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1.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids ; : 1-14, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984880

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid aptamers are developed from a pool of random oligonucleotide libraries with an in vitro selection through systematic evolution of ligands via exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, which are capable of specific and high-affinity molecular binding against targets. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is involved in the early stages of viral infection, is a promising target for aptamer selection. Currently, there are no effective approaches to prevent virus from spreading. In this study, a new ssDNA aptamer RBD/S-A1 binding to the RBD of spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 with high affinity (Kd=1.74 ± 0.2 nM) and low cross-binding activity was selected and evaluated. Although aptamers targeting the RBD of spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 have been described in a handful of previous studies, the RBD/S-A1 aptamer identified in this work may be considered as a potential supplementation for the current diagnosis and research of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Comput Chem Eng ; 166: 107947, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966455

ABSTRACT

Given that the usual process of developing a new vaccine or drug for COVID-19 demands significant time and funds, drug repositioning has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. We propose a method named DRPADC to predict novel drug-disease associations effectively from the original sparse drug-disease association adjacency matrix. Specifically, DRPADC processes the original association matrix with the WKNKN algorithm to reduce its sparsity. Furthermore, multiple types of similarity information are fused by a CKA-MKL algorithm. Finally, a compressed sensing algorithm is used to predict the potential drug-disease (virus) association scores. Experimental results show that DRPADC has superior performance than several competitive methods in terms of AUC values and case studies. DRPADC achieved the AUC value of 0.941, 0.955 and 0.876 in Fdataset, Cdataset and HDVD dataset, respectively. In addition, the conducted case studies of COVID-19 show that DRPADC can predict drug candidates accurately.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325101

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China since Dec 2019 and cases of infection have been continuously reported in various countries. It is now clear that the COVID-19 coronavirus is transmissible from human to human. Nucleic acid detection is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19. In this case report, we describe our experience in detection of COVID-19 from a confirmed patient using nucleic acid test of bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid (BALF) samples but not nasopharyngeal swabs. Case presentation We present a case of severely ill COVID-19 infected 46-year-old man with fever, coughing and chest tightness. We performed viral detection using his BALF samples and imaging method (CT) for confirmation. The patient received combination of interferonalfa-1b and ribavirin, lopinavir and ritonavir for antiviral treatment at different stages. Other medication was also given to him in combination for anti-inflammation, intestinal microbial regulation, phlegm elimination, liver protection and pulmonary fibrosis prevention purposes. We provided oxygen supply to him using BIPAP ventilator and high-flow humidification oxygen therapy instrument to facilitate respiration. The patient was cured and discharged. Conclusion: This case report described an effective supportive medication scheme to treat COVID-19 infected patient and emphasized the necessity of detection of the viral genome using BALF samples and its significance in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310359

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aims to analyze the changes and significance of organ function indices in patients with severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia for prediction of major organ damages and guiding treatment schemes. Methods: : 63 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were selected as the severe group and 73 patients with mild syndromes were selected as the mild group. SAS9.4 software was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: : Levels of ALT, AST, cTnI, Cr, PT, APTT and D-DIC of the severe group were significantly higher while PLT was lower than those of the mild group. The data of all quantitative variables were converted into categorical variables. Significantly higher levels of AST, ALB, D-DIC and higher proportion of bilateral lung involvement were observed from the severe group comparing to those in the mild group, while the difference in the other indices between the two groups was insignificant in statistical perspective. Discussion: There are significant differences in the levels of multiple organ function indices between the severe group and the mild group of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia infection. Through examining the relevant indices, conditions of patients’ multiple organ function damage could be predicted and used as guidance of treatment.

5.
Prev Vet Med ; 198: 105532, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616704

ABSTRACT

In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, the yak is an animal of particular economic interest, which provides protein and income for herders in daily life. Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that can infect humans and animals, including yaks. It can damage the yak reproductive system, causing miscarriage and orchitis. At the same time, brucellosis threatens the health of herders. We performed this meta-analysis using R software to explore the combined prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in yak in China. Variability was assessed by the I2 statistic and Cochran Q statistic. We identified 52 publications of related research from four databases (Wanfang Data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and of PubMed). The pooled prevalence of yak brucellosis was 8.39 %. Prevalence was highest in Southwestern China (11.1 %). The point estimate of brucellosis in yak from 2012 to 2016 was the highest (11.47 %). The point estimate of age ≤ 12 months (1.44 %) was lower than that of age > 12 months (15.6 %). This study shows that yak brucellosis is serious, and its incidence is higher than before 2012. We recommend carrying out large-scale yak brucellosis investigations in Western China and conducting comprehensive testing planning. The detection of brucellosis in adult animals should be strengthened to reduce the economic loss caused by brucellosis to herders and to improve public health.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , Cattle Diseases , Animals , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Brucellosis/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Prevalence , Tibet
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 248, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Swine coccidiosis, a protozoan disease caused by coccidia, can result in diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets and even economic losses in the pig industry. Here, we report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of coccidia (including Eimeria spp. and Cystoisospora suis) in pigs in China. METHODS: Five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP) were searched and 50 studies (46,926 domestic pigs, 22 provinces) ultimately identified pertaining to the prevalence of coccidia infection from 1980 to 2019. We incorporated the effect size using the random-effects model in the "meta" package in R software and conducted univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses using a mixed-effects model. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence rate of coccidia in pigs was 21.9%, including the C. suis infection rate of 9.1%. The highest prevalence of coccidia (39.6%) was found in northwest China, and this region also presented the lowest prevalence of C. suis (4.7%). In the subgroup analysis based on sampling year, the highest prevalence of coccidia was detected in 2001 or earlier (32.6%), whereas the lowest rate was found in 2012 or later (14.3%). An opposite trend was observed for C. suis (5.5% in 2000 or earlier vs 14.4% in 2000 or later). The prevalence of coccidia in extensive farming systems (29.5%) was higher than that in intensive farming systems (17.3%). In contrast, the point estimate of C. suis prevalence was lower in the extensive farming systems (5.1%) than in the intensive farming systems (10.0%), but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Among the four age categories, the highest total coccidia prevalence (26.2%) was found in finishing pigs, followed by suckling piglets (19.9%), whereas the highest prevalence of C. suis (14.9%) was observed in suckling piglets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that coccidia infection in Chinese pigs is common, although the prevalence of C. suis in pigs does not receive sufficient attention. We recommend the rational use of anticoccidial drugs to avoid drug resistance and the development of preventive and control measures for C. suis to reduce the incidence of swine coccidiosis.


Subject(s)
Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coccidia/classification , Coccidia/genetics , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Coccidia/physiology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Prevalence , Swine , Swine Diseases/parasitology
7.
Innovation (Camb) ; 1(3): 100061, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164618

ABSTRACT

The worldwide epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing. Rapid and accurate detection of the causative virus SARS-CoV-2 is vital for the treatment and control of COVID-19. In this study, the comparative sensitivity of different respiratory specimen types were retrospectively analyzed using 3,552 clinical samples from 410 COVID-19 patients confirmed by Guangdong CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). Except for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the sputum possessed the highest positive rate (73.4%-87.5%), followed by nasal swabs (53.1%-85.3%) for both severe and mild cases during the first 14 days after illness onset (d.a.o.). Viral RNA could be detected in all BALF samples collected from the severe group within 14 d.a.o. and lasted up to 46 d.a.o. Moreover, although viral RNA was negative in the upper respiratory samples, it was also positive in BALF samples in most cases from the severe group during treatment. Notably, no viral RNA was detected in BALF samples from the mild group. Despite typical ground-glass opacity observed via computed tomographic scans, no viral RNA was detected in the first three or all upper respiratory tract specimens from some COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, sputum is most sensitive for routine laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, followed by nasal swabs. Detection of viral RNA in BALF improves diagnostic accuracy in severe COVID-19 patients.

8.
Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; 10(6):435-438, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1125305

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze inflammatory indicators and T lymphocyte subsets in severe patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).

9.
Natl Sci Rev ; 7(6): 1003-1011, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-820587

ABSTRACT

A recent outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China was found to be caused by a 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2 or HCoV-19). We previously reported the clinical features of 12 patients with 2019-nCoV infections in Shenzhen, China. To further understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and find better ways to monitor and treat the disease caused by 2019-nCoV, we measured the levels of 48 cytokines in the blood plasma of those 12 COVID-19 patients. Thirty-eight out of the 48 measured cytokines in the plasma of 2019-nCoV-infected patients were significantly elevated compared to healthy individuals. Seventeen cytokines were linked to 2019-nCoV loads. Fifteen cytokines, namely M-CSF, IL-10, IFN-α2, IL-17, IL-4, IP-10, IL-7, IL-1ra, G-CSF, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-2, HGF and PDGF-BB, were strongly associated with the lung-injury Murray score and could be used to predict the disease severity of 2019-nCoV infections by calculating the area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics. Our results suggest that 2019-nCoV infections trigger extensive changes in a wide array of cytokines, some of which could be potential biomarkers of disease severity of 2019-nCoV infections. These findings will likely improve our understanding of the immunopathologic mechanisms of this emerging disease. Our results also suggest that modulators of cytokine responses may play a therapeutic role in combating the disease once the functions of these elevated cytokines have been characterized.

10.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 1655-1659, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-818737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) has quickly spread over the world and affected over 100 countries so far. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease may have a higher risk of infection of COVID-19 and worse outcomes than others. To improve the outcome during the pandemic, management strategies for the patients recovering from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery need to be reconsidered. METHODS: Some precaution advices including self-protection, blood glucose and blood pressure controlling are recommended for the patients recovering from CABG during the pandemic. They are encouraged to communicate with doctors by telephone or Internet when COVID-19 related symptoms such as cough, fever and dyspnea occur. As a follow-up strategy for patients after CABG surgery, cardiac biomarkers and CTA could also be helpful to the diagnosis of COVID-19. Some medications being investigated for COVID-19 therapy may have side effects relevant to cardiovascular disease. Appropriate personal protection equipment (PPE) is necessary for cardiovascular health-care workers operating in clinical settings. RESULTS: There was zero out of over 300 follow-up patients after CABG surgery confirmed to be infected with COVID-19 from January to June 2020. No cardiovascular health-care workers were reported to be infected neither in the Second Xiangya Hospital during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The management strategy here we proposed could improve the outcome of patients after CABG during the pandemic and benefit both cardiovascular patients and health-care workers.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 317, 2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-144086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China since Dec 2019 and cases of infection have been continuously reported in various countries. It is now clear that the SARS-COV-2 coronavirus is transmissible from human to human. Nucleic acid detection is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19. In this case report, we describe our experience in detection of SARS-COV-2 from a confirmed patient using nucleic acid test of bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid (BALF) samples but not nasopharyngeal swabs. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of severely ill SARS-COV-2 infected 46-year-old man with fever, coughing and chest tightness. We performed viral detection using his BALF samples and imaging method (CT) for confirmation. The patient received combination of interferonalfa-1b and ribavirin, lopinavir and ritonavir for antiviral treatment at different stages. Other medication was also given to him in combination for anti-inflammation, intestinal microbial regulation, phlegm elimination, liver protection and pulmonary fibrosis prevention purposes. We provided oxygen supply to him using BIPAP ventilator and high-flow humidification oxygen therapy instrument to facilitate respiration. The patient was cured and discharged. CONCLUSION: This case report described an effective supportive medication scheme to treat SARS-COV-2 infected patient and emphasized the necessity of detection of the viral genome using BALF samples and its significance in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(3): 364-374, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019-nCoV infection began in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, and rapidly spread to many provinces in China as well as other countries. Here we report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, as well as potential biomarkers for predicting disease severity in 2019-nCoV-infected patients in Shenzhen, China. All 12 cases of the 2019-nCoV-infected patients developed pneumonia and half of them developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The most common laboratory abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, lymphopenia, decreased percentage of lymphocytes (LYM) and neutrophils (NEU), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased CD8 count. The viral load of 2019-nCoV detected from patient respiratory tracts was positively linked to lung disease severity. ALB, LYM, LYM (%), LDH, NEU (%), and CRP were highly correlated to the acute lung injury. Age, viral load, lung injury score, and blood biochemistry indexes, albumin (ALB), CRP, LDH, LYM (%), LYM, and NEU (%), may be predictors of disease severity. Moreover, the Angiotensin II level in the plasma sample from 2019-nCoV infected patients was markedly elevated and linearly associated to viral load and lung injury. Our results suggest a number of potential diagnosis biomarkers and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) drugs for potential repurposing treatment of 2019-nCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Injury , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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