Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 1782-1793, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973736

ABSTRACT

Since 2010, several duck Tembusu viruses (DTMUVs) have been isolated from infected ducks in China, and these virus strains have undergone extensive variation over the years. Although the infection rate is high, the mortality rate is usually relatively low-~5%-30%; however, since fall 2019, an infectious disease similar to DTMUV infection but with a high mortality rate of ~50% in goslings has been prevalent in Anhui Province, China. The present study identified a new Tembusu virus, designated DTMUV/Goose/China/2019/AQ-19 (AQ-19), that is believed to be responsible for the noticeably high mortality in goslings. To investigate the genetic variation of this strain, its entire genome was sequenced and analysed for specific variations, and goslings and mice were challenged with the isolated virus to investigate its pathogenicity. The AQ-19 genome shared only 94.3%-96.9% and 90.9% nucleotide identity with other Chinese and Malaysian DTMUVs, respectively; however, AQ-19 has high homology with Thailand DTMUVs (97.2%-98.1% nucleotide identity). Phylogenetic analysis of the E gene revealed that AQ-19 and most of Thailand DTMUVs form a branch separate from any of the previously reported DTMUV strains in China. After the challenge, some goslings and mice showed typical clinical signs of DTMUV, particularly severe neurological dysfunction. AQ-19 has high virulence in goslings and mice, resulting in 60% and 70% mortality through intramuscular and intracerebral routes, respectively. Pathological examination revealed severe histological lesions in the brain and liver of the infected goslings and mice. Taken together, these results demonstrated the emergence of a novel Tembusu virus with high virulence circulating in goslings in China for the first time, and our findings highlight the high genetic diversity of DTMUVs in China. Further study of the pathogenicity and host range of this novel Tembusu virus is particularly important.


Subject(s)
Flavivirus Infections , Flavivirus , Poultry Diseases , Rodent Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Ducks , Flavivirus/genetics , Flavivirus Infections/epidemiology , Flavivirus Infections/veterinary , Geese , Mice , Nucleotides , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Environ Int ; 162: 107153, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706132

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a great challenge to the world's public health system. Nosocomial infections have occurred frequently in medical institutions worldwide during this pandemic. Thus, there is an urgent need to construct an effective surveillance and early warning system for pathogen exposure and infection to prevent nosocomial infections in negative-pressure wards. In this study, visualization and construction of an infection risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosol and surface transmission in a negative-pressure ward were performed to describe the distribution regularity and infection risk of SARS-CoV-2, the critical factors of infection, the air changes per hour (ACHs) and the viral variation that affect infection risk. The SARS-CoV-2 distribution data from this model were verified by field test data from the Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital ICU ward. ACHs have a great impact on the infection risk from airborne exposure, while they have little effect on the infection risk from surface exposure. The variant strains demonstrated significantly increased viral loads and risks of infection. The level of protection for nurses and surgeons should be increased when treating patients infected with variant strains, and new disinfection methods, electrostatic adsorption and other air purification methods should be used in all human environments. The results of this study may provide a theoretical reference and technical support for reducing the occurrence of nosocomial infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Humans , Patient Isolators , Risk Assessment
6.
Sustainability ; 14(3):1636, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1667312

ABSTRACT

The reasonable distribution of COVID-19 testing facilities is a crucial public necessity to protect the civil right of health and the proper functioning of society in the post-epidemic period. However, most of the current COVID-19 testing facilities are in large hospitals in China, partially overlooking the COVID-19 testing needs of rural dwellers. This paper used shortest-path analysis and the improved potential model to measure the accessibility of current and potential COVID-19 testing facilities, superimposing this with the testing demands of residents, as calculated by the population demand index, so as to comprehensively evaluate the equity of the spatial allocation of the current and potential testing facilities, with a particular focus on Haishu District, Ningbo City, China. The results revealed that the overall accessibility of the current testing facilities in Haishu District was high, while the internal spatial differentiation was considerable. The comprehensive accessibility of testing facilities gradually declined from the downtown areas towards the rural areas. Moreover, roughly half of the rural population needing COVID-19 tests encountered hindrances due to poor access to testing agencies. However, after fully exploiting the potential testing facilities, the comprehensive accessibility of testing facilities was significantly improved, and the inequity in the accessibility to testing facilities was effectively alleviated, which significantly improved the equity of the allocation of testing facilities in Haishu District. The leveraging of current medical facilities to boost the number of testing facilities in rural areas could eliminate the disparity of resource distribution caused by urban and rural binary opposition, and could quickly identify external sources of COVID-19 in rural areas in the post-epidemic period. Moreover, efficient COVID-19 testing combined with the travel records of infection carriers can effectively identify unknown infection cases and obviate large-scale infection outbreaks.

7.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(12): 1314-1328, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559292

ABSTRACT

The lung is the primary organ targeted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), making respiratory failure a leading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. However, our cellular and molecular understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection drives lung pathology is limited. Here we constructed multi-omics and single-nucleus transcriptomic atlases of the lungs of patients with COVID-19, which integrate histological, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Our work reveals the molecular basis of pathological hallmarks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in different lung and infiltrating immune cell populations. We report molecular fingerprints of hyperinflammation, alveolar epithelial cell exhaustion, vascular changes and fibrosis, and identify parenchymal lung senescence as a molecular state of COVID-19 pathology. Moreover, our data suggest that FOXO3A suppression is a potential mechanism underlying the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition associated with COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Our work depicts a comprehensive cellular and molecular atlas of the lungs of patients with COVID-19 and provides insights into SARS-CoV-2-related pulmonary injury, facilitating the identification of biomarkers and development of symptomatic treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 688007, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389153

ABSTRACT

Environmental transmission of viruses to humans has become an early warning for potential epidemic outbreaks, such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus outbreaks. Recently, an H7N9 virus, A/environment/Hebei/621/2019 (H7N9), was isolated by environmental swabs from a live poultry market in Hebei, China. We found that this isolate could be transmitted by direct contact and aerosol in mammals. More importantly, after 5 passages in mice, the virus acquired two adaptive mutations, PB1-H115Q and B2-E627K, exhibiting increased virulence and aerosol transmissibility. These results suggest that this H7N9 virus might potentially be transmitted between humans through environmental or airborne routes.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mice , Poultry/virology
9.
Data Brief ; 33: 106520, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023539

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 has changed the living style of people all around the world. Corona pandemic has affected the people in all fields of life economically, physically, and mentally. This dataset is a collection of published articles discussing the effect of COVID and SARS on the social sciences from 2003 to 2020. This dataset collection and analysis highlight the significance and influential aspects, research streams, and themes in this domain. The analysis provides top journals, highly cited articles, mostly used keywords, top affiliation institutes, leading countries based on the citation, potential research streams, a thematic map, and future directions in this area of research. In the future, this dataset will be helpful for every researcher and policymakers to proceed as a starting point to identify the relevant research based on the analysis of 18 years of research in this domain.

10.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 48(5): 2307-2316, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975033

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel virus of the ß-coronavirus genus (SARS-CoV-2), has been spreading globally. As of July 2020, there have been more than 17 million cases worldwide. Determining multiple transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 is critical to improving safety practices for the public and stemming the spread of SARS-CoV-2 effectively. This article mainly focuses on published studies on the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 including contact transmission, droplet transmission, aerosol transmission and fecal-oral transmission, as well as related research approaches, such as epidemiological investigations, environmental sampling in hospitals and laboratories and animal models. We also provide four specific recommendations for the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 that may help reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection under different environmental conditions. First, social distancing, rational use of face masks and respirators, eye protection, and hand disinfection for medical staff and the general public deserve further attention and promotion. Second, aerodynamic characteristics, such as size distribution, release regularity, aerosol diffusion, survival and decline, infectious dose and spread distance, still require further investigation in order to identify the transmissibility of COVID-19. Third, background monitoring of the distribution of pathogenic microorganisms and environmental disinfection in crowded public places, such as railway stations, schools, hospitals and other densely populated areas, can give early warning of outbreaks and curb the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 in those high-risk areas. Forth, establishing novel predictive models can help us to not only assess transmission and impacts in communities, but also better implement corresponding emergency response measures.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cell Res ; 31(4): 415-432, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759580

ABSTRACT

Aging is a major risk factor for many diseases, especially in highly prevalent cardiopulmonary comorbidities and infectious diseases including Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Resolving cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with aging in higher mammals is therefore urgently needed. Here, we created young and old non-human primate single-nucleus/cell transcriptomic atlases of lung, heart and artery, the top tissues targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Analysis of cell type-specific aging-associated transcriptional changes revealed increased systemic inflammation and compromised virus defense as a hallmark of cardiopulmonary aging. With age, expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was increased in the pulmonary alveolar epithelial barrier, cardiomyocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. We found that interleukin 7 (IL7) accumulated in aged cardiopulmonary tissues and induced ACE2 expression in human vascular endothelial cells in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with vitamin C blocked IL7-induced ACE2 expression. Altogether, our findings depict the first transcriptomic atlas of the aged primate cardiopulmonary system and provide vital insights into age-linked susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that geroprotective strategies may reduce COVID-19 severity in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aging , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Interleukin-7/metabolism , Interleukin-7/pharmacology , Macaca fascicularis , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/drug effects
13.
Cell ; 181(6): 1423-1433.e11, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116588

ABSTRACT

Many COVID-19 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 virus develop pneumonia (called novel coronavirus pneumonia, NCP) and rapidly progress to respiratory failure. However, rapid diagnosis and identification of high-risk patients for early intervention are challenging. Using a large computed tomography (CT) database from 3,777 patients, we developed an AI system that can diagnose NCP and differentiate it from other common pneumonia and normal controls. The AI system can assist radiologists and physicians in performing a quick diagnosis especially when the health system is overloaded. Significantly, our AI system identified important clinical markers that correlated with the NCP lesion properties. Together with the clinical data, our AI system was able to provide accurate clinical prognosis that can aid clinicians to consider appropriate early clinical management and allocate resources appropriately. We have made this AI system available globally to assist the clinicians to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Lung/pathology , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Radiologists , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL