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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324791

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in perinatal period, and systematically assess the mother-to-child transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 Methods: . We retrospectively analyzed the data of 23 pregnant patients in late pregnancy. Clinical specimens, including maternal and neonatal throat swabs, vaginal secretions, placenta tissues, and breast milk, were collected for the nucleic acid test of the virus. Pregnancy outcomes and neonatal results were also analyzed. Results: . Overall, 10 patients (43.5%) had no symptoms and were found by routine chest CT. Complications appeared after COVID-19 onset included PROM (17.4%) and fetal distress (4.3%). Typical signs of viral pneumonia were recorded in chest CT of all patients. No patients developed severe pneumonia or died of COVID-19. All of 25 neonates were born alive. No severe asphyxia or neonatal death was observed. Although three neonates were tested transiently suspected positive for SARS-CoV-2 after being transferred to neonatology department, no newborns developed COVID-19. Out of various clinical specimens tested, only a rectal swab sample from one pregnant patient was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, while all the other specimens including first sample of newborn throat swabs were negative. Pathological examination found no obvious chorioamnionitis or clear virus inclusion body in placenta, and ACE2 (angiotension-converting enzyme 2) was expressed at a moderate level. Conclusions: . As in the general population of COVID-19, asymptomatic patients were present in pregnant women. There is no confirmatory evidence for mother-to-child transmission in COVID-19 patients with late pregnancy.

2.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(1): 53-57, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study vaginal delivery outcomes and neonatal prognosis and summarize the management of vaginal delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records and comparison of vaginal delivery outcomes between 10 pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 and 53 pregnant women without COVID-19 admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between January 20 and March 2, 2020. Results of laboratory tests, imaging tests, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests were also analyzed in neonates delivered by pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in gestational age, postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal resection rates between the two groups. There were no significant differences in birth weight of neonates and neonatal asphyxia rates between the two groups. Neonates delivered by pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Under the premise of full evaluation of vaginal delivery conditions and strict protection measures, pregnant women with ordinary type COVID-19 can try vaginal delivery without exacerbation of COVID-19 and without increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Birth Weight , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/virology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vagina/virology
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 101-109.e1, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunologic dysfunction due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is closely related to clinical prognosis, and the inflammatory response of pregnant women may affect the directional differentiation and function of fetal immune cells. OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze the immune status of newborns from mothers with COVID-19 in the third trimester. METHODS: Along with collecting the clinical data from 51 newborns and their respective mothers, we recorded the immunophenotypes and cytokine and immunoglobulin levels of the newborns. RESULTS: None of the 51 newborns showed fever or respiratory distress during hospitalization. Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nucleic acid in pharyngeal swabs was negative. Except for the low level of CD16-CD56 cells, the count and proportion of lymphocytes, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD19 were all in the normal range. Moreover, the serum IgG and IgM levels were within the normal range, whereas IL-6 showed increased levels. There was no correlation between maternal COVID-19 duration and the lymphocyte subsets or cytokine levels (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α). There was a positive correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 levels and CD16-CD56 cells. One (1.96%) infant with an extremely elevated IL-6 concentration developed necrotizing enterocolitis in the third week after birth, and the remaining 50 infants did not show abnormal symptoms through the end of the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 in the third trimester did not significantly affect the cellular and humoral immunity of the fetus, and there was no evidence that the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets was seriously unbalanced.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Infant, Newborn/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(1): 111.e1-111.e14, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is a global public health emergency. Data on the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy are limited to small case series. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes in pregnancy and the vertical transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for 116 pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia from 25 hospitals in China between January 20, 2020, and March 24, 2020. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed by testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal pharyngeal swab samples. RESULTS: The median gestational age on admission was 38+0 (interquartile range, 36+0-39+1) weeks. The most common symptoms were fever (50.9%, 59/116) and cough (28.4%, 33/116); 23.3% (27/116) patients presented without symptoms. Abnormal radiologic findings were found in 96.3% (104/108) of cases. Of the 116 cases, there were 8 cases (6.9%) of severe pneumonia but no maternal deaths. One of 8 patients who presented in the first trimester and early second trimester had a missed spontaneous abortion. Of 99 patients, 21 (21.2%) who delivered had preterm birth, including 6 with preterm premature rupture of membranes. The rate of spontaneous preterm birth before 37 weeks' gestation was 6.1% (6/99). One case of severe neonatal asphyxia resulted in neonatal death. Furthermore, 86 of the 100 neonates tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 had negative results; of these, paired amniotic fluid and cord blood samples from 10 neonates used to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 had negative results. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm birth. There is no evidence of vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection when the infection manifests during the third trimester of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Fetal Blood/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
World J Pediatr ; 16(3): 232-239, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116370

ABSTRACT

In the early February, 2020, we called up an experts' committee with more than 30 Chinese experts from 11 national medical academic organizations to formulate the first edition of consensus statement on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which has been published in this journal. With accumulated experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in children, we have updated the consensus statement and released the second edition recently. The current version in English is a condensed version of the second edition of consensus statement on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in children. In the current version, diagnosis and treatement criteria have been optimized, and early identification of severe and critical cases is highlighted. The early warning indicators for severe pediatric cases have been summarized which is utmost important for clinical practice. This version of experts consensus will be valuable for better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in children worldwide.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Consensus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 149(2): 130-136, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11527

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide clinical management guidelines for novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in pregnancy. METHODS: On February 5, 2020, a multidisciplinary teleconference comprising Chinese physicians and researchers was held and medical management strategies of COVID-19 infection in pregnancy were discussed. RESULTS: Ten key recommendations were provided for the management of COVID-19 infections in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Currently, there is no clear evidence regarding optimal delivery timing, the safety of vaginal delivery, or whether cesarean delivery prevents vertical transmission at the time of delivery; therefore, route of delivery and delivery timing should be individualized based on obstetrical indications and maternal-fetal status.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Lancet ; 395(10226): 809-815, 2020 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation. FINDINGS: All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0 × 109 cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8-9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9-10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus. INTERPRETATION: The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy. FUNDING: Hubei Science and Technology Plan, Wuhan University Medical Development Plan.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cough/etiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Myalgia/etiology , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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