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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1139742, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245350

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected treatment-seeking behaviors of psychiatric patients and their guardians. Barriers to access of mental health services may contribute to adverse mental health consequences, not only for psychiatric patients, but also for their guardians. This study explored the prevalence of depression and its association with quality of life among guardians of hospitalized psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted in China. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, fatigue level and quality of life (QOL) of guardians were measured with validated Chinese versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale - 7 (GAD-7), fatigue numeric rating scale (FNRS), and the first two items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. Independent correlates of depression were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare global QOL of depressed versus non-depressed guardians. The network structure of depressive symptoms among guardians was constructed using an extended Bayesian Information Criterion (EBIC) model. Results: The prevalence of depression among guardians of hospitalized psychiatric patients was 32.4% (95% CI: 29.7-35.2%). GAD-7 total scores (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.8-2.1) and fatigue (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4) were positively correlated with depression among guardians. After controlling for significant correlates of depression, depressed guardians had lower QOL than non-depressed peers did [F(1, 1,101) = 29.24, p < 0.001]. "Loss of energy" (item 4 of the PHQ-9), "concentration difficulties" (item 7 of the PHQ-9) and "sad mood" (item 2 of the PHQ-9) were the most central symptoms in the network model of depression for guardians. Conclusion: About one third of guardians of hospitalized psychiatric patients reported depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Poorer QOL was related to having depression in this sample. In light of their emergence as key central symptoms, "loss of energy," "concentration problems," and "sad mood" are potentially useful targets for mental health services designed to support caregivers of psychiatric patients.

2.
Vet Microbiol ; 283: 109781, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244970

ABSTRACT

FIP is a fatal feline disease caused by FIPV. Two drugs (GS441524 and GC376) target FIPV and have good therapeutic effect when administered by subcutaneous injection. However, subcutaneous injection has limitations compared with oral administration. Additionally, the oral efficacy of the two drugs has not been determined. Here, GS441524 and GC376 were shown to efficiently inhibit FIPV-rQS79 (recombination virus with a full-length field type I FIPV and the spike gene replaced with type II FIPV) and FIPV II (commercially available type II FIPV 79-1146) at a noncytotoxic concentration in CRFK cells. Moreover, the effective oral dose was determined via the in vivo pharmacokinetics of GS441524 and GC376. We conducted animal trials in three dosing groups and found that while GS441524 can effectively reducing the mortality of FIP subjects at a range of doses, GC376 only reducing the mortality rate at high doses. Additionally, compared with GC376, oral GS441524 has better absorption, slower clearance and a slower rate of metabolism. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the oral and subcutaneous pharmacokinetic parameters. Collectively, our study is the first to evaluate the efficacy of oral GS441524 and GC376 using a relevant animal model. We also verified the reliability of oral GS441524 and the potential of oral GC376 as a reference for rational clinical drug use. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic data provide insights into and potential directions for the optimization of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Cats , Animals , Reproducibility of Results , Administration, Oral
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 242, 2023 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241193

ABSTRACT

Repurposing existing drugs to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in airway epithelial cells (AECs) is a quick way to find novel treatments for COVID-19. Computational screening has found dicoumarol (DCM), a natural anticoagulant, to be a potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor, but its inhibitory effects and possible working mechanisms remain unknown. Using air-liquid interface culture of primary human AECs, we demonstrated that DCM has potent antiviral activity against the infection of multiple Omicron variants (including BA.1, BQ.1 and XBB.1). Time-of-addition and drug withdrawal assays revealed that early treatment (continuously incubated after viral absorption) of DCM could markedly inhibit Omicron replication in AECs, but DCM did not affect the absorption, exocytosis and spread of viruses or directly eliminate viruses. Mechanistically, we performed single-cell sequencing analysis (a database of 77,969 cells from different airway locations from 10 healthy volunteers) and immunofluorescence staining, and showed that the expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), one of the known DCM targets, was predominantly localised in ciliated AECs. We further found that the NQO1 expression level was positively correlated with both the disease severity of COVID-19 patients and virus copy levels in cultured AECs. In addition, DCM treatment downregulated NQO1 expression and disrupted signalling pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 disease outcomes (e.g., Endocytosis and COVID-19 signalling pathways) in cultured AECs. Collectively, we demonstrated that DCM is an effective post-exposure prophylactic for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human AECs, and these findings could help physicians formulate novel treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dicumarol , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Epithelium
4.
Int J Hosp Manag ; 113: 103519, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328354

ABSTRACT

Given the generally stressful job demands of the hospitality industry during the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the work passion and emotions of hotel employees is particularly important. Based on the conservation of resources theory and the job demands-resources model, this study develops a multiple mediation model to investigate how frontline hotel employees with different types of work passion choose emotional labor strategies under the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of different choices on their service quality. A two-stage survey using data from 206 frontline employees of five-star hotels in China explored how work passion influences emotional labor and thereby affects emotional expression as well as service quality. The results showed emotional labor partially mediates the relationship between work passion and emotional expression, which in turn mediates the relationship between emotional labor and service quality during the COVID-19 pandemic. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.

5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1054147, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324440

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are a key weapon against the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. However, there are inter-individual differences in immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and genetic contributions to these differences have barely been investigated. Here, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) of antibody levels in 168 inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine recipients. A total of 177 SNPs, corresponding to 41 independent loci, were identified to be associated with IgG, total antibodies or neutral antibodies. Specifically, the rs4543780, the intronic variant of FAM89A gene, was associated with total antibodies level and was annotated as a potential regulatory variant affecting gene expression of FAM89A, a biomarker differentiating bacterial from viral infections in febrile children. These findings might advance our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms driving immunity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Antibody Formation , Genome-Wide Association Study , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1124915, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326992

ABSTRACT

Background: Lower psychological wellbeing is associated with poor outcomes in a variety of diseases and healthy populations. However, no study has investigated whether psychological wellbeing is associated with the outcomes of COVID-19. This study aimed to determine whether individuals with lower psychological wellbeing are more at risk for poor outcomes of COVID-19. Methods: Data were from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) in 2017 and SHARE's two COVID-19 surveys in June-September 2020 and June-August 2021. Psychological wellbeing was measured using the CASP-12 scale in 2017. The associations of the CASP-12 score with COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality were assessed using logistic models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, household income, education level, and chronic conditions. Sensitivity analyses were performed by imputing missing data or excluding cases whose diagnosis of COVID-19 was solely based on symptoms. A confirmatory analysis was conducted using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA). Data analysis took place in October 2022. Results: In total, 3,886 individuals of 50 years of age or older with COVID-19 were included from 25 European countries and Israel, with 580 hospitalized (14.9%) and 100 deaths (2.6%). Compared with individuals in tertile 3 (highest) of the CASP-12 score, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of COVID-19 hospitalization were 1.81 (95% CI, 1.41-2.31) for those in tertile 1 (lowest) and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.07-1.75) for those in tertile 2. As for COVID-19 mortality, the adjusted ORs were 2.05 (95% CI, 1.12-3.77) for tertile 1 and 1.78 (95% CI, 0.98-3.23) for tertile 2, compared with tertile 3. The results were relatively robust to missing data or the exclusion of cases solely based on symptoms. This inverse association of the CASP-12 score with COVID-19 hospitalization risk was also observed in ELSA. Conclusion: This study shows that lower psychological wellbeing is independently associated with increased risks of COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality in European adults aged 50 years or older. Further study is needed to validate these associations in recent and future waves of the COVID-19 pandemic and other populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Israel/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Europe/epidemiology
8.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1164232, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319300

ABSTRACT

Background: In the summer of 2022, Macau experienced a surge of COVID-19 infections (the 618 COVID-19 wave), which had serious effects on mental health and quality of life (QoL). However, there is scant research on mental health problems and QoL among Macau residents during the 618 COVID-19 wave. This study examined the network structure of depressive symptoms (hereafter depression), and the interconnection between different depressive symptoms and QoL among Macau residents during this period. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 26th July and 9th September 2022. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), while the global QoL was measured with the two items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief version (WHOQOL-BREF). Correlates of depression were explored using univariate and multivariate analyses. The association between depression and QoL was investigated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Network analysis was used to evaluate the structure of depression. The centrality index "Expected Influence" (EI) was used to identify the most central symptoms and the flow function was used to identify depressive symptoms that had a direct bearing on QoL. Results: A total 1,008 participants were included in this study. The overall prevalence of depression was 62.5% (n = 630; 95% CI = 60.00-65.00%). Having depression was significantly associated with younger age (OR = 0.970; p < 0.001), anxiety (OR = 1.515; p < 0.001), fatigue (OR = 1.338; p < 0.001), and economic loss (OR = 1.933; p = 0.026). Participants with depression had lower QoL F (1, 1,008) =5.538, p = 0.019). The most central symptoms included PHQ2 ("Sad Mood") (EI: 1.044), PHQ4 ("Fatigue") (EI: 1.016), and PHQ6 ("Guilt") (EI: 0.975) in the depression network model, while PHQ4 ("Fatigue"), PHQ9 ("Suicide"), and PHQ6 ("Guilt") had strong negative associations with QoL. Conclusion: Depression was common among Macao residents during the 618 COVID-19 wave. Given the negative impact of depression on QoL, interventions targeting central symptoms identified in the network model (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy) should be developed and implemented for Macau residents with depression.

9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1129118, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298964

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) has spread to more than 100 countries worldwide, with frequent outbreaks in Europe and the Americas in recent years. Despite the relatively low lethality of infection, patients can suffer from long-term sequelae. Until now, no available vaccines have been approved for use; however, increasing attention is being paid to the development of vaccines against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and the World Health Organization has included vaccine development in the initial blueprint deliverables. Here, we developed an mRNA vaccine using the nucleotide sequence encoding structural proteins of CHIKV. And immunogenicity was evaluated by neutralization assay, Enzyme-linked immunospot assay and Intracellular cytokine staining. The results showed that the encoded proteins elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody titers and T cell-mediated cellular immune responses in mice. Moreover, compared with the wild-type vaccine, the codon-optimized vaccine elicited robust CD8+ T-cell responses and mild neutralizing antibody titers. In addition, higher levels of neutralizing antibody titers and T-cell immune responses were obtained using a homologous booster mRNA vaccine regimen of three different homologous or heterologous booster immunization strategies. Thus, this study provides assessment data to develop vaccine candidates and explore the effectiveness of the prime-boost approach.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Mice , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
10.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28722, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298731

ABSTRACT

In contemporary literature, little attention has been paid to the association between coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and cancer risk. We performed the Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the causal associations between the three types of COVID-19 exposures (critically ill COVID-19, hospitalized COVID-19, and respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection) and 33 different types of cancers of the European population. The results of the inverse-variance-weighted model indicated that genetic liabilities to critically ill COVID-19 had suggestive causal associations with the increased risk for HER2-positive breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0924; p-value = 0.0116), esophageal cancer (OR = 1.0004; p-value = 0.0226), colorectal cancer (OR = 1.0010; p-value = 0.0242), stomach cancer (OR = 1.2394; p-value = 0.0331), and colon cancer (OR = 1.0006; p-value = 0.0453). The genetic liabilities to hospitalized COVID-19 had suggestive causal associations with the increased risk for HER2-positive breast cancer (OR = 1.1096; p-value = 0.0458), esophageal cancer (OR = 1.0005; p-value = 0.0440) as well as stomach cancer (OR = 1.3043; p-value = 0.0476). The genetic liabilities to SARS-CoV-2 infection had suggestive causal associations with the increased risk for stomach cancer (OR = 2.8563; p-value = 0.0019) but with the decreasing risk for head and neck cancer (OR = 0.9986, p-value = 0.0426). The causal associations of the above combinations were robust through the test of heterogeneity and pleiotropy. Together, our study indicated that COVID-19 had causal effects on cancer risk.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms , Stomach Neoplasms , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Genome-Wide Association Study , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 473, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has emerged as an increasingly diagnosed cause of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which is easily missed or delayed. The effective use of coronary angiography (CAG) and advanced intracoronary imaging examinations in STEMI patients has led to increased detection of SCAD. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old woman with acute angina pectoris was diagnosed with STEMI detected by electrocardiography combined with measurement of myocardial enzymes. Due to the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, she was first given thrombolytic therapy after excluding contraindications according to the requirements of the current consensus statement; however, subsequently, both the symptoms of ongoing chest pain and the electrocardiographic results indicated the failure of thrombolytic therapy, so the intervention team administered rescue percutaneous coronary intervention treatment under third-grade protection. CAG confirmed total occlusion in the distal left anterior descending (LAD) artery, with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0 flow, whereas the left circumflex and right coronary arteries appeared normal, with TIMI 3 flow. Intravenous ultrasound (IVUS) was further performed to investigate the causes of occlusion, which verified the absence of atherosclerosis but detected SCAD with intramural haematoma. During the operation, the guidewire reached the distal end of the LAD artery smoothly, the balloon was dilated slightly, and the reflow of TIMI blood could be seen by repeated CAG. During the follow-up period of one and a half years, the patient complained of occasional, slight chest tightness. The repeated CAG showed that the spontaneous dissection in the LAD artery had healed well, with TIMI 3 flow. The repeated IVUS confirmed that the SCAD and intramural haematoma had been mostly resorbed and repaired. CONCLUSION: This was a case of failed STEMI thrombolysis in our hospital during the outbreak of COVID-19. This case indicates that doctors need to consider the cause of the disease when treating STEMI patients, especially patients without traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, CAG and intracoronary imaging examinations should be actively performed to identify the aetiology and improve the treatment success rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Coronary Angiography/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Hematoma/complications
12.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 4015-4024, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288930

ABSTRACT

Co-infection of RNA viruses may contribute to their recombination and cause severe clinical symptoms. However, the tracking and identification of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection persist as challenges. Due to the lack of methods for detecting co-infected samples in a large amount of deep sequencing data, the lineage composition, spatial-temporal distribution, and frequency of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection events in the population remains unclear. Here, we propose a hypergeometric distribution-based method named Cov2Coinfect with the ability to decode the lineage composition from 50,809 deep sequencing data. By resolving the mutational patterns in each sample, Cov2Coinfect can precisely determine the co-infected SARS-CoV-2 variants from deep sequencing data. Results from two independent and parallel projects in the United States achieved a similar co-infection rate of 0.3-0.5 % in SARS-CoV-2 positive samples. Notably, all co-infected variants were highly consistent with the co-circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages in the regional epidemiology, demonstrating that the co-circulation of different variants is an essential prerequisite for co-infection. Overall, our study not only provides a robust method to identify the co-infected SARS-CoV-2 variants from sequencing samples, but also highlights the urgent need to pay more attention to co-infected patients for better disease prevention and control.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(3): e234080, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288662

ABSTRACT

Importance: Childhood myopia increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Limited evidence exists about whether myopia development was reversed or worsened after the lockdown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of myopia and its associated factors before, during, and after COVID-19 restrictions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, repeated cross-sectional study evaluated children aged 6 to 8 years from the Hong Kong Children Eye Study between 2015 and 2021 in 3 cohorts: before COVID-19 (2015-2019), during COVID-19 restrictions (2020), and after COVID-19 restrictions were lifted (2021). Exposures: All the children received ocular examinations, including cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length. Data about the children's lifestyle, including time spent outdoors, near-work time, and screen time, were collected from a standardized questionnaire. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the prevalence of myopia, mean spherical equivalent refraction, axial length, changes in lifestyle, and the associated factors over 7 years. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and generalized estimating equations. Results: Of 20 527 children (mean [SD] age, 7.33 [0.89] years; 52.8% boys and 47.2% girls), myopia prevalence was stable from 2015 to 2019 (23.5%-24.9%; P = .90) but increased to 28.8% (P < .001) in 2020 and 36.2% (P < .001) in 2021. The mean (SD) time spent outdoors was much lower in 2020 (0.85 [0.53] h/d; P < .001) and 2021 (1.26 [0.48] h/d; P < .001) compared with pre-COVID-19 levels (1.40 [0.47]-1.46 [0.65] h/d). The trend was reversed for total near-work time and screen time. High myopia prevalence was associated with the COVID-19 pandemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% CI, 1.28-1.54; P < .001), younger age (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.76-1.93; P < .001), male sex (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.21; P = .007), lower family income (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09; P = .04), and parental myopia (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.52-1.70; P < .001). During the pandemic, mean (SD) near-work and screen times in children from lower-income families were 5.16 (2.05) h/d and 3.44 (1.97) h/d, more than from higher-income families (4.83 [1.85] and 2.90 [1.61] h/d, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study revealed that after COVID-19 restrictions were lifted in Hong Kong, myopia prevalence among children was higher than before the pandemic, and lifestyle did not return to pre-COVID-19 levels. Younger children and those from low-income families were at a higher risk of myopia development during the pandemic, suggesting that collective efforts for myopia control should be advocated for these groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Female , Humans , Male , Child , Prevalence , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Myopia/epidemiology
15.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(3)2023 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and resistance changes of carbapenem-resistant organisms (CROs) under the COVID-19 outbreak to provide evidence for precise prevention and control measures against hospital-acquired infections during the pandemic. METHODS: The distribution characteristics of CROs (i.e., carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii) were analyzed by collecting the results of the antibiotic susceptibility tests of diagnostic isolates from all patients. Using interrupted time series analysis, we applied Poisson and linear segmented regression models to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 on the numbers and drug resistance of CROs. We also conducted a stratified analysis using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. RESULTS: The resistance rate of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) was 38.73% higher after the COVID-19 outbreak compared with before (p < 0.05). In addition, the long-term effect indicated that the prevalence of CRAB had a decreasing trend (p < 0.05). However, the overall resistance rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae did not significantly change after the COVID-19 outbreak. Stratified analysis revealed that the carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) rate increased in females (OR = 1.98, p < 0.05), those over 65 years old (OR = 1.49, p < 0.05), those with sputum samples (OR = 1.40, p < 0.05), and those in the neurology group (OR = 2.14, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the change in nosocomial infections and resistance rates in CROs, highlighting the need for hospitals to closely monitor CROs, especially in high-risk populations and clinical departments. It is possible that lower adherence to infection control in crowded wards and staffing shortages may have contributed to this trend during the COVID-19 pandemic, which warrants further research.

16.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 43(3): 299-310, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287385

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore the findings from the Hong Kong Children Eye Study and the Low Concentration Atropine for Myopia Progression (LAMP-1) Study. The incidence of myopia among schoolchildren in Hong Kong more than doubled during the COVID-19 pandemic, with outdoor time decreased significantly and screen time increased. The change in lifestyle during the COVID-19 pandemic aggravated myopia development. Low-concentration atropine (0.05%, 0.025% and 0.01%) is effective in reducing myopia progression with a concentration-related response. This concentration-dependent response was maintained throughout a 3-year follow-up period, and all low concentrations were well tolerated. An age-dependent effect was observed in each treatment group with 0.05%, 0.025% and 0.01% atropine. Younger age was associated with a poor treatment response to low-concentration atropine. Additionally, low-concentration atropine induced choroidal thickening along a concentration-dependent response throughout the treatment period. During the third year, continued atropine treatment achieved a better effect across all concentrations compared with the washout regimen. Stopping treatment at an older age and receiving lower concentration were associated with a smaller rebound effect. However, differences in the rebound effect were clinically small across all the three concentrations studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Child , Humans , Atropine , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/drug therapy , Myopia/prevention & control , Life Style , Ophthalmic Solutions , Disease Progression , Refraction, Ocular , Mydriatics
17.
Urolithiasis ; 51(1): 38, 2023 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250901

ABSTRACT

Both shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and flexible ureterorenoscopy (F-URS) are recommended as the first choice for non-lower pole kidney stones. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cost of SWL versus F-URS in patients with solitary non-lower pole kidney stones ≤ 20 mm under the COVID-19 pandemic. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital from June 2020 to April 2022. Patients who underwent lithotripsy (SWL or F-URS) for non-lower pole kidney stones were enrolled in this study. The stone-free rate (SFR), retreatment rate, complications, and cost were recorded. Propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis was performed. A total of 699 patients were finally included, of which 81.3% (568) were treated with SWL and 18.7% (131) underwent F-URS. After PSM, SWL showed equivalent SFR (87.9% vs. 91.1%, P = 0.323), retreatment rate (8.6% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.169), and adjunctive procedure (2.6% vs. 4.9%, P = 0.385) compared with F-URS. Complications were scarce and also comparable between SWL and F-URS (6.0% vs 7.7%, P > 0.05), while the incidence of ureteral perforation was higher in the F-URS group compared with the SWL group (1.5% vs 0%, P = 0.008). The hospital stay was significantly shorter (1 day vs 2 days, P < 0.001), and the cost was considerably less (1200 vs 30,083, P < 0.001) in the SWL group compared with the F-URS group. This prospective cohort demonstrated that SWL had equivalent efficacy with more safety and cost benefits than F-URS in treating patients with solitary non-lower pole kidney stones ≤ 20 mm. During the COVID-19 pandemic, SWL may have benefits in preserving hospital resources and limiting opportunity for virus transmission, compared to URS. These findings may guide clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Calculi , Lithotripsy , Solitary Kidney , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Kidney Calculi/therapy , Ureteroscopy/adverse effects , Ureteroscopy/methods , Lithotripsy/adverse effects , Lithotripsy/methods , Treatment Outcome
18.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1142394, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268865

ABSTRACT

The ongoing evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV) variants has been associated with the transmission and pathogenicity of COVID-19. Therefore, exploring the optimal immunisation strategy to improve the broad-spectrum cross-protection ability of COVID-19 vaccines is of great significance. Herein, we assessed different heterologous prime-boost strategies with chimpanzee adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccines plus Wuhan-Hu-1 (WH-1) strain (AdW) and Beta variant (AdB) and mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines plus WH-1 strain (ARW) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant (ARO) in 6-week-old female BALB/c mice. AdW and AdB were administered intramuscularly or intranasally, while ARW and ARO were administered intramuscularly. Intranasal or intramuscular vaccination with AdB followed by ARO booster exhibited the highest levels of cross-reactive IgG, pseudovirus-neutralising antibody (PNAb) responses, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)-binding inhibition rates against different 2019-nCoV variants among all vaccination groups. Moreover, intranasal AdB vaccination followed by ARO induced higher levels of IgA and neutralising antibody responses against live 2019-nCoV than intramuscular AdB vaccination followed by ARO. A single dose of AdB administered intranasally or intramuscularly induced broader cross-NAb responses than AdW. Th1-biased cellular immune response was induced in all vaccination groups. Intramuscular vaccination-only groups exhibited higher levels of Th1 cytokines than intranasal vaccination-only and intranasal vaccination-containing groups. However, no obvious differences were found in the levels of Th2 cytokines between the control and all vaccination groups. Our findings provide a basis for exploring vaccination strategies against different 2019-nCoV variants to achieve high broad-spectrum immune efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Female , Humans , Animals , Mice , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger , Immunization , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunity, Cellular
19.
BMC Nurs ; 22(1): 42, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242653

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine the mediating effect of resilience between social support and compassion fatigue among intern nursing and midwifery students during COVID-19. BACKGROUND: Compassion fatigue has become exceedingly common among intern nursing and midwifery students, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social support and resilience can help intern nursing and midwifery students control their negative emotions, reduce compassion fatigue, and increase their well-being. However, the mediating effect of resilience between social support and compassion fatigue remains unclear. DESIGN: A multicentre cross-sectional survey. METHODS: A total of 307 intern nursing and midwifery students were recruited from November 2020 to February 2021 in tertiary grade A hospitals in China. Structural equation modelling was applied to analyse the mediating effects of resilience between social support and compassion fatigue. The Social Support Rating Scale, the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Chinese version of the Compassion Fatigue Short Scale were used to collect data. The hypothetical path model was tested by using IBM SPSS version 26.0 and AMOS version 26.0 software. RESULTS: Intern nursing and midwifery students had moderate compassion fatigue. Social support positively affected resilience (ß = 0.514, p < 0.01). Social support negatively affected compassion fatigue (ß = - 0.310, p < 0.01), while resilience negatively affected compassion fatigue (ß = - 0.283, p < 0.01). Resilience played a mediating role between social support and compassion fatigue. CONCLUSION: Social support can directly affect the compassion fatigue of intern nursing and midwifery students during COVID-19 and indirectly through resilience. Stronger resilience can reduce compassion fatigue. Accordingly, resilience-based interventions should be developed to reduce compassion fatigue.

20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(12): 1025-1035, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occupational stress and diminished well-being among health care workers were concerning even before the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic exacerbated existing stressors and created new challenges for this workforce. Research on the mental health of health care workers has focused on physicians and nurses, with less attention to other occupations. METHODS: To assess pre-coronavirus disease mental health and well-being among workers in multiple health care occupations, we used 2017 to 2019 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. RESULTS: Across the health care workforce, insufficient sleep (41.0%) and diagnosed depression (18.9%) were the most common conditions reported. Counselors had the highest prevalence of diagnosed depression. Health care support workers had elevated prevalences for most adverse health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring a robust health care workforce necessitates identifying and implementing effective occupation-specific prevention, intervention, and mitigation strategies that address organizational and personal conditions adversely affecting mental health.

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