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1.
Med Phys ; 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525479

ABSTRACT

The development of medical imaging AI systems for evaluating COVID-19 patients has demonstrated potential for improving clinical decision-making and assessing patient outcomes during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. These have been applied to many medical imaging tasks including disease diagnosis and patient prognosis, as well as augmented other clinical measurements to better inform treatment decisions. Because these systems are used in life-or-death decisions, clinical implementation relies on user trust in the AI output. This has caused many developers to utilize explainability techniques in an attempt to help a user understand when an AI algorithm is likely to succeed as well as which cases may be problematic for automatic assessment, thus increasing the potential for rapid clinical translation. AI application to Covid-19 has been marred with controversy recently. This review discusses several aspects of explainable and interpretable AI as it pertains to the evaluation of COVID-19 disease and it can restore trust in AI application to this disease. This includes the identification of common tasks that are relevant to explainable medical imaging AI, an overview of several modern approaches for producing explainable output as appropriate for a given imaging scenario, a discussion of how to evaluate explainable AI, and recommendations for best practices in explainable/interpretable AI implementation. This review will allow developers of AI systems for COVID-19 to quickly understand the basics of several explainable AI techniques and assist in selection of an approach that is both appropriate and effective for a given scenario. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Immunity ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521063

ABSTRACT

Viral mutations are an emerging concern in reducing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination efficacy. Second-generation vaccines will need to elicit neutralizing antibodies against sites that are evolutionarily conserved across the sarbecovirus subgenus. Here, we immunized mice containing a human antibody repertoire with diverse sarbecovirus receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to identify antibodies targeting conserved sites of vulnerability. Antibodies with broad reactivity against diverse clade B RBDs targeting the conserved class 4 epitope, with recurring IGHV/IGKV pairs, were readily elicited but were non-neutralizing. However, rare class 4 antibodies binding this conserved RBD supersite showed potent neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 and all variants of concern. Structural analysis revealed that the neutralizing ability of cross-reactive antibodies was reserved only for those with an elongated CDRH3 that extends the antiparallel beta-sheet RBD core and orients the antibody light chain to obstruct ACE2-RBD interactions. These results identify a structurally defined pathway for vaccine strategies eliciting escape-resistant SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies.

3.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491326

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens human health globally, infectious disorders have become one of the most challenging problem for the medical community. Natural products (NP) have been a prolific source of antimicrobial agents with widely divergent structures and a range vast biological activities. A dataset comprising 618 articles, including 646 NP-based compounds from 672 species of natural sources with biological activities against 21 infectious pathogens from five categories, was assembled through manual selection of published articles. These data were used to identify 268 NP-based compounds classified into ten groups, which were used for network pharmacology analysis to capture the most promising lead-compounds such as agelasine D, dicumarol, dihydroartemisinin and pyridomycin. The distribution of maximum Tanimoto scores indicated that compounds which inhibited parasites exhibited low diversity, whereas the chemistries inhibiting bacteria, fungi, and viruses showed more structural diversity. A total of 331 species of medicinal plants with compounds exhibiting antimicrobial activities were selected to classify the family sources. The family Asteraceae possesses various compounds against C. neoformans, the family Anacardiaceae has compounds against Salmonella typhi, the family Cucurbitacea against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the family Ancistrocladaceae against Plasmodium. This review summarizes currently available data on NP-based antimicrobials against refractory infections to provide information for further discovery of drugs and synthetic strategies for anti-infectious agents.

4.
J Med Chem ; 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493002

ABSTRACT

Creating small-molecule antivirals specific for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins is crucial to battle coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is an established drug target for the design of protease inhibitors. We performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of noncovalent compounds that bind in the enzyme's substrate-binding subsites S1 and S2, revealing structural, electronic, and electrostatic determinants of these sites. The study was guided by the X-ray/neutron structure of Mpro complexed with Mcule-5948770040 (compound 1), in which protonation states were directly visualized. Virtual reality-assisted structure analysis and small-molecule building were employed to generate analogues of 1. In vitro enzyme inhibition assays and room-temperature X-ray structures demonstrated the effect of chemical modifications on Mpro inhibition, showing that (1) maintaining correct geometry of an inhibitor's P1 group is essential to preserve the hydrogen bond with the protonated His163; (2) a positively charged linker is preferred; and (3) subsite S2 prefers nonbulky modestly electronegative groups.

5.
Immunity ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1489418

ABSTRACT

Viral mutations are an emerging concern in reducing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination efficacy. Burnett et al. immunized humanized mice with different diverse sarbecovirus RBDs to elicit antibodies targeting conserved sites. Non-neutralizing cross-reactive antibodies targeting the conserved class 4 epitope were readily elicited. Neutralizing ability was reserved only for antibodies binding this conserved supersite through an elongated CDRH3 that obstructed ACE2-RBD interactions.

6.
Biomolecules ; 11(11):1586, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1488476

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification that affects a wide variety of physiological functions. DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin) is a protein expressed in antigen-presenting cells that recognizes a variety of glycan epitopes. Until now, the binding of DC-SIGN to SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein has been reported in various articles and is regarded to be a factor in systemic infection and cytokine storm. The mechanism of DC-SIGN recognition offers an alternative method for discovering new medication for COVID-19 treatment. Here, we discovered three potential pockets that hold different glycan epitopes by performing molecular dynamics simulations of previously reported oligosaccharides. The “EPN” motif, “NDD” motif, and Glu354 form the most critical pocket, which is known as the Core site. We proposed that the type of glycan epitopes, rather than the precise amino acid sequence, determines the recognition. Furthermore, we deduced that oligosaccharides could occupy an additional site, which adds to their higher affinity than monosaccharides. Based on our findings and previously described glycoforms on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike, we predicted the potential glycan epitopes for DC-SIGN. It suggested that glycan epitopes could be recognized at multiple sites, not just Asn234, Asn149 and Asn343. Subsequently, we found that Saikosaponin A and Liquiritin, two plant glycosides, were promising DC-SIGN antagonists in silico.

7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106462, 2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The use of antibiotics was common in some countries during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but adequate evaluation remains lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early antibiotic use in patients with non-severe COVID-19 admitted without bacterial infection. METHODS: This multi-centre retrospective cohort study included 1,373 inpatients with non-severe COVID-19 admitted without bacterial infection. Patients were divided into two groups according to their exposure to antibiotics within 48 h of admission. The outcomes were progression to severe COVID-19, length of stay >15 days and mortality rate. A mixed-effect Cox model and random effect logistic regression were used to explore the association between early antibiotic use and outcomes. RESULTS: During the 30-day follow-up period, the proportion of patients who progressed to severe COVID-19 in the early antibiotic use group was almost 1.4 times that of the comparison group. In the mixed-effect model, the early use of antibiotics was associated with higher probability of developing severe COVID-19 and staying in hospital for >15 days. However, there was no significant association between early use of antibiotics and mortality. Analysis with propensity-score-matched cohorts displayed similar results. In subgroup analysis, patients receiving any class of antibiotic were at increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Azithromycin did not improve disease progression and length of stay in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that antibiotic use should be avoided unless absolutely necessary in patients with non-severe COVID-19, particularly in the early stages.

8.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 8(Suppl 1): 010902-10902, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467649

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has wreaked havoc across the world. It also created a need for the urgent development of efficacious predictive diagnostics, specifically, artificial intelligence (AI) methods applied to medical imaging. This has led to the convergence of experts from multiple disciplines to solve this global pandemic including clinicians, medical physicists, imaging scientists, computer scientists, and informatics experts to bring to bear the best of these fields for solving the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, such a convergence over a very brief period of time has had unintended consequences and created its own challenges. As part of Medical Imaging Data and Resource Center initiative, we discuss the lessons learned from career transitions across the three involved disciplines (radiology, medical imaging physics, and computer science) and draw recommendations based on these experiences by analyzing the challenges associated with each of the three associated transition types: (1) AI of non-imaging data to AI of medical imaging data, (2) medical imaging clinician to AI of medical imaging, and (3) AI of medical imaging to AI of COVID-19 imaging. The lessons learned from these career transitions and the diffusion of knowledge among them could be accomplished more effectively by recognizing their associated intricacies. These lessons learned in the transitioning to AI in the medical imaging of COVID-19 can inform and enhance future AI applications, making the whole of the transitions more than the sum of each discipline, for confronting an emergency like the COVID-19 pandemic or solving emerging problems in biomedicine.

9.
《国际护理与健康》 ; 2021.
Article in Chinese | Omniscient | ID: covidwho-1411128

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To provide door-to-door nursing service for disabled elderly patients during Corona Virus Disease 2019, so as to ensure patient safety and improve service quality. Methods: Set up home visiting service commando team, reengineer the visiting process, do a good job in hierarchical management, strengthen the protection of medical staff, patients and their families, and provide online and offline health education guidance. Results: there were 178 cases of on-site service, including 44 emergency cases and 134 non emergency cases;69 times of dressing change, 85 times of catheter change, 19 times of gastric tube change, 71 times of bladder irrigation, 6 times of health assessment and 2 times of foot disease treatment. All the visiting officers Corona Virus Disease 2019 suspected or confirmed cases to do their own protection, no cross infection occurred in 1 cases. Conclusion: during the epidemic period of Corona Virus Disease 2019, the needs of elderly patients with disability were met, which provided practical experience for dealing with public health emergencies and preventing the risk of infectious diseases.

10.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 14347-14359, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392778

ABSTRACT

The successful control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is not only relying on the development of vaccines, but also depending on the storage, transportation, and administration of vaccines. Ideally, nucleic acid vaccine should be directly delivered to proper immune cells or tissue (such as lymph nodes). However, current developed vaccines are normally treated through intramuscular injection, where immune cells do not normally reside. Meanwhile, current nucleic acid vaccines must be stored in a frozen state that may hinder their application in developing countries. Here, we report a separable microneedle (SMN) patch to deliver polymer encapsulated spike (or nucleocapsid) protein encoding DNA vaccines and immune adjuvant for efficient immunization. Compared with intramuscular injection, SMN patch can deliver nanovaccines into intradermal for inducing potent and durable adaptive immunity. IFN-γ+CD4/8+ and IL-2+CD4/8+ T cells or virus specific IgG are significantly increased after vaccination. Moreover, in vivo results show the SMN patches can be stored at room temperature for at least 30 days without decreases in immune responses. These features of nanovaccines-laden SMN patch are important for developing advanced COVID-19 vaccines with global accessibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , DNA , Humans , Needles , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(9): e25781, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected antiretroviral therapy (ART) continuity among people living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. We conducted a qualitative study to explore barriers to ART maintenance and solutions to ART interruption when stringent COVID-19 control measures were implemented in China, from the perspective of PLHIV and relevant key stakeholders. METHODS: Between 11 February and 15 February 2020, we interviewed PLHIV, community-based organization (CBO) workers, staff from centres for disease control and prevention (CDC) at various levels whose work is relevant to HIV care (CDC staff), HIV doctors and nurses and drug vendors from various regions in China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a messaging and social media app. Challenges and responses relevant to ART continuity during the COVID-19 pandemic were discussed. Themes were identified by transcript coding and mindmaps. RESULTS: Sixty-four stakeholders were recruited, including 16 PLHIV, 17 CBO workers, 15 CDC staff, 14 HIV doctors and nurses and two drug vendors. Many CDC staff, HIV doctors and nurses responsible for ART delivery and HIV care were shifted to COVID-19 response efforts. Barriers to ART maintenance were (a) travel restrictions, (b) inadequate communication and bureaucratic obstacles, (c) shortage in personnel, (d) privacy concerns, and (e) insufficient ART reserve. CBO helped PLHIV maintain access to ART through five solutions identified from thematic analysis: (a) coordination to refill ART from local CDC clinics or hospitals, (b) delivery of ART by mail, (c) privacy protection measures, (d) mental health counselling, and (e) providing connections to alternative sources of ART. Drug vendors contributed to ART maintenance by selling out-of-pocket ART. CONCLUSIONS: Social and institutional disruption from COVID-19 contributed to increased risk of ART interruption among PLHIV in China. Collaboration among key stakeholders was needed to maintain access to ART, with CBO playing an important role. Other countries facing ART interruption during current or future public health emergencies may learn from the solutions employed in China.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stakeholder Participation
12.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the development of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and clinical application in predicting the clinical outcomes of SARS-COV-2 patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on the hospitalized patients with SARS-COV-2 recruited from four hospitals in Hubei Province, China from 18 January to 10 March 2020. The patients with CNS symptoms were determined. Data regarding clinical symptoms and laboratory tests were collected from medical records. RESULTS: Of 1268 patients studied, 162 (12.8%) had CNS symptoms, manifested as unconsciousness (71, 5.6%), coma (69, 5.4%), dysphoria (50, 3.9%), somnolence (34, 2.7%) and convulsion (3, 0.2%), which were observed at median of 14 (interquartile range 9-18) days after symptom onset and significantly associated with older age (OR = 5.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-11.73), male (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.22-2.47) and preexisting hypertension (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.23-2.57). The presence of CNS symptoms could be predicted by abnormal laboratory tests across various clinical stages, including by lymphocyte counts of <0.93 × 109/L, LDH≥435 U/L and IL-6≥28.83 pg/L at 0-10 days post disease; by lymphocyte count<0.86 × 109/L, IL-2R ≥ 949 U/L, LDH≥382 U/L and WBC≥8.06 × 109/L at 11-20 days post disease. More patients with CNS symptoms developed fatal outcome compared with patients without CNS symptoms (HR = 33.96, 95% CI 20.87-55.16). CONCLUSION: Neurological symptoms of COVID-19 were related to increased odds of developing poor prognosis and even fatal infection.

13.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 9: 100191, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364336
14.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(4):565-590, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1365816

ABSTRACT

With the wide application and constantly advancing of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the prevention and control of COVID-19, many innovative achievements have been made in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 by TCM. Analyzing the patent information of related innovations timely will not only help researcher to use patent information more quickly to mine and screen more effective drugs, but also help inspiring R&D personnel to strengthen patent protection for innovations. This article is based on Chinese Clinical Guidance for COVID-19 Diagnosis and Treatment (6th edition) published by National Health Commitssion of the People's Republic of China, analyses related patent information on recommended Chinese patent medicines in medical observation period, and basic prescriptions, recommended prescriptions and recommended Chinese patent medicines in clinical treatment period, describes the patent technology roadmap of recommended prescriptions and recommended Chinese patent medicines, analyzes key patent information, and tries to provide useful reference for scientific research of TCM.

15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 650766, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354878

ABSTRACT

Objective: The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted on radiotherapy (RT) strategy for breast cancer patients, which might lead to increased distressing psychological symptoms. We performed a multi-center cross-section survey to investigate prevalence of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) and predictors for FCR in patients referred to RT during pandemic. Methods: 542 patients were consecutively enrolled from three regions in China including Yangtze Delta River Region, Guangdong and Shanxi province. Patients' characteristics were collected using an information sheet, Fear of progression questionnaire-short form, Hospital Anxiety/Depression Scale and EORTC QLQ-C30. The hierarchical multiple regression models were performed. Results: 488 patients with complete data were eligible. The RT strategy was affected in 265 (54.3%) patients, including 143 with delayed RT initiation, 66 believing to have delayed RT initiation but actually not, 24 with RT interruptions, 19 shifting to local hospitals for RT and the remaining 13 influenced on both RT schedule and hospital level. The model explained 59.7% of observed variances in FCR (p<0.001) and showed that influence of RT strategy had significantly impacted on FCR (△R2 = 0.01, △F=2.966, p=0.019). Hospitals in Shanxi province (ß=-0.117, p=0.001), emotional function (ß=-0.19, p<0.001), social function (ß=-0.111, p=0.006), anxiety (ß=0.434, p<0.001) and RT interruption (ß=0.071, p=0.035) were independent predictors. Conclusions: RT strategy for breast cancer patients was greatly influenced during pandemic. RT interruption is an independent predictor for high FCR. Our findings emphasize the necessity to ensure continuum of RT, and efforts should be taken to alleviate FCR through psychological interventions.

16.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(4):620-623, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1352921

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by a new coronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), began in Wuhan, China. As of february 26, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected a total of 78 190 people and killed more than 2 700 people. Except China, Asia, Europe, North America, Africa, etc. Confirmed cases have been found in more than 20 countries. In addition, research data from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention showed that the proportion of asymptomatic new coronavirus infections accounted for about 1.2%. Besides, Asymptomatic infections are likely to remain infectious during the incubation periods. Conform the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and common detection methods will be vital for us to fight against this epidemic and to prevent a comeback of the new coronavirus in the future.

17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343437

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 relies on its spike protein to invade host cells by interacting with the human receptor protein Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes 2 (ACE2). Therefore, designing an antibody or small-molecular entry blockers is of great significance for virus prevention and treatment. This study identified five potential small molecular anti-virus blockers via targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by combining in silico technologies with in vitro experimental methods. The five molecules were natural products that binding to the RBD domain of SARS-CoV-2 was qualitatively and quantitively validated by both native Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Anti-viral activity assays showed that the optimal molecule, H69C2, had a strong binding affinity (dissociation constant KD) of 0.0947 µM and anti-virus IC50 of 85.75 µM.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325650

ABSTRACT

Family medicine physicians have been on the front lines of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; however, research and publications in family medicine journals are rarely discussed. In this study, a bibliometric analysis was conducted on COVID-19-related articles published in PubMed-indexed English language family medicine journals in 2020, which recorded the publication date and author's country and collected citations from Google Scholar. Additionally, we used LitCovid (an open database of COVID-19 literature from PubMed) to determine the content categories of each article and total number of global publications. We found that 33 family medicine journals published 5107 articles in 2020, of which 409 (8.0%) were COVID-19-related articles. Among the article categories, 107 were original articles, accounting for only 26.2% of the articles. In terms of content, the main category was prevention, with 177 articles, accounting for 43.3% of the articles. At the beginning of the epidemic, 10 articles were published in family medicine journals in January 2020, accounting for 11% of all COVID-19-related articles worldwide; however, this accounted for <0.5% of all disciplinary studies in the entire year. Therefore, family medicine journals indeed play a sentinel role, and the intensities and timeliness of COVID-19 publications deserve further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Periodicals as Topic , Bibliometrics , Family Practice , Humans , PubMed , Publications , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Chest ; 160(1): e86, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324076
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e052451, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322828

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To observe the weight change in Chinese youth during a 4-month COVID-19 lockdown, and the association between weight change and mental health, physical activity and sedentary time changes, and dietary habits. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. SETTINGS: Two universities located in Zhejiang and Hunan provinces, China. PARTICIPANTS: This study enrolled 12 889 college students whose body weight was measured before the lockdown (1 December 2019-20 January 2020) at the two universities, and reported their weight measured at home or community after the end of the lockdown (1-23 May 2020) via an online follow-up questionnaire. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the weight change in Chinese youth during a 4-month lockdown resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. The secondary outcomes were the relationships of weight change to COVID-19-related stress, depression, anxiety, physical activity and sedentary time changes, and dietary habits. RESULTS: Participants' ages ranged from 17 to 27 years (M=19, SD=1) with 80.2% identified as female. The average absolute and relative changes in body weight were 2.6 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.2)) kg and 4.2% (95% CI 4.0% to 4.3%) for men, and 2.1 (1.9 to 2.4) kg and 4.2% (95% CI 3.9% to 4.4%) for women. An increase in overweight and obese individuals according to Asian cut-off points as a demographic percentage by 4.5% and 2.7% and 4.8% and 3.4% in men and women, respectively (P<0.001), was observed. Weight gain was significantly associated with increased sedentary time and an increase in COVID-19-related stress and depression score. CONCLUSION: The present study's results suggest that the risk of weight gain in Chinese youth during the lockdown increased and that strategies to decrease sedentary time and improve mental health may be warranted to mitigate weight gain during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Gain , Young Adult
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