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Virus Res ; 288: 198141, 2020 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725473


The recent outbreak of the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a significant concern to public health care worldwide. As of August 19, 2020, more than 22,140,472 people are infected, and over 781,135 people have died due to this deadly virus. In the USA alone, over 5,482,602 people are currently infected, and more than 171,823 people have died. SARS-CoV-2 has shown a higher infectivity rate and a more extended incubation period as compared to previous coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 binds much more strongly than SARS-CoV to the same host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Previously, several methods to develop a vaccine against SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV have been tried with limited success. Since SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike (S) protein for entry to the host cell, it is one of the most preferred targets for making vaccines or therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we have summarised the characteristics of the S protein, as well as the different approaches being used for the development of vaccines and/or therapeutics based on the S protein.

ACS Infect Dis ; 6(5): 909-915, 2020 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3265


The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlights an urgent need for therapeutics. Through a series of drug repurposing screening campaigns, niclosamide, an FDA-approved anthelminthic drug, was found to be effective against various viral infections with nanomolar to micromolar potency such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, ZIKV, HCV, and human adenovirus, indicating its potential as an antiviral agent. In this brief review, we summarize the broad antiviral activity of niclosamide and highlight its potential clinical use in the treatment of COVID-19.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Niclosamide/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pandemics , SARS Virus/drug effects