleep hygiene scores were moderately associated with anxiety levels (r = 0.384, p < 0.01) and perceived stress scores (r = 0.423, p < 0.01). Perceived stress was strongly correlated with anxiety levels (r = 0.601, p < 0.01). A hierarchical regression analysis revealed a significant association between respondents' ethnicity (B = -0.923, p = 0.003), past medical history (such as hypertension, diabetes, and musculoskeletal disorders) (B = 1.112, p = 0.005), or poor sleep hygiene (B = 0.259, p = 0.000) and high levels of perceived stress. Additionally, prior medical history (such as hypertension, diabetes, and musculoskeletal disorders) (B = 1.957, p = 0.001) and poor sleep hygiene (B = 0.312, p = 0.000) were found to be strongly related to anxiety levels among postgraduate research students. Conclusion: This is the first study that highlights poor sleep hygiene, moderate-to-severe levels of anxiety, and perceived stress during the COVID-19 pandemic in postgraduate research students in Hong Kong. These findings will help educators to prepare strategies to alleviate the stress and psychological problems in postgraduate students.

7.
iScience ; 24(12): 103426, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509907

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein mediates viral entry and immune escape. While glycan site is determined by viral genetic code, glycosylation is completely dependent on host cell post-translational modification. Here, by producing SARS-CoV-2 virions from various host cell lines, viruses of different origins with diverse spike protein glycan patterns were revealed. Binding affinities to C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) DC&L-SIGN differed in the different glycan pattern virions. Although none of the CLRs supported viral productive infection, viral trans&cis-infection mediated by the CLRs were substantially changed among the different virions. Specifically, trans&cis-infection of virions with a high-mannose structure (Man5GlcNAc2) at the N1098 glycan site of the spike postfusion trimer were markedly enhanced. Considering L-SIGN co-expression with ACE2 on respiratory tract cells, our work underlines viral epigenetic glycosylation in authentic viral infection and highlights the attachment co-receptor role of DC&L-SIGN in SARS-CoV-2 infection and prevention.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 951, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments, especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urgently warranted. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 281 non-survivors and 712 survivors with propensity score matching by age, sex, and comorbidities were enrolled from January 13, 2020 to March 31, 2020. RESULTS: Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, hypoxia, elevated inflammatory cytokines, multi-organ dysfunction, decreased immune cell subsets, and complications were significantly associated with the higher COVID-19 death risk. In addition to traditional predictors for death risk, including APACHE II (AUC = 0.83), SIRS (AUC = 0.75), SOFA (AUC = 0.70) and qSOFA scores (AUC = 0.61), another four prediction models that included immune cells subsets (AUC = 0.90), multiple organ damage biomarkers (AUC = 0.89), complications (AUC = 0.88) and inflammatory-related indexes (AUC = 0.75) were established. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of combining these risk factors (AUC = 0.950) was also significantly higher than that of each risk group alone, which was significant for early clinical management for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors could help to predict the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients at an early stage. The combined model might be more suitable for the death risk evaluation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 951, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments, especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urgently warranted. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 281 non-survivors and 712 survivors with propensity score matching by age, sex, and comorbidities were enrolled from January 13, 2020 to March 31, 2020. RESULTS: Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, hypoxia, elevated inflammatory cytokines, multi-organ dysfunction, decreased immune cell subsets, and complications were significantly associated with the higher COVID-19 death risk. In addition to traditional predictors for death risk, including APACHE II (AUC = 0.83), SIRS (AUC = 0.75), SOFA (AUC = 0.70) and qSOFA scores (AUC = 0.61), another four prediction models that included immune cells subsets (AUC = 0.90), multiple organ damage biomarkers (AUC = 0.89), complications (AUC = 0.88) and inflammatory-related indexes (AUC = 0.75) were established. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of combining these risk factors (AUC = 0.950) was also significantly higher than that of each risk group alone, which was significant for early clinical management for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors could help to predict the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients at an early stage. The combined model might be more suitable for the death risk evaluation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 23: 108-118, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379195

ABSTRACT

Because of the relatively limited understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis, immunological analysis for vaccine development is needed. Mice and macaques were immunized with an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine prepared by two inactivators. Various immunological indexes were tested, and viral challenges were performed on day 7 or 150 after booster immunization in monkeys. This inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was produced by sequential inactivation with formaldehyde followed by propiolactone. The various antibody responses and specific T cell responses to different viral antigens elicited in immunized animals were maintained for longer than 150 days. This comprehensive immune response could effectively protect vaccinated macaques by inhibiting viral replication in macaques and substantially alleviating immunopathological damage, and no clinical manifestation of immunopathogenicity was observed in immunized individuals during viral challenge. This candidate inactivated vaccine was identified as being effective against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376811

ABSTRACT

The construction sector is recognized as one of the most dangerous industries in the world. The situation is worsening in Iraq, as a result of a lack of attention to safety in the building industry and the poor implementation of safety programs. This research aims to identify the critical safety factors (CSFs) of safety program implementation in the Iraqi construction industry. The CSFs were first identified from a review of literature before being verified by construction practitioners, using semi-structured interviews. A questionnaire, based on the verified CSFs, was distributed to construction practitioners in Iraq. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to analyze the quantitative data, and the results show that the CSFs can be categorized into four constructs: worker involvement, safety prevention and control system, safety arrangement, and management commitment. Following that, partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was executed to establish the connection between safety program implementation and overall project success. The result confirms that safety program implementation has a significant, positive impact on project success. This article contributes to knowledge and practice by identifying the CSFs for implementing safety programs in the Iraqi construction industry. The successful implementation of a safety program not only improves safety performance, but also helps to meet other project goals.


Subject(s)
Construction Industry , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Iraq , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 836-846, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275907

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is frequently accompanied by dysfunction of the lungs and extrapulmonary organs. However, the organotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and the port of virus entry for systemic dissemination remain largely unknown. We profiled 26 COVID-19 autopsy cases from four cohorts in Wuhan, China, and determined the systemic distribution of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the lungs and multiple extrapulmonary organs of critically ill COVID-19 patients up to 67 days after symptom onset. Based on organotropism and pathological features of the patients, COVID-19 was divided into viral intrapulmonary and systemic subtypes. In patients with systemic viral distribution, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at blood-air barrier, blood-testis barrier, and filtration barrier. Critically ill patients with long disease duration showed decreased pulmonary cell proliferation, reduced viral RNA, and marked fibrosis in the lungs. Permanent SARS-CoV-2 presence and tissue injuries in the lungs and extrapulmonary organs suggest direct viral invasion as a mechanism of pathogenicity in critically ill patients. SARS-CoV-2 may hijack monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at physiological barriers as the ports of entry for systemic dissemination. Our study thus delineates systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which sheds light on the development of novel COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/virology
16.
Personality and Individual Differences ; : 111059, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1263354

ABSTRACT

Philosophical view of embodiment, one of the most influential hypotheses in cognitive science, postulates that sensorimotor experiences and bodily states influence people’s behavior, cognition, and emotion. Despite embodiment theory addressing the basic experiences of cognitive life, there is a paucity of information available regarding the health consequences of holding such a philosophic belief. In the current investigation, we examined a new idea that embodiment theory leads people to believe in the central role of physical body in shaping cognitive processes and mental activities, which can in turn alter individuals’ motivation to comply with preventive measures to the COVID-19. In Study 1, participants who were primed with theories of embodied cognition (vs. Cartesian dualism) self-reported more compliance with safety-promoting measures surrounding the new coronavirus disease. Extending beyond self-report measures, Study 2 focused on an actual virus-mitigation behavior. The results showed that participants primed with philosophic conceptions of embodiment (vs. dualism) were more likely to choose face masks (vs. pencils) as a gift. These findings suggest that the philosophical view of embodiment not only offers scientifically valuable insight into the mechanics of cognitive processing, but increases people’s willingness to follow non-pharmaceutical containment measures in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1156-1168, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249264

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTThe risk of secondary infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus is becoming a practical problem that must be addressed as the flu season merges with the COVID-19 pandemic. As SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus have been found in patients, understanding the in vivo characteristics of the secondary infection between these two viruses is a high priority. Here, hACE2 transgenic mice were challenged with the H1N1 virus at a nonlethal dose during the convalescent stage on 7 and 14 days post SARS-CoV-2 infection, and importantly, subsequent H1N1 infection showed enhanced viral shedding and virus tissue distribution. Histopathological observation revealed an extensive pathological change in the lungs related to H1N1 infection in mice recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, with severe inflammation infiltration and bronchiole disruption. Moreover, upon H1N1 exposure on 7 and 14 dpi of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the lymphocyte population activated at a lower level with T cell suppressed in both PBMC and lung. These findings will be valuable for evaluating antiviral therapeutics and vaccines as well as guiding public health work.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/virology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Lung/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology
18.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-6, 2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223229

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore which age group out of the patients in quarantine wards with novel coronavirus pneumonia is the most susceptible to anxiety. The data of 32 Covid-19 patients isolated in the quarantine wards of the second Infectious Diseases Department of Baoding Hospital and 71 Covid-19 patients in Tangshan City Infectious Disease Hospital from January 24th to March 5th, 2020, a total of 103 patients, were analyzed. Among these patients, 97 isolated patients were scored with a self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) score seven days after quarantine, and the correlation between age and score was analyzed. These 97 isolated patients were then divided into three groups according to age: group A (up to 35 years old), group B (36-60 years), and group C (over 60 years). One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the scores among groups. The Q-test was used for pairwise comparison.P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.There was a negative correlation between age and SAS score in isolated Covid-19 patients, and the differences in the score among groups were statistically significant. Patients under 35 years old were more prone to anxiety when they were isolated for seven days. Isolated patients aged up to 35 years old need more attention from quarantine medical staff, communication should be strengthened, and psychological intervention from psychotherapists should be given if necessary.

19.
Bioconjug Chem ; 32(5): 1034-1046, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217668

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 caused the COVID-19 pandemic that lasted for more than a year. Globally, there is an urgent need to use safe and effective vaccines for immunization to achieve comprehensive protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Focusing on developing a rapid vaccine platform with significant immunogenicity as well as broad and high protection efficiency, we designed a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) displayed on self-assembled ferritin nanoparticles. In a 293i cells eukaryotic expression system, this candidate vaccine was prepared and purified. After rhesus monkeys are immunized with 20 µg of RBD-ferritin nanoparticles three times, the vaccine can elicit specific humoral immunity and T cell immune response, and the neutralizing antibodies can cross-neutralize four SARS-CoV-2 strains from different sources. In the challenge protection test, after nasal infection with 2 × 105 CCID50 SARS-CoV-2 virus, compared with unimmunized control animals, virus replication in the vaccine-immunized rhesus monkeys was significantly inhibited, and respiratory pathology observations also showed only slight pathological damage. These analyses will benefit the immunization program of the RBD-ferritin nanoparticle vaccine in the clinical trial design and the platform construction to present a specific antigen domain in the self-assembling nanoparticle in a short time to harvest stable, safe, and effective vaccine candidates for new SARS-CoV-2 isolates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Ferritins/chemistry , Ferritins/metabolism , Immunity, Humoral , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nanoparticles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Ultracentrifugation
20.
Personality and Individual Differences ; : 110861, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1142191

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a serious threat that produces harm to people around the globe. Prior work has almost exclusively focused on deconstructive consequences of the novel coronavirus, the present research reveals a bright side of the coronavirus outbreak: reduce the overconfidence bias in non-health domains. In Experiment 1, students passed by a trained confederate who was coughing loudly or not and completed a peer-comparison problem measuring their overconfidence bias. The results showed that participants, who were exposed to a salient health threat, displayed a lower level of overconfidence than did participants in the control condition. Experiment 2 recapitulated the effects of public coughing on overconfidence by using a non-student sample and an alternative measure of overconfidence. Across two field experiments, we replicated prior findings regarding sex differences for the overconfidence bias. Taken together, our research suggests that whereas the COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly ravaged nations and economies, the unprecedented crisis offers an opportunity for individuals to counteract their overconfidence in judgment and decision-making.

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