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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2):115-116, 2022.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1836066

ABSTRACT

China was certificated malaria-free by WHO in 2021 and has continued to maintain malaria elimination. However, there are still huge challenges in malaria control in the border regions between Yunnan Province, China and Myanmar due to lack of geographic barriers and frequent cross-border travel. Hereby, we review the direction contributions of the Global Fund Malaria Program implemented by Health Poverty Action (HPA), an international non-governmental organization (NGO), to malaria elimination in China, and analyze the challenges of malaria control caused by external environmental factors, such as COVID-19, in regions where the Global Fund Malaria Program is implemented. In addition, some suggestions are proposed for cross-border collaboration on malaria control.

2.
Chinese General Practice ; 25(11):1387-1392, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835847

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic containment in rural areas is the frontline for containing COVID-19 and a key part of response system for public health emergencies in China, during which rural physicians play an important role as the "gatekeeper" of rural residents' health and rural pandemic prevention and control. However, rural physicians have demonstrated some work-related problems during the COVID-19 pandemic containment, which have affected the implementation effectiveness of their duties and responsibilities. Objective: To investigate the duties and responsibilities of rural physicians during COVID-19 pandemic containment in rural areas, and to identify the problems, then put forward relevant suggestions. Methods: An on-site semi-structured interview using non-participant observation approach was carried out in Beijing's Huairou District from April to July, 2021. Eighteen rural physicians were selected to attend the interview as stakeholders. The interview was guided by an outline developed based on a literature review and an expert consultation, including three parts: (1)demographic characteristics(practice location, sex, age), (2)practicing qualifications(education level, starting time of practicing, professional qualifications), (3)involvement in COVID-19 pandemic prevention and control(awareness of the 10 instructions for COVID-19 pandemic containment in village clinics, participation in COVID-19 pandemic containment, and personal protective equipment materials for COVID-19). The interview was continued until data saturation. Results: Among the 18 rural physicians, 14(77.8%) were certified as rural physicians, 3(16.7%) were certified as rural assistant general practitioners, 2(11.1%) had a certificate of licensed physician and 1(5.6%) had a certificate of licensed assistant physician. Except for one(5.6%), the rural physicians〔17(94.4%)〕 indicated that they knew the 10 instructions for COVID-19 pandemic containment in the village clinic. The top three services about COVID-19 pandemic containment most frequently provided by the rural physicians were health education (94.4%), information reporting(72.2%) and diagnosis and treatment(64.7%), and the least provided was throat swab sampling〔only one case (5.6%)〕. In addition, three rural physicians participated in providing other services, which included screening suspected COVID-19 cases in the village, guiding COVID-19 pandemic containment in the village, and purchasing food for villagers. Ten physicians(55.6%)indicated that personal protective equipment materials for COVID-19 were adequate, but other 8(44.4%) expressed that such materials were inadequate during the first response phase. During the regular COVID-19 pandemic containment phase, 16 physicians(88.9%) indicated that personal protective equipment materials for COVID-19 were adequate, but other 2(11.1%) still indicated that such materials were inadequate. The top four personal protective equipment materials for COVID-19 owned by the physicians in regular COVID-19 pandemic containment phase were 84 Disinfectant(72.2%), ordinary disposable medical masks(66.7%), disposable gloves(66.7%) and medical surgical masks(61.1%), and the least owned were medical protective clothing(38.9%) and goggles(11.1%). Conclusion: Rural physicians play a necessary role in COVID-19 pandemic containment in rural areas, but the effectiveness of their services has been affected by limited personal capabilities in delivering COVID-19 pandemic containment services(including pharyngeal swab sampling), lack of a legal right to provide home-based isolation and monitoring services, and inadequate personal protective equipment materials. Therefore, it is recommended that relevant laws and regulations should be improved to provide a legal right for rural physicians to perform their duties and responsibilities in COVID-19 pandemic containment, recruit them to the public health team of the village committee, and ensure the provision of emergency materials for village physicians to help them to realize their potential in pandemic ontainment. Copyright © 2022 by the Chinese General Practice.

3.
Chung-Hua Yu Fang i Hsueh Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine] ; 56(4):474-478, 2022.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834947

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the course of disease and epidemiological parameters of COVID-19 and provide evidence for making prevention and control strategies.

4.
Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Europeen sur les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin ; 27(18), 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834266

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOmicron subvariant BA.2 circulation is rapidly increasing globally.AimWe evaluated the neutralising antibody response from vaccination or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection against symptomatic infection by BA.2 or other variants. Methods Using 50% plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT50), we assessed neutralising antibody titres to BA.2, wild type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and other variants in Comirnaty or CoronaVac vaccinees, with or without prior WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection. Titres were also measured for non-vaccinees convalescing from a WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neutralising antibodies in BA.2 and BA.1 breakthrough infections and in BA.2 infections affecting non-vaccinees were additionally studied. Results In vaccinees or prior WT-SARS-CoV-2-infected people, BA.2 and BA.1 PRNT50 titres were comparable but significantly (p < 10 - 5) lower than WT. In each group of 20 vaccinees with (i) three-doses of Comirnaty, (ii) two CoronaVac followed by one Comirnaty dose, or (iii) one dose of either vaccine after a WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection, >= 19 individuals developed detectable (PRNT50 titre >= 10) antibodies to BA.2, while only 15 of 20 vaccinated with three doses of CoronaVac did. Comirnaty vaccination elicited higher titres to BA.2 than CoronaVac. In people convalescing from a WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection, a single vaccine dose induced higher BA.2 titres than three Comirnaty (p = 0.02) or CoronaVac (p = 0.00001) doses in infection-naive individuals. BA.2 infections in previously uninfected and unvaccinated individuals elicited low (PRNT50 titre <= 80) responses with little cross-neutralisation of other variants. However, vaccinees with BA.1 or BA.2 breakthrough infections had broad cross-neutralising antibodies to WT viruses, and BA.1, BA.2, Beta and Delta variants. Conclusions Existing vaccines can be of help against the BA.2 subvariant.

5.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance ; 03:03, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-COV-2 virus and its variants pose extraordinary challenges for public health worldwide. Timely and accurate forecasting of the COVID-19 epidemic is the key to sustaining interventions and policies and efficient resources allocation. Internet-based data sources have shown great potential to supplement traditional infectious disease surveillance, and the combination of different Internet-based data sources has shown greater power to enhance epidemic forecasting accuracy than using a single Internet-based data source. However, existing methods incorporating multiple Internet-based data sources only used real-time data from these sources as exogenous inputs but did not take all the historical data into account. Moreover, the predictive power of different Internet-based data sources in providing early warning for COVID-19 outbreaks has not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of our study is to explore whether combining real-time and historical data from multiple Internet-based sources could improve the COVID-19 forecasting accuracy over the existing baseline models. A secondary aim is to explore the COVID-19 forecasting timeliness based on different Internet-based data sources. METHODS: We first used core terms and symptoms-related keywords-based methods to extract COVID-19 related Internet-based data from December 21, 2019, to February 29, 2020. The Internet-based data we explored included 90,493,912 online news articles, 37,401,900 microblogs, and all the Baidu search query data during that period. We then proposed an autoregressive model with exogenous inputs, incorporating the real-time and historical data from multiple Internet-based sources. Our proposed model was compared with baseline models, and all the models were tested during the first wave of COVID-19 epidemics in Hubei province and the rest of mainland China separately. We also used the lagged Pearson correlations for the COVID-19 forecasting timeliness analysis. RESULTS: Our proposed model achieved the highest accuracy in all the five accuracy measures, compared with all the baseline models of both Hubei province and the rest of mainland China. In the mainland China except for Hubei, the COVID-19 epidemics forecasting accuracy differences between our proposed model (model i) and all the other baseline models were statistically significant (model 1, t=-8.722, P<.001;model 2, t=-5.000, P<.001, model 3, t=-1.882, P =0.063, model 4, t=-4.644, P<.001;model 5, t=-4.488, P<.001). In Hubei province, our proposed model's forecasting accuracy improved significantly compared with the baseline model using historical COVID-19 new confirmed case counts only (model 1, t=-1.732, P=0.086). Our results also showed that Internet-based sources could provide a 2-6 days earlier warning for COVID-19 outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach incorporating real-time and historical data from multiple Internet-based sources could improve forecasting accuracy for COVID-19 epidemics and its variants, which may help improve public health agencies' interventions and resources allocation in mitigating and controlling new waves of COVID-19 or other relevant epidemics. Clinicaltrial:

6.
Risk Management & Healthcare Policy ; 15:845-864, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834081

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The emergence of the mutant virus has exacerbated the COVID-19 epidemic, and vaccines remain an effective and viable means of resistance. As a socially influential young group, university students' awareness and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine are crucial to achieving herd immunity. This study aimed to assess the awareness and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among Chinese university students and identify possible factors associated with their awareness level and vaccine hesitancy. Patients and Methods: An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted among Chinese university students between 10 and 28 June 2021. We collected information on the demographic characteristics, awareness and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine, and influencing factors. Sleep disturbances and anxiety disorders were also evaluated. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Among the 721 participants (aged 18 to 23 years) with a female predominance (68.9%), 40.4% of cases exhibited moderate awareness the COVID-19 vaccine, and 87.4% of cases expressed high acceptance of the vaccine. Participants ' awareness of the COVID-19 vaccine was associated with gender, ethnicity, region of residence, grade level, satisfaction with current state of pandemic control, the perceived likelihood of a COVID-19 pandemic rebound, the source number of COVID-19 information, concerns about differences in vaccine manufacturers, acceptance of current state-approved vaccines and insomnia level. Furthermore, age, preferred channels for vaccination and the acceptance of current state-approved vaccines were significantly associated with their acceptance of the vaccine. Conclusion: This study reflected Chinese university students' high acceptance, but insufficient awareness of the COVID-19 vaccine, some students have insomnia and anxiety problems. These require the government to take measures such as individualized publicity and education, adding professional psychological counseling courses to improve the university students' awareness of vaccines and public health events, and comprehensively promote vaccination to cope with the ever-changing situation of the COVID-19 epidemic.

7.
Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy ; : e0022222, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832332

ABSTRACT

Genetic variation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in the emergence and rapid spread of multiple variants throughout the pandemic, of which Omicron is currently the predominant variant circulating worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern/variants of interest (VOC/VOI) have evidence of increased viral transmission, disease severity, or decreased effectiveness of vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. Remdesivir (RDV [VEKLURY]) is a nucleoside analog prodrug and the first FDA-approved antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Here, we present a comprehensive antiviral activity assessment of RDV and its parent nucleoside, GS-441524, against 10 current and former SARS-CoV-2 VOC/VOI clinical isolates by nucleoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plaque reduction assay. Delta and Omicron variants remained susceptible to RDV and GS-441524, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values 0.30- to 0.62-fold of those observed against the ancestral WA1 isolate. All other tested variants exhibited EC50 values ranging from 0.13- to 2.3-fold of the observed EC50 values against WA1. Analysis of nearly 6 million publicly available variant isolate sequences confirmed that Nsp12, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) target of RDV and GS-441524, is highly conserved across variants, with only 2 prevalent changes (P323L and G671S). Using recombinant viruses, both RDV and GS-441524 retained potency against all viruses containing frequent variant substitutions or their combination. Taken together, these results highlight the conserved nature of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp12 and provide evidence of sustained SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity of RDV and GS-441524 across the tested variants. The observed pan-variant activity of RDV supports its continued use for the treatment of COVID-19 regardless of the SARS-CoV-2 variant.

8.
Transboundary & Emerging Diseases ; 08:08, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832280

ABSTRACT

The porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly discovered pig enteric coronavirus that can infect cells from various species. In Haiti, PDCoV infections in children with acute undifferentiated febrile fever were recently reported. Considering the great potential of interspecies transmission of PDCoV, we performed a comprehensive analysis of codon usage patterns and host adaptation profiles of 54 representative PDCoV strains with the spike (S) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the PDCoV S gene indicates the PDCoV strains can be divided into five genogroups. We found a certain codon usage bias existed in the S gene, in which the synonymous codons are often ended with U or A. Heat map analysis revealed that all the PDCoV strains shared a similar codon usage trend. The PDCoV S gene with a dN / dS value lower than 1 reveals a negative selection on the PDCoV S gene. Neutrality analysis showed that natural selection is the dominant force in shaping the codon usage bias of the PDCoV S gene. Unexpectedly, host adaptation analysis reveals a higher adaptation level of PDCoV to Homo sapiens and Gallus gallus than to Sus scrofa. Compared to the USA lineage, the PDCoV strains in the Early China lineage and Thailand lineage were less adapted to their hosts, which indicates that the evolutionary process plays an important role in the adaptation ability of PDCoV. These findings of this study add to our understanding of PDCoV's evolution, adaptability, and interspecies transmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334620

ABSTRACT

The spike (S), a homotrimer glycoprotein, is the most important antigen target in the research and development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. There is no doubt that fully simulating the advanced structure of this homotrimer in the subunit vaccine development strategy is the most likely way to improve the immune protective effect of the vaccine. In this study, the preparation strategies of S protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) trimer, S1 region trimer, and ectodomain (ECD) trimer nanoparticles were designed based on ferritin nanoparticle self-assembly technology. The Bombyx mori baculovirus expression system was used to prepare these three nanoparticle vaccines with high expression levels in the silkworm. The immune results of mice show that the nanoparticle vaccine prepared by this strategy can not only induce an immune response by subcutaneous administration but also effective by oral administration. Given the stability of these ferritin-based nanoparticles vaccine, easy-to-use and low-cost oral immunization strategy can make up for the vaccination blind areas caused by the shortage of ultralow-temperature equipment and medical resources in underdeveloped areas. And the oral vaccine is also a very potential candidate to cut off the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic and farmed animals, especially in stray and wild animals.

10.
Cellular & Molecular Immunology ; 19(5):577-587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830043

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can capture and kill viruses, such as influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), thus contributing to host defense. Contrary to our expectation, we show here that the histones released by NETosis enhance the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, as found by using live SARS-CoV-2 and two pseudovirus systems as well as a mouse model. The histone H3 or H4 selectively binds to subunit 2 of the spike (S) protein, as shown by a biochemical binding assay, surface plasmon resonance and binding energy calculation as well as the construction of a mutant S protein by replacing four acidic amino acids. Sialic acid on the host cell surface is the key molecule to which histones bridge subunit 2 of the S protein. Moreover, histones enhance cell-cell fusion. Finally, treatment with an inhibitor of NETosis, histone H3 or H4, or sialic acid notably affected the levels of sgRNA copies and the number of apoptotic cells in a mouse model. These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could hijack histones from neutrophil NETosis to promote its host cell attachment and entry process and may be important in exploring pathogenesis and possible strategies to develop new effective therapies for COVID-19.

11.
Science China. Life sciences ; 05:05, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826872

ABSTRACT

Lockdown and re-opening may become cyclical due to the recurrent waves of the COVID-19 epidemic. Few studies have examined temporal trends and determinants of in-hospital mortality among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), a life-threatening condition that requires emergency medical care. Using nation-wide data before, during and after the Wuhan lockdown, we aimed to depict temporal patterns and major determinants of STEMI in-hospital mortality in China across five time periods of the COVID-19 epidemic. We analyzed the data of 283,661 STEMI patients who were admitted to 4,487 chest-pain-centers across China, from January 1, 2019 to May 31, 2020. Compared with the period before the lockdown, STEMI in-hospital mortality increased by 25% (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.16-1.34) during Early Lockdown, by 12% (OR 1.12, 95%CI 1.03-1.22) during Later Lockdown, by 35% (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.21-1.50) during Early Lift, and returned to pre-COVID risk (OR 1.04, 95%CI 0.95-1.14) during Later Lift. For each time-period, we observed a clear mortality gradient by timing and types of revascularization procedure. In conclusion, the COVID-19 epidemic had a significant adverse impact on STEMI in-hospital mortality, with bimodal peaks during early lockdown and early lift periods and clear mortality gradients by timing and types of revascularization procedure, independent of the time periods.

12.
Journal of Economic Inequality ; : 1-33, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826687

ABSTRACT

We evaluate the COVID-19 resilience of a Continental welfare regime by nowcasting the implications of the shock and its associated policy responses on the distribution of household incomes over the whole of 2020. Our approach relies on a dynamic microsimulation modelling that combines a household income generation model estimated on the latest EU-SILC wave with novel nowcasting techniques to calibrate the simulations using external macro controls which reflect the macroeconomic climate during the crisis. We focus on Luxembourg, a country that introduced minor tweaks to the existing tax-benefit system, which has a strong social insurance focus that gave certainty during the crisis. We find the system was well-equipped ahead of the crisis to cushion household incomes against job losses. The income-support policy changes were effective in cushioning household incomes and mitigating an increase in income inequality, allowing average household disposable income and inequality levels to bounce back to pre-crisis levels in the last quarter of 2020. The share of labour incomes dropped, but was compensated by an increase in benefits, reflecting the cushioning effect of the transfer system. Overall market incomes dropped and became more unequal. Their disequalizing evolution was matched by an increase in redistribution, driven by an increase in the generosity of benefits and larger access to benefits. The nowcasting model is a "near" real-time analysis and decision support tool to monitor the recovery, scalable to other countries with high applicability for policymakers. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at doi:10.1007/s10888-021-09524-4.

13.
The journal of sexual medicine ; 19(5):S187-S188, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823965

ABSTRACT

Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is usually a symptom of another medical condition. People with poor overall health are more likely to develop severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may have unwanted symptoms such as ED. COVID-19-related stress, anxiety, and depression can also impact sexual health and possibly lead to ED. There are various treatment options for patients with ED. However, real-world evidence of the impact of COVID-19 on the treatment and comorbidities of patients with ED is limited. Objectives To estimate the impact of COVID-19 on the treatment and comorbidities of patients with ED in the United States. Methods This retrospective real-world data (RWD) analysis used the IQVIA PharMetrics® Plus claims database, which is a patient-Centric, closed claims database of fully adjudicated pharmacy, hospital and medical claims anonymized at the patient level, that captures the complete patient journey for all services billed to and covered by the patient's health plan. We compared the ED treatment and comorbidities in adult males aged 18+ years with ED in the same 3-month periods before (01March - 31May, 2019) and during (01March – 31May, 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. ED treatment included any ED-related claims, prescriptions of any and individual phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i) medications (avanafil, sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil). Results See the table below for number of patients having ED-related claims, having any and individual PDE5i prescriptions, number of patients with COVID-19 diagnosis, and percentage of patients with each of the top 10 comorbidities, in the 3-month periods before and during COVID-19. Conclusions RWD showed that ED-related claims significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, reflecting the pandemic's impact on ED patients’ health. However, the use of PDE5i medications remained stable during the pandemic. Key comorbidities including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract symptoms, testicular hypofunction, and malignant neoplasm of the prostate, during the pandemic, compared with pre-pandemic period, highlighted the impact of the pandemic on ED patients’ health and need for managing their other comorbid chronic diseases. Disclosure Work supported by industry: yes, by Viatris. A consultant, employee (part time or full time) or shareholder is among the authors (Viatris).

14.
Vaccines ; 10(4):17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820427

ABSTRACT

Objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed significant costs on economies. Safe and effective vaccines are a key tool to control the pandemic;however, vaccination programs can be costly. Are the benefits they bestow worth the costs they incur? The relative value of COVID-19 vaccines has not been widely assessed. In this study, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to provide evidence of the economic value of vaccines in Hong Kong. Method We developed a Markov model of COVID-19 infections using a susceptible-infected-recovered structure over a 1-year time horizon from a Hong Kong healthcare sector perspective to measure resource utilization, economic burden, and disease outcomes. The model consisted of two arms: do nothing and implement a vaccination program. We assessed effectiveness using units of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to measure the incremental cost-effectiveness at a HKD 1,000,000/QALY threshold. Results The vaccination program, which has reached approximately 72% of the population of Hong Kong with two vaccine doses, was found to have a cost of HKD 22,339,700 per QALY gained from February 2021 to February 2022. At a willingness-to-pay threshold, the vaccination program was not cost-effective in the context of the low prevalence of COVID-19 cases before the Omicron wave. However, the cost-effectiveness of a COVID-19 vaccine is sensitive to the infection rate. Hong Kong is now experiencing the fifth wave of the Omicron. It is estimated that the ICER of the vaccination program from February 2022 to February 2023 was HKD 310,094. The vaccination program in Hong Kong was cost-effective in the context of the Omicron. Conclusions Vaccination programs incur a large economic burden, and we therefore need to acknowledge their limitations in the short term. This will help relevant departments implement vaccination programs. From a longer-term perspective, the vaccination program will show great cost-effectiveness once infection rates are high in a regional outbreak. Compared with other age groups, it is suggested that the elderly population should be prioritized to improve the vaccine coverage rate.

15.
Jfr-Journal of Family Research ; 34(1):280-306, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818910

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examines gender and socioeconomic inequalities in parental psychological wellbeing (parenting stress and psychological distress) during the COVID19 pandemic in Germany. Background: The dramatic shift of childcare and schooling responsibility from formal institutions to private households during the pandemic has put families under enormous stress and raised concerns about caregivers' health and wellbeing. Despite the overwhelming media attention to families' wellbeing, to date limited research has examined parenting stress and parental psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in Germany. Method: We analyzed four waves of panel data (N= 1,771) from an opt-in online survey, which was conducted between March 2020 and April 2021. Multivariable OLS regressions were used to estimate variations in the pandemic's effects on parenting stress and psychological distress by various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Results: Overall, levels of parenting stress and psychological distress increased during the pandemic. During the first and third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, mothers, parents with children younger than 11 years, parents with two or more children, parents working from home as well as parents with financial insecurity experienced higher parenting stress than other sociodemographic groups. Moreover, women, respondents with lower incomes, single parents, and parents with younger children experienced higher levels of psychological distress than other groups. Conclusion: Gender and socioeconomic inequalities in parents' psychological wellbeing increased among the study participants during the pandemic.

16.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13:14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818010

ABSTRACT

This study used the Social Cognitive Theory and Broaden-and-Build Theory to propose and validate a chain mediation model. In total, 417 Chinese college students were studied to explore the effects of parent-child relationships on their academic performance. In addition, we investigated the chain-mediating roles of gratitude and psychological capital. The results showed that (1) the parent-child relationship significantly and positively affected the academic performance of college students;(2) gratitude partially mediated the parent-child relationship and the academic performance of college students;(3) psychological capital partially mediated the parent-child relationship and the academic performance of college students;and (4) gratitude and psychological capital exerted a chain-mediating effect between parent-child relationships and the academic performance of college students. Based on the results of the study, we conclude that the parent-child relationship not only directly affects the academic performance of college students but also indirectly affects it through the chain mediation of gratitude and psychological capital. Moreover, we proposed reasonable suggestions on how colleges and universities can guide students to deal with parent-child relationships, strengthen gratitude education, and improve psychological capital.

17.
Am J Public Health ; : e1-e10, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1817598

ABSTRACT

We analyzed COVID-19 influences on the design, implementation, and validity of assessing the quality of primary health care using unannounced standardized patients (USPs) in China. Because of the pandemic, we crowdsourced our funding, removed tuberculosis from the USP case roster, adjusted common cold and asthma cases, used hybrid online-offline training for USPs, shared USPs across provinces, and strengthened ethical considerations. With those changes, we were able to conduct fieldwork despite frequent COVID-19 interruptions. Furthermore, the USP assessment tool maintained high validity in the quality checklist (criteria), USP role fidelity, checklist completion, and physician detection of USPs. Our experiences suggest that the pandemic created not only barriers but also opportunities to innovate ways to build a resilient data collection system. To build data system reliance, we recommend harnessing the power of technology for a hybrid model of remote and in-person work, learning from the sharing economy to pool strengths and optimize resources, and dedicating individual and group leadership to problem-solving and results. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 28, 2022:e1-e10. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306779).

18.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(4):e0262426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817470

ABSTRACT

With the tendency toward economic and strategy decoupling between China and the United States and amidst the anti-globalization trend, enterprises are facing unprecedented challenges and opportunities. In this study, we reveal how the agile intuition (AI) of top managers with respect to the external environment affects enterprise innovation behavior (IB) based on the cognition-behavior framework. Strategic learning (SL) is considered a moderator, and knowledge sharing (KS) is considered a mediator. The survey sample consists of 305 managers from 47 enterprises in China during the COVID-19 period. The empirical results show that top management agile intuition significantly promotes enterprise IB;knowledge sharing (KS) partially mediates the relationship between top manager AI and enterprise IB;and SL suppresses the promotion effect of top manager AI on enterprise IB to a certain extent, hindering blind innovation. In a surprising result, we find that strategic guidance by an external consultant does not significantly affect the enterprise IB in China.

19.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816890

ABSTRACT

Objectives Sensitive and high throughput molecular testing availability is essential during the COVID-19 pandemic. The vast majority of the SARS-CoV-2 molecular assays use nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab specimens collected from suspected individuals. However, collecting these specimens has apparent drawbacks, including discomfort to patients and exposure risk to healthcare workers. Methods We developed and validated of QuantiVirus™ SARS-CoV-2 multiplex test using saliva as the testing specimens with pooling. Results The analytical sensitivity (LOD) was confirmed to be 100-200 copies/mL. For clinical evaluation, 85 known positive and 90 knowns negative NPS specimens were showed a positive predictive agreement of 100% and a negative predictive agreement of 98.9%. Twenty paired NPS and saliva samples were tested and showed overall 80% concordance rate without significant difference between NPS and saliva specimens by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p=0.13). On a large scale of saliva-based population screening, the positive test rate was 1.79% among 389 saliva specimens. Furthermore, saliva sample pooling up to 6 samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection is feasible with sensitivity of 94.8% and specificity of 100%. Conclusions These results demonstrated that the clinical performance of saliva-based testing is comparable to that of NPS-based testing, and that pooling of saliva specimens for SARS-CoV-2 detection is feasible.

20.
mBio ; : e0018122, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1816698

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune memory to COVID-19 vaccines is critical for the design and optimal vaccination schedule for curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we assessed the status of humoral and cellular immune responses at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after two-dose CoronaVac vaccination. A total of 150 participants were enrolled, and 136 of them completed the study through the 12-month endpoint. Our results show that, at 1 month after vaccination, both binding and neutralizing antibodies could be detected;the seropositive rate of binding antibodies and seroconversion rate of neutralizing antibodies were 99% and 50%, respectively. From 3 to 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies declined over time. At 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies were still detectable and significantly higher than the baseline. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion specifically induced by the receptor-binding domain (RBD) persisted at high levels until 6 months and could be observed at 12 months, while the levels of IL-5 and granzyme B (GzmB) were hardly detected, demonstrating a Th1-biased response. In addition, specific CD4(+) T central memory (T(CM)), CD4(+) effector memory (T(EM)), CD8(+) T(EM), and CD8(+) terminal effector (T(E)) cells were all detectable and functional up to 12 months after the second dose, as the cells produced IFN-γ, IL-2, and GzmB in response to stimulation of SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Our work provides evidence that CoronaVac induced not only detectable binding and neutralizing antibody responses, but also functional SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T cells for up to 12 months. IMPORTANCE CoronaVac is an inactivated vaccine containing whole-virion SARS-CoV-2, which has been approved in 43 countries for emergency use as of 26 November 2021. However, the long-term immune persistence of the CoronaVac vaccine is still unknown. Here, we reported the status of the persistence of antibodies and cellular responses within 12 months after two doses of CoronaVac. Such data are crucial to inform ongoing and future vaccination strategies to combat COVID-19.

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