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1.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104909, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203052

ABSTRACT

3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is a virally encoded main proteinase that is pivotal for the viral replication across a broad spectrum of coronaviruses. This study aims to discover the naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors from herbal constituents, as well as to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of the newly identified efficacious SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors. Following screening of the inhibitory potentials of eighty herbal products against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBLE) was found with the most potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activity (IC50 = 6.68 µg/mL). Inhibition assays demonstrated that the ginkgolic acids (GAs) and the bioflavones isolated from GBLE displayed relatively strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities (IC50 < 10 µM). Among all tested constituents, GA C15:0, GA C17:1 and sciadopitysin displayed potent 3CLpro inhibition activities, with IC50 values of less than 2 µM. Further inhibition kinetic studies and docking simulations clearly demonstrated that two GAs and sciadopitysin strongly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLprovia a reversible and mixed inhibition manner. Collectively, this study found that both GBLE and the major constituents in this herbal product exhibit strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities, which offer several promising leading compounds for developing novel anti-COVID-19 medications via targeting on 3CLpro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginkgo biloba/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Flavones/pharmacology , Flavones/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Structure , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Salicylates/pharmacology , Salicylates/therapeutic use
2.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 9465398, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-879699

ABSTRACT

This new decade has started with a global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), precipitating a worldwide health crisis and economic downturn. Scientists and clinicians have been racing against time to find therapies for COVID-19. Repurposing approved drugs, developing vaccines and employing passive immunization are three major therapeutic approaches to fighting COVID-19. Chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) has the potential to be used as neutralizing antibody against respiratory infections, and its advantages include high avidity, low risk of adverse immune responses, and easy local delivery by intranasal administration. In this study, we raised antibody against the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 in chickens and extracted IgY (called IgY-S) from egg yolk. IgY-S exhibited high immunoreactivity against SARS-CoV-2 S, and by epitope mapping, we found five linear epitopes of IgY-S in SARS-CoV-2 S, two of which are cross-reactive with SARS-CoV S. Notably, epitope SIIAYTMSL, one of the identified epitopes, partially overlaps the S1/S2 cleavage region in SARS-CoV-2 S and is located on the surface of S trimer in 3D structure, close to the S1/S2 cleavage site. Thus, antibody binding at this location could physically block the access of proteolytic enzymes to S1/S2 cleavage site and thereby impede S1/S2 proteolytic cleavage, which is crucial to subsequent virus-cell membrane fusion and viral cell entry. Therefore, the feasibility of using IgY-S or epitope SIIAYTMS-specific IgY as neutralizing antibody for preventing or treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is worth exploring.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epitope Mapping , Immunoglobulins/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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