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1.
Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy ; 15:1413-1422, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837392

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has seriously affected people’s lives, especially those with chronic diseases. Diabetes self-management, which plays an important role in glycaemic control and reducing the risk of acute and long-term complications, may be discouraged by social distancing. Purpose To evaluate the level of self-management activities in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients and Methods A survey of with 872 patients with T2DM in the inpatient and outpatient departments through face-to-face interviews was conducted from 1 July, 2020 to 30 September, 2020. The main outcome measures were glycaemic control status and level of self-management activities during the pandemic. Results In terms of glycaemic control, the data showed that patients with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) < 7.0 mmol/L (36.4%), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) < 10.0 mmol/L (26.3%), or glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) < 7.0% (18.6%) in our investigation has well-controlled blood glucose level, and 11.9% of patients experienced blood glucose <3.9 mmol/L during the outbreak. The diabetes self-management of Chinese patients decreased and the final diabetes self-management score of the Chinese patients was 3.4 ± 1.45. Patients with higher education, diabetes education, comorbidities, and online consultations had higher diabetes self-management scores (P <0.05). Adherence to diabetes self-management in the normal glycaemic control group was higher than that in the substandard glycaemic control group (P<0.05). Among all participants, 72.1% of the patients reduced the frequency of hospital visits, and 44.8% considered that they had diabetes-related stress during the pandemic. The mean anxiety level score rated by 286 patients was 5.3±2.8. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic has affected diabetes self-management, including substandard glycemic control, increased diabetes-related stress, limited exercise range and medical visits. Therefore, future interventions should focus on the online management of chronic diseases and support online consultation’ development and promotion, which can overcome physical distance and provide personalized services conveniently.

2.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 4(1):1-7, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824555

ABSTRACT

Background: There are controversies regarding corticosteroids using in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in the current pandemic. Objectives: This study investigates the efficacy and safety profiles of corticosteroids therapy in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Retrospective, multicenter study case series of consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection at the whole hospital from January 1 to March 1, 2020, were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. The effect of corticosteroids therapy on death and organ-failure complications of pneumonia were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: A total of 470 COVID-19 patients at the whole hospital were enrolled. According to the time of corticosteroids initiation and severity of illness, there were 159 patients stratified into critical ill group and 64% (102 of 159) patients received corticosteroids treatments. Ninety-four percent (166 of 176) of corticosteroids were methylprednisolone. The median cumulative corticosteroids dosage was 300 mg equivalent of methylprednisolone over a median duration of 6 days. Multivariate regression analysis showed that corticosteroids use did not affect the mortality. However, corticosteroids therapy at moderate cumulative doses (total exposure 480 mg to 1200 mg) was associated with deceased occurrence of organ-failure complications in critically ill COVID-19. Conclusions: Corticosteroids have no effect to mortality in COVID-19 patients. The moderate cumulative doses of corticosteroids might decrease organ-failure complications in critically ill COVID-19. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm our findings, until then use of corticosteroids should be used with caution COVID-19 patients.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329030

ABSTRACT

Green space in university campus is of paramount importance to students’ emotional and psychological restoration. Students’ positive emotion can be aroused when immersed in green space and naturalness. However, to what extent can perceived naturalness influence students’ positive emotion remains unclear, especially in the context of COVID-19 countermeasures. This study, therefore, attempts to investigate in-depth the nature and strength of the relationships between students’ positive emotion and their perceived naturalness, place attachment and landscape preference, which are potentially varying across universities in different social and environmental contexts and different restriction policies regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. A course of questionnaire-based surveys was administered in two university campuses in Heilongjiang and Hunan Provinces, China, resulting in 474 effective samples. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the hypothetical conceptual framework of latent variables and the indicators. The findings indicate that the higher students’ perceived naturalness results in the greater positive emotion. Students’ perceived naturalness in green spaces of campus has a positive effect on their place attachment and landscape preference. Moreover, the difference of mediate effects of place attachment and landscape preference were addressed which verifies the contextual influences.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323623

ABSTRACT

Background: In current pandemic of COVID-19, approximately 15% to 30% of critically ill COVID-19 patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with a high mortality. Extracorporeal membrane of oxygenation (ECMO) provides direct support for both lung and heart in ARDS. However, the role of ECMO in COVID-19 related ARDS was still controversial. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) management, risk factors for mortality, 180-day short term prognosis of the COVID-19 related severe ARDS patients receiving ECMO treatment. Methods: : From Feb 2 nd , 2020 to April 27 th , 2020, we included adult COVID-19 related ARDS patients admitted to intensive care unit in Tongji Hospital. Totally, 53 patients were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into ECMO (mechanical ventilation with ECMO, n=16) and non-ECMO group (mechanical ventilation, n=37). The primary outcome was all-cause 60-day mortality. The secondary outcomes were complications on ECMO, successful weaning from ECMO, and all-cause 180-day mortality. Results: : The all-cause 60-day mortality was 37.5% (6/16) in ECMO group and 86.5% (32/37) in non-ECMO group (HR, 0.196;95% CI, 0.053-0.721;p=0.014). 10 (62.5%) patients were successfully weaned from ECMO. The all-cause 180-day mortality was 56.3% (9/16) in ECMO group and 33 (89.2%, 33/37) in non-ECMO group (HR, 0.298;95% CI, 0.130-0.680;p=0.004). All the patients in ECMO group suffered from at least one device-related complication with coagulopathy (81.3%) being most frequently seen. Up to 180-day follow up after disease onset, the ECMO-treated survivors maintained good quality of life without severe complications or disabilities. Hypercapnia, thrombopenia, myocardial injury and elevation of IL-8 and IL-10 during ECMO treatment were strongly associated with death. Conclusion: This study showed the COVID-19 patients significantly benefited from ECMO treatment during severe ARDS, which supported the application of ECMO as an indicated strategy in the management of COVID-19 related ARDS.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318921

ABSTRACT

The authors have requested that this preprint be removed from Research Square.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315356

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: : COVID-19 is currently spreading around the world, and the cumulative number of cases worldwide exceeded 5 million on 23 May 2020 (10:00 GMT+2). At present, many countries or cities have implemented lockdown measures. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of lockdown measures on the pandemic by the use of lockdown or similar lockdown in 22 countries or cities. Methods: : An SEIQR epidemiological model was developed to capture the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. With the data related to COVID-19 from 22 countries or cities, the optimal parameters of the model were estimated, respectively. Results: : The average basic reproduction numbers of 22 countries or cities were between 1.5286-3.8067. And Russia Federation, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Singapore, the United States of New York and the United States of New Jersey were hardest hit by COVID-19. Conclusion: Although the pandemic has not been fundamentally controlled for a short time after lockdown, lockdown was proved to be an extremely effective control measure, which significantly scaled the number of patients down, thereby reduced the harmfulness of the pandemic.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311429

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is spreading globally with high disparity in the susceptibility of the disease severity. Identification of the key underlying factors for this disparity is highly warranted. Results: : Here we describe constructing a proteomic risk score (PRS) based on 20 blood proteomic biomarkers which related to the progression to severe COVID-19. Among COVID-19 patients, per 10% increment in the PRS was associated with a 57% higher risk of progressing to clinically severe phase (RR=1.57;95% CI, 1.35-1.82). We demonstrate that in our own cohort of 990 individuals without infection, this proteomic risk score is positively associated with proinflammatory cytokines mainly among older, but not younger, individuals. We further discovered that a core set of gut microbiota could accurately predict the blood proteomic biomarkers of COVID-19 using a machine learning model. The core OTU-predicted PRS had a significant correlation with actual PRS both cross-sectionally (n=132, p<0.001) and prospectively (n=169, p<0.05). Most of the core OTUs were highly correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. Fecal metabolomics analysis suggested potential amino acid-related pathways linking the above core gut microbiota to inflammation. Conclusions: : Our study suggests that gut microbiota may underlie the predisposition of healthy individuals to COVID-19-sensitive proteomic biomarkers.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324487

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization characterized the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic on March 11. Many clinical trials on COVID-19 have been registered, and we aim to review the characteristics of the trials and provide guidance for future trials to avoid duplicated effort. Methods All the studies on COVID-19 registered before Mar 3, 2020 on eight registry platforms worldwide were searched and the data of design, participants, interventions, and outcomes were extracted and analyzed. The most promising trials were screened based on study design, rationale, and resource availability. Results 393 studies registered were identified until Mar 3 2020 and 380 (96.7%) studies were from mainland China, while 3 in Japan, 3 in France, 2 in the US, and 3 were international collaborative studies. 363 studies (92.4%) recruited participants from hospitals and 266 studies (67.7%) aimed at therapeutic effect, others were for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, etc. 202 studies (51.4%) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The average sample size was 1061 and ranged from 8 to 150,000 per study. 177 out of 266 therapeutic studies (66.5% ) tested Western medicines including antiviral drugs (17.7%), stem cell and cord blood therapy (10.2%), chloroquine and derivatives (8.3%), 16 (6.0%) on Chinese medicines, and 73 (27.4%) on integrated therapy of Western and Chinese medicines. 14 Chinese medicines had its clear rationale for evaluation of therapeutic effects. 31 studies among 266 therapeutic studies (11.7%) used mortality as primary outcome, while the most designed secondary outcomes were symptoms and signs (47.0%). 106 studies (27.0%) were funded by the government, and 268 (68.2%) demonstrated ethical approval. 45.5% studies (179 out of 266) had not started recruiting till Mar 3. Eight RCTs were evaluated as the most promising trials. Conclusions Majority of the studies focused on assessing therapeutics for COVID-19 but inappropriate outcome setting, delayed recruitment and insufficient numbers of new cases in China implied many studies may fail to complete. Strategies and protocols of the studies with robust and rapid data sharing from international collaboration are warranted for emergency public health events, helping to accelerate priority setting for timely evidence-based decision-making.

9.
International Hospitality Review ; 35(2):260-279, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1570180

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis study aims to (1) examine the effect of customer awareness of restaurant philanthropic activities on customer loyalty;(2) investigate the mediating roles of customer social benevolence trust, perceived restaurant reputation and affective commitment on the relationship between their awareness of restaurant philanthropic activities and customer loyalty;and (3) test the path effect differences between the directed and general philanthropic activities during the COVID-19 pandemic period.Design/methodology/approachThis study used online scenario-based surveys to collect data. Based on 293 useable surveys, partial least squares structural equation modeling was applied for data analysis.FindingsThis study finds that customer awareness of restaurant philanthropic activities positively relates to customer loyalty. Moreover, customer social benevolence trust, perceived restaurant reputation and affective commitment have positive mediating effects on the relationship between their awareness of restaurant philanthropic activities and customer loyalty. There is no significant path effect difference between the directed and general philanthropic activities.Practical implicationsThis study suggests that restaurant decision-makers should conduct either directed or general philanthropic activities as a marketing tool to sustain customers during the COVID-19 recovery.Originality/valueThis study is the first study that discusses the marketing role of corporate philanthropy in the restaurant industry during the COVID-19 pandemic and stresses the importance of proactive strategic donations that helps restaurants' recovery.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2067, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the association between content-based problematic smartphone use and obesity in school-age children and adolescents, including variations in the association by educational stage and sex. METHODS: Two-stage non-probability sampling was used to recruit 8419 participants from nineteen primary schools, five middle schools, and thirteen high schools in Shanghai in December 2017. Obesity was identified by body mass index (BMI), which was obtained from the school physical examination record, while problematic smartphone use was measured by the Revised Problematic Smartphone Use Classification Scale as the independent variable. RESULTS: The rates of obesity varied with educational stages, while problematic smartphone use increased with educational stages. Male students reported higher obesity rates (37.1%vs19.4%, P < 0.001) and greater problematic smartphone use scores (25.65 ± 10.37 vs 22.88 ± 8.94, P < 0.001) than female students. Problematic smartphone use for entertainment (smartphone users addicted to entertainment games, music, videos, novels and other applications) was positively associated to obesity status for primary school [odds ratio (OR), 1.030; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.005-1.057] and high school students (OR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.004-1.059). For female students, problematic smartphone use for entertainment was positively associated with obesity status (OR, 1.046; 95% CI, 1.018-1.075). CONCLUSIONS: Problematic smartphone use may be associated with obesity in children and adolescents. The association differed based on the educational stage and sex, and the difference possessed dimensional specificity.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Smartphone , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Schools
11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(6): 1253-1268, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437055

ABSTRACT

Systemic infections, especially in patients with chronic diseases, may result in sepsis: an explosive, uncoordinated immune response that can lead to multisystem organ failure with a high mortality rate. Patients with similar clinical phenotypes or sepsis biomarker expression upon diagnosis may have different outcomes, suggesting that the dynamics of sepsis is critical in disease progression. A within-subject study of patients with Gram-negative bacterial sepsis with surviving and fatal outcomes was designed and single-cell transcriptomic analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected during the critical period between sepsis diagnosis and 6 h were performed. The single-cell observations in the study are consistent with trends from public datasets but also identify dynamic effects in individual cell subsets that change within hours. It is shown that platelet and erythroid precursor responses are drivers of fatal sepsis, with transcriptional signatures that are shared with severe COVID-19 disease. It is also shown that hypoxic stress is a driving factor in immune and metabolic dysfunction of monocytes and erythroid precursors. Last, the data support CD52 as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for sepsis as its expression dynamically increases in lymphocytes and correlates with improved sepsis outcomes. In conclusion, this study describes the first single-cell study that analyzed short-term temporal changes in the immune cell populations and their characteristics in surviving or fatal sepsis. Tracking temporal expression changes in specific cell types could lead to more accurate predictions of sepsis outcomes and identify molecular biomarkers and pathways that could be therapeutically controlled to improve the sepsis trajectory toward better outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/immunology , Leukocytes , Sepsis/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis
13.
Virol Sin ; 36(6): 1484-1491, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359969

ABSTRACT

The sudden emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has caused global panic in 2003, and the risk of SARS-CoV outbreak still exists. However, no specific antiviral drug or vaccine is available; thus, the development of therapeutic antibodies against SARS-CoV is needed. In this study, a nanobody phage-displayed library was constructed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of alpacas immunized with the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV. Four positive clones were selected after four rounds of bio-panning and subjected to recombinant expression in E. coli. Further biological identification demonstrated that one of the nanobodies, S14, showed high affinity to SARS-CoV RBD and potent neutralization activity at the picomole level against SARS-CoV pseudovirus. A competitive inhibition assay showed that S14 blocked the binding of SARS-CoV RBD to either soluble or cell-expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In summary, we developed a novel nanobody targeting SARS-CoV RBD, which might be useful for the development of therapeutics against SARS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354976

ABSTRACT

This study addresses students' perceptions of using urban green spaces (UGSs) after the easing of COVID-19 lockdown in China. We questioned whether they are still mindful of the risks from the outdoor gathering, or conversely, starting to learn the restoration benefits from the green spaces. Online self-reported surveys were distributed to the Chinese students aging from 14 to 30 who study in Hunan and Jiangsu Provinces, China. We finally obtained 608 complete and valid questionnaire forms from all participants. Their intentions of visiting UGSs were investigated based on the extended theory of planned behavior model. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypothesized psychological model. The results have shown good estimation performance on risk perception and perceived knowledge to explain the variances in their attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavior control. Among these three endogenous variables, the perceived behavior control owns the greatest and positive influence on the behavioral intention, inferring that controllability is crucial for students to make decisions of visiting green spaces in a post-pandemic context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , China , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Parks, Recreational , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05013, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty with respect to SARS-CoV-2 transmission in children (0-19 years) with controversy on effectiveness of school-closures in controlling the pandemic. It is of equal importance to evaluate the risk of transmission in children who are often asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic carriers that may incidentally transmit SARS-CoV-2 in different settings. We conducted this review to assess transmission and risks for SARS-CoV-2 in children (by age-groups or grades) in community and educational-settings compared to adults. METHODS: Data for the review were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WHO COVID-19 Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database, WanFang Database, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Google Scholar, and preprints from medRixv and bioRixv) covering a timeline from December 1, 2019 to April 1, 2021. Population-screening, contact-tracing and cohort studies reporting prevalence and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in children were included. Data were extracted according to PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Ninety studies were included. Compared to adults, children showed comparable national (risk ratio (RR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-1.060 and subnational (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66-1.01) prevalence in population-screening studies, and lower odds of infection in community/household contact-tracing studies (odds ratio (OR) = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.84). On disaggregation, adolescents observed comparable risk (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.74-2.04) with adults. In educational-settings, children attending daycare/preschools (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.38-0.72) were observed to be at lower-risk when compared to adults, with odds of infection among primary (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.55-1.31) and high-schoolers (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.71-2.38) comparable to adults. Overall, children and adolescents had lower odds of infection in educational-settings compared to community and household clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Children (<10 years) showed lower susceptibility to COVID-19 compared to adults, whereas adolescents in communities and high-schoolers had comparable risk. Risks of infection among children in educational-settings was lower than in communities. Evidence from school-based studies demonstrate it is largely safe for children (<10 years) to be at schools, however older children (10-19 years) might facilitate transmission. Despite this evidence, studies focusing on the effectiveness of mitigation measures in educational settings are urgently needed to support both public health and educational policy-making for school reopening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Family Characteristics , Schools , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Humans , Risk Assessment
16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 649922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186796

ABSTRACT

Since the early days of the pandemic, there have been several reports of cerebrovascular complications during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Numerous studies proposed a role for SARS-CoV-2 in igniting stroke. In this review, we focused on the pathoetiology of stroke among the infected patients. We pictured the results of the SARS-CoV-2 invasion to the central nervous system (CNS) via neuronal and hematogenous routes, in addition to viral infection in peripheral tissues with extensive crosstalk with the CNS. SARS-CoV-2 infection results in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release and activation of the immune system, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, endotheliitis and vasculitis, hypoxia, imbalance in the renin-angiotensin system, and cardiovascular complications that all may lead to the incidence of stroke. Critically ill patients, those with pre-existing comorbidities and patients taking certain medications, such as drugs with elevated risk for arrhythmia or thrombophilia, are more susceptible to a stroke after SARS-CoV-2 infection. By providing a pictorial narrative review, we illustrated these associations in detail to broaden the scope of our understanding of stroke in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We also discussed the role of antiplatelets and anticoagulants for stroke prevention and the need for a personalized approach among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
IUBMB Life ; 73(5): 739-760, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135107

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal symptoms and liver injury are common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, profiles of different pharmaceutical interventions used are relatively underexplored. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been increasingly used for patients with COVID-19, but the efficacy of CHM used in COVID-19 on gastrointestinal symptoms and liver functions has not been well studied with definitive results based on the updated studies. The present study aimed at testing the efficacy of CHM on digestive symptoms and liver function (primary outcomes), the aggravation of COVID-19, and the time to viral assay conversion (secondary outcomes), among patients with COVID-19, compared with standard pharmacotherapy. The literature search was undertaken in 11 electronic databases from December 1, 2019 up to November 8, 2020. Appraisal of the evidence was conducted with Cochrane risk of bias tool or Newcastle Ottawa Scale. A random-effects model or subgroup analysis was conducted when significant heterogeneity was identified in the meta-analysis. The certainty of the evidence was assessed with the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation approach. Forty-eight included trials involving 4,704 participants were included. Meta-analyses favored CHM plus standard pharmacotherapy for COVID-19 on reducing the aggravation of COVID-19 and the time to viral assay conversion compared with standard pharmacotherapy. However, the present CHM as a complementary therapy for treating COVID-19 may not be beneficial for improving most gastrointestinal symptoms and liver function based on the current evidence. More well-conducted trials are warranted to confirm the potential efficacy of CHM furtherly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anorexia/virology , COVID-19/etiology , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/drug therapy , Nausea/virology , Young Adult
18.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients are suggested to have a higher incidence of thrombotic events such as acute ischemic strokes (AIS). This study aimed at exploring vascular comorbidity patterns among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with subsequent stroke. We also investigated whether the comorbidities and their frequencies under each subclass of TOAST criteria were similar to the AIS population studies prior to the pandemic. METHODS: This is a report from the Multinational COVID-19 Stroke Study Group. We present an original dataset of SASR-CoV-2 infected patients who had a subsequent stroke recorded through our multicenter prospective study. In addition, we built a dataset of previously reported patients by conducting a systematic literature review. We demonstrated distinct subgroups by clinical risk scoring models and unsupervised machine learning algorithms, including hierarchical K-Means (ML-K) and Spectral clustering (ML-S). RESULTS: This study included 323 AIS patients from 71 centers in 17 countries from the original dataset and 145 patients reported in the literature. The unsupervised clustering methods suggest a distinct cohort of patients (ML-K: 36% and ML-S: 42%) with no or few comorbidities. These patients were more than 6 years younger than other subgroups and more likely were men (ML-K: 59% and ML-S: 60%). The majority of patients in this subgroup suffered from an embolic-appearing stroke on imaging (ML-K: 83% and ML-S: 85%) and had about 50% risk of large vessel occlusions (ML-K: 50% and ML-S: 53%). In addition, there were two cohorts of patients with large-artery atherosclerosis (ML-K: 30% and ML-S: 43% of patients) and cardioembolic strokes (ML-K: 34% and ML-S: 15%) with consistent comorbidity and imaging patterns. Binominal logistic regression demonstrated that ischemic heart disease (odds ratio (OR), 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-14.7), atrial fibrillation (OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 4.8-40.8), and active neoplasm (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.4-36.2) were associated with cardioembolic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Although a cohort of young and healthy men with cardioembolic and large vessel occlusions can be distinguished using both clinical sub-grouping and unsupervised clustering, stroke in other patients may be explained based on the existing comorbidities.

19.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2738-2752, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036015

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus resulted in economic losses and threatened human health worldwide. The pandemic highlights an urgent need for a stable, easily produced, and effective vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) to bind its cognate receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and initiate membrane fusion. Thus, the RBD is an ideal target for vaccine development. In this study, we designed three different RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine candidates, namely, RBD-Ferritin (24-mer), RBD-mi3 (60-mer), and RBD-I53-50 (120-mer), via covalent conjugation using the SpyTag-SpyCatcher system. When mice were immunized with the RBD-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) in conjunction with the AddaVax or Sigma Adjuvant System, the resulting antisera exhibited 8- to 120-fold greater neutralizing activity against both a pseudovirus and the authentic virus than those of mice immunized with monomeric RBD. Most importantly, sera from mice immunized with RBD-conjugated NPs more efficiently blocked the binding of RBD to ACE2 in vitro, further corroborating the promising immunization effect. Additionally, the vaccine has distinct advantages in terms of a relatively simple scale-up and flexible assembly. These results illustrate that the SARS-CoV-2 RBD-conjugated nanoparticles developed in this study are a competitive vaccine candidate and that the carrier nanoparticles could be adopted as a universal platform for a future vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
20.
Work ; 67(1): 67-79, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic not only cast a shadow on China's economic development but also caused phased panic and anxiety among the Chinese population. At the stage when the spread of the epidemic is not completely controlled, the business activities will surely cause employees to worry and produce a work stress reaction. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the impact of psychosocial stress caused by the COVID-19 epidemic on the work stress of returned workers. Furthermore, we explore the boundary conditions for reducing work stress from the perspectives of perceived organizational support, perceived social support and epidemic awareness. METHODS: Data were collected within two weeks after the Chinese government announced the work resumption of industrial enterprises. During this period, 526 returned workers participated in the study. RESULTS: The results showed that the psychosocial stress caused by the epidemic had a positive impact on work stress. Both perceived organizational support and perceived that social support can alleviate the impact of psychosocial stress on work stress. The moderating effect of epidemic awareness was only established in non-severe epidemic areas. CONCLUSIONS: In the current period of the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic, the conclusions of this study have a certain theoretical significance and practical value.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Occupational Stress , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Return to Work/psychology , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Empirical Research , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Surveys , Humans , Organizational Culture , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
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