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1.
Educational Philosophy and Theory ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-759665
4.
Eur J Radiol ; 131: 109240, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730478

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To qualitatively and quantitatively assess kidney imapairment in adults with COVID-19 by analysing imaging features on non-enhanced CT (NECT) and possible correlation between renal parenchymal attenuation (RPA) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels on admission. METHODS: This study was approved by the local institutional ethics committee. A total of 82 patients with COVID-19 admitted from 10/1/2020∼15/3/2020 were enrolled. RPA and perinephric fat stranding (PFS) were evaluated on NECT imaging. According to the presence of PFS, the patients were divided into two groups: Group A, 38 patients with PFS, and Group B, 44 patients without PFS. Clinical data, including age, gender, clinical classification, SCr levels, and RPA on NECT were analysed. The RPA and SCr of the two groups with COVID-19 were analysed to determine possible difference and correlation. Eighty subjects with no kidney diseases were randomly selected as control group to determine the RPA of normal kidney performed on the same CT scanner. RESULTS: Mean age, male to female ratio, number of severe and critical cases, and SCr of Group A were higher than those of Group B. Both mean RPA of Group A and Group B were lower than that of control. Mean RPA of Group A was even lower than that of Group B. A significant weak negative linear correlation between RPA on NECT and SCr in COVID-19 was indicated. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in RPA on NECT was observed in patients with COVID-19 and a weak linear negative correlation with SCr levels was found. The presence of PFS suggested more severe renal impairment in COVID-19. RPA measurements and PFS could be useful in quantitative and qualitative evaluation of COVID-19 associated renal impairment on admission.

5.
bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-721066

ABSTRACT

Genomes of tens of thousands of SARS-CoV2 isolates have been sequenced across the world and the total number of changes (predominantly single base substitutions) in these isolates exceeds ten thousand We compared the mutational spectrum in the new SARS-CoV-2 mutation dataset with the previously published mutation spectrum in hypermutated genomes of rubella - another positive single stranded (ss) RNA virus Each of the rubella isolates arose by accumulation of hundreds of mutations during propagation in a single subject, while SARS-CoV-2 mutation spectrum represents a collection events in multiple virus isolates from individuals across the world We found a clear similarity between the spectra of single base substitutions in rubella and in SARS-CoV-2, with C to U as well as A to G and U to C being the most prominent in plus strand genomic RNA of each virus Of those, U to C changes universally showed preference for loops versus stems in predicted RNA secondary structure Similarly, to what was previously reported for rubella, C to U changes showed enrichment in the uCn motif, which suggested a subclass of APOBEC cytidine deaminase being a source of these substitutions We also found enrichment of several other trinucleotide-centered mutation motifs only in SARS-CoV-2 - likely indicative of a mutation process characteristic to this virus Altogether, the results of this analysis suggest that the mutation mechanisms that lead to hypermutation of the rubella vaccine virus in a rare pathological condition may also operate in the background of the SARS-CoV-2 viruses currently propagating in the human population

6.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 642-645, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696904

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection status of hospitalized children was surveyed in the department of pediatric hematology and oncology in three different hospitals of epidemic areas in Hubei, China. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics, lung CT scan, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test and serum antibodies of hospitalized children with hemato-oncological diseases from January 23 to April 24, 2020. 299 children were enrolled in this study, including 176 males (58.9%) and 123 females (41.1%), aged from 2 months to 16 years. 255 cases (85.3%) received chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive therapies, and there were 44 cases (14.7%) of other benign diseases. Nucleic acid test was performed on 258 children (86.3%) and one case was positive. 163 cases (54.5%) were tested for serum antibodies, and all of them were negative. Lung CT scan was performed on 247 children (82.6%), and 107 of them showed infectious changes. Only one case (0.33%) of COVID-19 was diagnosed in the group. The prevalence rate of COVID-19 in enrolled children with hemato-oncological diseases in Hubei was 0.33%. Immunosuppressed patients are not prone to produce related antibodies. Comprehensive protective measures and ward management can reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the group patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infection Control , Male , Mass Screening , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Educ.Philos. Theor. ; : 1-13, 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-671955

ABSTRACT

This study explores how China’s education responses to COVID-19 from a perspective of policy analysis. Specifically, it involves building an educational policy system for COVID-19 to examine educational governance framework, school management and teaching, policies for teachers during the epidemic. The education policy during the epidemic has achieved positive results. Those results aim to ensure the physical and mental health of teachers and students, ensure the supply of epidemic prevention materials and educational resources, ensure the quality of students' learning, and enhance the application ability of teachers' teaching technology. The process of policy changes and effects of policy implementation have been examined to analyze how China’s education responses to COVID-19. The characteristics and experience of China's education policy in response to the epidemic concentrate on forming a governance system under the centralized and unified leadership of the Communist Party of China, building a pattern in which families and schools cooperate closely to promote the smooth development of education and teaching, transforming from an emergency substitute during the crisis into an important motivation to promote the transformation of education paradigm, and paying great attention to remote and poor areas and disadvantaged student groups.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(13)2020 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637871

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused thousands of deaths in China. Prior research suggests that individuals' perceived severity of COVID-19 is related to a range of negative emotional and behavioral reactions among the Chinese public. However, scant research has examined the underlying mechanisms. Drawing upon the risk-resilience model, this study proposes that self-control, as a resilient factor, would potentially moderate the association between perceived severity of COVID-19 and mental health problems. Data from a national survey was used to examine this idea. Participants were 4607 citizens from 31 regions in China (Mage = 23.71 years, 72.5% female) who completed a national survey at the beginning of February 2020. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for a number of demographic variables, perceived severity of COVID-19 and self-control were positively and negatively related to mental health problems, respectively. More importantly, self-control moderated the "perceived severity of COVID-19-mental health problems" association, with this link attenuating as the levels of self-control increased. These findings suggest that compared to those with high self-control, individuals with low self-control are more vulnerable and are more in need of psychological aids to maintain mental health in the encounter of the COVID-19 outbreak. Practically, enhancing individuals' self-control ability might be a promising way to improve individuals' mental health during the early period of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Self-Control/psychology , Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Disease Outbreaks , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e146, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635047

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented an unprecedented challenge to the health-care system across the world. The current study aims to identify the determinants of illness severity of COVID-19 based on ordinal responses. A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients from four hospitals in three provinces in China was established, and 598 patients were included from 1 January to 8 March 2020, and divided into moderate, severe and critical illness group. Relative variables were retrieved from electronic medical records. The univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were fitted to identify the independent predictors of illness severity. The cohort included 400 (66.89%) moderate cases, 85 (14.21%) severe and 113 (18.90%) critical cases, of whom 79 died during hospitalisation as of 28 April. Patients in the age group of 70+ years (OR = 3.419, 95% CI: 1.596-7.323), age of 40-69 years (OR = 1.586, 95% CI: 0.824-3.053), hypertension (OR = 3.372, 95% CI: 2.185-5.202), ALT >50 µ/l (OR = 3.304, 95% CI: 2.107-5.180), cTnI >0.04 ng/ml (OR = 7.464, 95% CI: 4.292-12.980), myohaemoglobin>48.8 ng/ml (OR = 2.214, 95% CI: 1.42-3.453) had greater risk of developing worse severity of illness. The interval between illness onset and diagnosis (OR = 1.056, 95% CI: 1.012-1.101) and interval between illness onset and admission (OR = 1.048, 95% CI: 1.009-1.087) were independent significant predictors of illness severity. Patients of critical illness suffered from inferior survival, as compared with patients in the severe group (HR = 14.309, 95% CI: 5.585-36.659) and in the moderate group (HR = 41.021, 95% CI: 17.588-95.678). Our findings highlight that the identified determinants may help to predict the risk of developing more severe illness among COVID-19 patients and contribute to optimising arrangement of health resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , Child , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Function Tests , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
11.
Eur Respir J ; 55(6)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), consistent and considerable differences in disease severity and mortality rate of patients treated in Hubei province compared to those in other parts of China have been observed. We sought to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients being treated inside and outside Hubei province, and explore the factors underlying these differences. METHODS: Collaborating with the National Health Commission, we established a retrospective cohort to study hospitalised COVID-19 cases in China. Clinical characteristics, the rate of severe events and deaths, and the time to critical illness (invasive ventilation or intensive care unit admission or death) were compared between patients within and outside Hubei. The impact of Wuhan-related exposure (a presumed key factor that drove the severe situation in Hubei, as Wuhan is the epicentre as well the administrative centre of Hubei province) and the duration between symptom onset and admission on prognosis were also determined. RESULTS: At the data cut-off (31 January 2020), 1590 cases from 575 hospitals in 31 provincial administrative regions were collected (core cohort). The overall rate of severe cases and mortality was 16.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Patients in Hubei (predominantly with Wuhan-related exposure, 597 (92.3%) out of 647) were older (mean age 49.7 versus 44.9 years), had more cases with comorbidity (32.9% versus 19.7%), higher symptomatic burden, abnormal radiologic manifestations and, especially, a longer waiting time between symptom onset and admission (5.7 versus 4.5 days) compared with patients outside Hubei. Patients in Hubei (severe event rate 23.0% versus 11.1%, death rate 7.3% versus 0.3%, HR (95% CI) for critical illness 1.59 (1.05-2.41)) have a poorer prognosis compared with patients outside Hubei after adjusting for age and comorbidity. However, among patients outside Hubei, the duration from symptom onset to hospitalisation (mean 4.4 versus 4.7 days) and prognosis (HR (95%) 0.84 (0.40-1.80)) were similar between patients with or without Wuhan-related exposure. In the overall population, the waiting time, but neither treated in Hubei nor Wuhan-related exposure, remained an independent prognostic factor (HR (95%) 1.05 (1.01-1.08)). CONCLUSION: There were more severe cases and poorer outcomes for COVID-19 patients treated in Hubei, which might be attributed to the prolonged duration of symptom onset to hospitalisation in the epicentre. Future studies to determine the reason for delaying hospitalisation are warranted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cough/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Geography , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e125, 2020 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615326

ABSTRACT

The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analysed to determine the factors influencing the prognosis and virus shedding time to facilitate early detection of disease progression. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among prognosis, clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes. The predictive value of this model was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration and internal validation. The viral shedding duration was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the prognostic factors were analysed by univariate log-rank analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. A retrospective study was carried out with patients with COVID-19 in Tianjin, China. A total of 185 patients were included, 27 (14.59%) of whom were severely ill at the time of discharge and three (1.6%) of whom died. Our findings demonstrate that patients with an advanced age, diabetes, a low PaO2/FiO2 value and delayed treatment should be carefully monitored for disease progression to reduce the incidence of severe disease. Hypoproteinaemia and the fever duration warrant special attention. Timely interventions in symptomatic patients and a time from symptom onset to treatment <4 days can shorten the duration of viral shedding.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , Analysis of Variance , China , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypoproteinemia , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 284, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613079

ABSTRACT

To investigate the early epidemic of COVID-19, a total of 176 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Shiyan city, Hubei province, China were surveyed. Our data indicated that the rate of emergence of early confirmed COVID-19 cases in Hubei province outside Wuhan was dependent on migration population, and the second-generation of patients were family clusters originating from Wuhan travelers. Epidemiological investigation indicated that the reproductive number (R0) under containment strategies was 1.81, and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers were contagious with a transmission rate of 10.7%. Among the 176 patients, 53 were admitted to the Renmin Hospital of Hubei University of Medicine. The clinical characteristics of these 53 patients were collected and compared based on a positive RT-PCR test and presence of pneumonia. Clinical data showed that 47.2% (25/53) of COVID-19 patients were co-infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and COVID-19 patients coinfected with M. pneumoniae had a higher percentage of monocytes (P < 0.0044) and a lower neutrophils percentage (P < 0.0264). Therefore, it is important to assess the transmissibility of infected asymptomatic individuals for SARS-CoV-2 transmission; moreover, clinicians should be alert to the high incidence of co-infection with M. pneumoniae in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Blood Cell Count , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Travel , Young Adult
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 429, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, over 80,000 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed in China. With the increasing number of recovered patients, more attention should be paid to the follow-up of these patients. METHODS: In the study, 576 patients with COVID-19 discharged from hospital in Chongqing, China from January 24, 2020, to March 10, 2020 were evaluated by viral nucleic acid tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) to determine if they could be released from quarantine. Among the 576 patients, 61 patients (10.6%) had positive RT-PCR test results of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to analyze the demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment of 61 patients. RESULTS: These positive patients were characterized by older age, chronic medical illness and mild conditions. 38 (62.3%) patients who were asymptomatic without abnormalities on chest radiographs were found in the positive with COVID-19. Also, they showed positive results of stool or sputum specimens with negative results of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The median duration of positive result of SARS-CoV-2 was varied from 3 days to 35 days in the patients discharged from hospital with no family member infection. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-site screening of SARS-CoV-2 including nasal and pharyngeal swabs, stool and sputum specimens could be considered to improve the diagnosis, treatment and infection control in patients with COVID-19. Our findings provide the important information and clinical evidence for the improved management of patients recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nose/virology , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Sputum/virology
16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1380-1388, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436947

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is now a global health concern.Objectives: We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, computed tomography images, and treatments of patients with COVID-19 from three different cities in China.Methods: A total of 476 patients were recruited from January 1, 2020, to February 15, 2020, at three hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui. The patients were divided into four groups according to age and into three groups (moderate, severe, and critical) according to the fifth edition of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of China.Measurements and Main Results: The incidence of comorbidities was higher in the severe (46.3%) and critical (67.1%) groups than in the moderate group (37.8%). More patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the moderate group than in the severe and critical groups. More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group than in the moderate group. More patients received antiviral agents within the first 4 days in the moderate group than in the severe group, and more patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids in the critical and severe groups. Patients >75 years old had a significantly lower survival rate than younger patients.Conclusions: Multiple organ dysfunction and impaired immune function were the typical characteristics of patients with severe or critical illness. There was a significant difference in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers among patients with different severities of disease. Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Advanced age (≥75 yr) was a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
iScience ; 23(6): 101215, 2020 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436530

ABSTRACT

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytokine storm (CS) in lungs leads to the high mortality in COVID-19 patients. To reduce ARDS, an ideal approach is to diminish virus loading by activating immune cells for CS prevention or to suppress the overactive cytokine-releasing immune cells for CS inhibition. Here, a potential radiation-mediated CS regulation is raised by reevaluating the radiation-mediated pneumonia control in the 1920s, with the following latent advantages of lung radiotherapy (LR) in treatment of COVID-19: (1) radiation accesses poorly circulated tissue more efficiently than blood-delivered medications; (2) low-dose radiation (LDR)-mediated metabolic rewiring and immune cell activation inhibit virus loading; (3) pre-consumption of immune reserves by LDR decreases CS severity; (4) higherdose radiation (HDR) within lung-tolerable doses relieves CS by eliminating in situ overactive cytokine-releasing cells. Thus, LDR and HDR or combined with antiviral and life-supporting modalities may mitigate SARS-CoV-2 and other virus-mediated ARDS.

18.
Chronic Dis. Transl. Med. ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-306057

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a major threat to public health globally. Though its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been recently identified as a receptor for the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the cell. Here, we aimed to clarify the potential role of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced acute lung injury and its underlying mechanism. As a receptor for coronavirus, ACE2 mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells in a similar way as for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The high binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 correlates with its efficient spread among humans. On the other hand, ACE2 negatively regulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) primarily by converting angiotensin II to angiotensin 1–7, which exerts a beneficial effect on coronavirus-induced acute lung injury. Human recombinant ACE2 has been considered as a potential therapy for SARS-CoV-2 by blocking virus entry and redressing the imbalance of RAAS in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The level of ACE2 expression can be upregulated by treatment with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker (ARB). To date, no evidence shows that ACEIs or ARBs increase the susceptibility and mortality of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, and hence, it is not advisable to discontinue such drugs in patients with cardiovascular disease.

19.
Food Res. Int. ; (137)20201101.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-276163

ABSTRACT

Early life is a crucial period for the development of the intestinal microbiota and is related to the body's immunity. Yet research is lacking regarding the effect of stachyose on infants gut microbiomes at this stage and the mechanism is not clear. Therefore, in this experiment, feces samples collected from infants were transplanted into germ-free mice, to explore the effect of stachyose on the intestinal microbiota and host gut barrier. We found that stachyose promoted the relative abundance of A. muciniphila in human feces; enhanced the symbiotic relationships of A. muciniphila; increased the short-chain fatty acid level, and secretory immunoglobulin A level; reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide, IL-1, IL-17 and TNF-α through downregulated the expression of NF-κB; increased expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1) and goblet cell through A. muciniphila. The intake of stachyose is conducive to promoting the proliferation of beneficial bacteria and enhancing the intestinal barrier in germ-free mice. This research provides a theoretical basis for the use of prebiotics to improve intestinal microbiota and barrier in humans.

20.
J Med Virol ; 92(6): 540-545, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-153831

ABSTRACT

So far, there is a lack of effective drugs for the new coronavirus pneumonia. With more and more patients diagnosed, China has carried out more than 100 clinical studies of new coronavirus infection, including antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, glucocorticoids, plasma therapy, virus vaccine, and other Western drugs, while Chinese medicine research accounted for half of the studies. Most of the trials were initiated by investigators and the study period would last for 1 to 11 months. The primary endpoints included symptom improvement and virus nucleic acid turning negative, but the optimal endpoint has not been determined. Although the final results of studies will take a long time to complete, the interim research data may provide some help for the current urgent demand for drug treatment. Compared with that of during SARS period in 2003, China has the stronger capability to carry out clinical trials of new drugs in emergency period.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pyrazines/therapeutic use
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