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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0251060, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833536

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown in the US, many businesses were shut down temporarily. Essential businesses, most prominently grocery stores, remained open to ensure access to food and household essentials. Grocery shopping presents increased potential for COVID-19 infection because customers and store employees are in proximity to each other. This study investigated shoppers' perceptions of COVID-19 infection risks and put them in context by comparing grocery shopping to other activities outside home, and examined whether a proactive preventive action by grocery stores influence shoppers' perceived risk of COVID-19 infection. Our data were obtained via an anonymous online survey distributed between April 2 and 10, 2020 to grocery shoppers in New York State (the most affected by the pandemic at the time of the study) and Washington State (the first affected by the pandemic). We found significant factors associated with high levels of risk perception on grocery shoppers. We identified some effective preventive actions that grocery stores implement to alleviate anxiety and risk perception. We found that people are generally more concerned about in-store grocery shopping relative to other out-of-home activities. Findings suggest that a strict policy requiring grocery store employees to use facemasks and gloves greatly reduced shoppers' perceived risk rating of infection of themselves by 37.5% and store employees by 51.2%. Preventive actions by customers and businesses are critical to reducing the unwitting transmission of COVID-19 as state governments prepare to reopen the economy and relax restrictions on activities outside home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Perception/ethics , Consumer Behavior/economics , Family Characteristics , Food , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , New York , Perception/physiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Supermarkets , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Washington
2.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796594

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic could increase the number of older adults who are socially isolated including community-dwelling older adults, and result in the secondary damage of mental health. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association between social isolation transitions and psychological distress among the community-dwelling older adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in rural China. Methods A total of 2749 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years and older in rural Shandong, China were included. We used the generalized estimating equations (GEE) model to estimate the impact of social isolation transitions on psychological distress before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results The percentage of high and very high psychological distress (K10 ≥ 22) was 23.54% and 31.36% before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively, indicating a 7.82% increase (P < 0.001). Compared with the group remaining nonisolated, “became socially isolated” and “remained isolated” groups were more likely to have a deterioration of psychological distress after experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic (became socially isolated: b = 0.92, P < 0.001;remained isolated: b = 0.98, P < 0.001). Limitations The main variables in this study were measured by self-report information, which might result in recall bias. Conclusions During the COVID-19 pandemic, psychological distress increased among the community-dwelling older adults in rural China. There was a significant risk of psychological distress among those who had transitioned from nonisolation before the pandemic to social isolation after experiencing the pandemic, thus intervention on social isolation process during the pandemic may be important to protect older adults' mental health.

3.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(1):12-16, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1789473

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)in December 2021 and the risk of importation.

4.
Res Sq ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786490

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health and other health professionals working in mental health care may contribute to the experiences of stigma and discrimination among mental health service users, but can also help reduce the impact of stigma on service users. However the few studies of interventions to equip such professionals to be anti-stigma agents those took place in High-Income Countries. This study assesses the feasibility, potential effectiveness and costs of Responding to Experienced and Anticipated Discrimination training for health professionals working in mental health care (READ-MH) across Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Methods: This is an uncontrolled pre-post mixed methods feasibility study of READ-MH training at seven sites across five LMICs (China, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, and Tunisia). Outcome measures: knowledge based on course content; attitudes to working to address the impact of stigma on service users; and skills in responding constructively to service users' reports of discrimination. The training draws upon the evidence bases for stigma reduction, health advocacy and medical education and is tailored to sites through situational analyses. Its content, delivery methods and intensity were agreed through a consensus exercise with site research teams. READ-MH will be delivered to health professionals working in mental health care immediately after baseline data collection; outcome measures will be collected post-training and three months post-baseline, followed by qualitative data collection. Fidelity will be rated during delivery of READ-MH, and data on training costs will be collected. Quantitative data will be assessed using generalised linear mixed models. Qualitative data will be evaluated by thematic analysis to identify feedback about the training methods and content, including the implementability of the knowledge and skills learned. Pooled and site-specific training costs per trainee and per session will be reported. Conclusions: The training development used a participatory and contextualized approach. Evaluation design strengths include the diversity of settings; the use of mixed methods; the use of a skills-based measure; and knowledge and attitude measures aligned to the target population and training. Limitations are the uncertain generalisability of skills performance to routine care, and the impact of COVID-19 restrictions at several sites limiting qualitative data collection for situational analyses.

5.
Respir Care ; 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780173

ABSTRACT

During the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, many respiratory therapies were classified as aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs). This categorization resulted in a broad range of clinical concerns and a shortage of essential medical resources for some patients. In the past two years, many studies have assessed the transmission risk posed by various respiratory care procedures. These studies are discussed in this narrative review, with recommendations for mitigating transmission risk based on the current evidence.

6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5831, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778629

ABSTRACT

Social media can forecast disease dynamics, but infoveillance remains focused on infection spread, with little consideration of media content reliability and its relationship to behavior-driven epidemiological outcomes. Sentiment-encoded social media indicators have been poorly developed for expressed text to forecast healthcare pressure and infer population risk-perception patterns. Here we introduce Infodemic Tomography (InTo) as the first web-based interactive infoveillance cybertechnology that forecasts and visualizes spatio-temporal sentiments and healthcare pressure as a function of social media positivity (i.e., Twitter here), considering both epidemic information and potential misinformation. Information spread is measured on volume and retweets, and the Value of Misinformation (VoMi) is introduced as the impact on forecast accuracy where misinformation has the highest dissimilarity in information dynamics. We validated InTo for COVID-19 in New Delhi and Mumbai by inferring distinct socio-epidemiological risk-perception patterns. We forecast weekly hospitalization and cases using ARIMA models and interpolate spatial hospitalization using geostatistical kriging on inferred risk perception curves between tweet positivity and epidemiological outcomes. Geospatial tweet positivity tracks accurately [Formula: see text]60[Formula: see text] of hospitalizations and forecasts hospitalization risk hotspots along risk aversion gradients. VoMi is higher for risk-prone areas and time periods, where misinformation has the highest non-linear predictability, with high incidence and positivity manifesting popularity-seeking social dynamics. Hospitalization gradients, VoMi, effective healthcare pressure and spatial model-data gaps can be used to predict hospitalization fluxes, misinformation, healthcare capacity gaps and surveillance uncertainty. Thus, InTo is a participatory instrument to better prepare and respond to public health crises by extracting and combining salient epidemiological and social surveillance at any desired space-time scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 757481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775973

ABSTRACT

Background: Some studies found that family doctor contract services (FDCSs) had positive impact on the self-measurement behaviors of hypertension patients. However, evidence concerning the association between FDCSs and blood pressure measurement awareness among hypertension patients is not clear. Objective: This study aims to explore the relationship between FDCSs and blood pressure measurement awareness among the hypertension patients, and examine whether there is a difference in this relationship among middle-aged and aged adults in rural Shandong, China. Methods: A multi-stage stratified random sampling was adopted in 2018 in Shandong Province to conduct a questionnaire survey among the sample residents, in which 982 hypertension patients were included in the study. Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression model were employed using SPSS 24.0 to explore the association between FDCSs and blood pressure measurement awareness. Results: 76.8% of hypertension patients would measure blood pressure regularly. The blood pressure measurement awareness of the signing group was significantly higher than that of the non-signing group when controlling other variables (P < 0.001, OR = 2.075, 95% CI 1.391-3.095). The interaction of age and contracting status were significantly correlated with blood pressure measurement awareness (P = 0.042, OR = 1.747, 95% CI 1.020-2.992; P = 0.019, OR = 2.060, 95% CI 1.129-3.759). Factors including gender (P = 0.011, OR = 0.499, 95% CI 0.291-0.855), household income (P = 0.031, OR = 1.764, 95% CI 1.052-2.956), smoking status (P = 0.002, OR = 0.439, 95% CI 0.260-0.739), sports habits (P < 0.001, OR = 2.338, 95% CI 1.679-3.257), self-reported health (P = 0.031, OR = 1.608, 95% CI 1.043-2.477), distance to the village clinic (P = 0.006, OR = 1.952, 95% CI 1.208-3.153) and medications (P < 0.001, OR = 3.345, 95% CI 2.282-4.904) were also found to be associated with the blood pressure measurement awareness of hypertension patients. Conclusion: The government should take efforts to strengthen publicity and education of family doctors and pay more attention to uncontracted, middle-aged, female patients and patients with unhealthy life behaviors to improve the blood pressure measurement awareness.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Contract Services , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hypertension , Adult , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Physicians, Family , Rural Population
8.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(12):1235-1239, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1771274

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in November 2021 and the risk of importation.

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331455

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health and other health professionals working in mental health care may contribute to the experiences of stigma and discrimination among mental health service users, but can also help reduce the impact of stigma on service users. However the few studies of interventions to equip such professionals to be anti-stigma agents those took place in High-Income Countries. This study assesses the feasibility, potential effectiveness and costs of Responding to Experienced and Anticipated Discrimination training for health professionals working in mental health care (READ-MH) across Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Methods: : This is an uncontrolled pre-post mixed methods feasibility study of READ-MH training at seven sites across five LMICs (China, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, and Tunisia). Outcome measures: knowledge based on course content;attitudes to working to address the impact of stigma on service users;and skills in responding constructively to service users’ reports of discrimination. The training draws upon the evidence bases for stigma reduction, health advocacy and medical education and is tailored to sites through situational analyses. Its content, delivery methods and intensity were agreed through a consensus exercise with site research teams. READ-MH will be delivered to health professionals working in mental health care immediately after baseline data collection;outcome measures will be collected post-training and three months post-baseline, followed by qualitative data collection. Fidelity will be rated during delivery of READ-MH, and data on training costs will be collected. Quantitative data will be assessed using generalised linear mixed models. Qualitative data will be evaluated by thematic analysis to identify feedback about the training methods and content, including the implementability of the knowledge and skills learned. Pooled and site-specific training costs per trainee and per session will be reported. Conclusions: The training development used a participatory and contextualized approach. Evaluation design strengths include the diversity of settings;the use of mixed methods;the use of a skills-based measure;and knowledge and attitude measures aligned to the target population and training. Limitations are the uncertain generalisability of skills performance to routine care, and the impact of COVID-19 restrictions at several sites limiting qualitative data collection for situational analyses.

10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 209: 114226, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767929

ABSTRACT

Protein sensors based on allosteric enzymes responding to target binding with rapid changes in enzymatic activity are potential tools for homogeneous assays. However, a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is difficult to achieve in their construction. A high S/N is critical to discriminate signals from the background, a phenomenon that might largely vary among serum samples from different individuals. Herein, based on the modularized luciferase NanoLuc, we designed a novel biosensor called NanoSwitch. This sensor allows direct detection of antibodies in 1 µl serum in 45 min without washing steps. In the detection of Flag and HA antibodies, NanoSwitches respond to antibodies with S/N ratios of 33-fold and 42-fold, respectively. Further, we constructed a NanoSwitch for detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, which showed over 200-fold S/N in serum samples. High S/N was achieved by a new working model, combining the turn-off of the sensor with human serum albumin and turn-on with a specific antibody. Also, we constructed NanoSwitches for detecting antibodies against the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Interestingly, these sensors demonstrated a high S/N and good performance in the assays of clinical samples; this was partly attributed to the combination of off-and-on models. In summary, we provide a novel type of protein sensor and a working model that potentially guides new sensor design with better performance.

11.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 84, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Awake prone positioning (APP) improves oxygenation in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients and, when successful, may decrease the risk of intubation. However, factors associated with APP success remain unknown. In this secondary analysis, we aimed to assess whether APP can reduce intubation rate in patients with COVID-19 and to focus on the factors associated with success. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, conducted in three high-acuity units, we randomly assigned patients with COVID-19-induced acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) requiring high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen to APP or standard care. Primary outcome was intubation rate at 28 days. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the predictors associated to treatment success (survival without intubation). RESULTS: Among 430 patients randomized, 216 were assigned to APP and 214 to standard care. The APP group had a lower intubation rate (30% vs 43%, relative risk [RR] 0.70; CI95 0.54-0.90, P = 0.006) and shorter hospital length of stay (11 interquartile range [IQR, 9-14] vs 13 [IQR, 10-17] days, P = 0.001). A respiratory rate ≤ 25 bpm at enrollment, an increase in ROX index > 1.25 after first APP session, APP duration > 8 h/day, and a decrease in lung ultrasound score ≥ 2 within the first 3 days were significantly associated with treatment success for APP. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19-induced AHRF treated by HFNC, APP reduced intubation rate and improved treatment success. A longer APP duration is associated with APP success, while the increase in ROX index and decrease in lung ultrasound score after APP can also help identify patients most likely to benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov at July 20, 2021. Identification number NCT04477655. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04477655?term=PRO-CARF&draw=2&rank=1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Humans , Prone Position , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Wakefulness
13.
Respir Care ; 67(2): 281, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753820
14.
Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids ; 27:718-732, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749327

ABSTRACT

Drug discovery from plants usually focuses on small molecules rather than such biological macromolecules as RNAs. Although plant transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived fragment (tRF) has been associated with the developmental and defense mechanisms in plants, its regulatory role in mammals remains unclear. By employing a novel reverse small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening strategy, we show that a tRF mimic (antisense derived from the 5′ end of tRNAHis(GUG) of Chinese yew) exhibits comparable anti-cancer activity with that of taxol on ovarian cancer A2780 cells, with a 16-fold lower dosage than that of taxol. A dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that tRF-T11 directly targets the 3′ UTR of oncogene TRPA1 mRNA. Furthermore, an Argonaute-RNA immunoprecipitation (AGO-RIP) assay demonstrated that tRF-T11 can interact with AGO2 to suppress TRPA1 via an RNAi pathway. This study uncovers a new role of plant-derived tRFs in regulating endogenous genes. This holds great promise for exploiting novel RNA drugs derived from nature and sheds light on the discovery of unknown molecular targets of therapeutics. Graphical

15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Awake prone positioning has been broadly utilised for non-intubated patients with COVID-19-related acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, but the results from published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the past year are contradictory. We aimed to systematically synthesise the outcomes associated with awake prone positioning, and evaluate these outcomes in relevant subpopulations. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, two independent groups of researchers searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, MedRxiv, BioRxiv, and ClinicalTrials.gov for RCTs and observational studies (with a control group) of awake prone positioning in patients with COVID-19-related acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure published in English from Jan 1, 2020, to Nov 8, 2021. We excluded trials that included patients intubated before or at enrolment, paediatric patients (ie, younger than 18 years), or trials that did not include the supine position in the control group. The same two independent groups screened studies, extracted the summary data from published reports, and assessed the risk of bias. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to pool individual studies. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to assess the certainty and quality of the evidence. The primary outcome was the reported cumulative intubation risk across RCTs, and effect estimates were calculated as risk ratios (RR;95% CI). The analysis was primarily conducted on RCTs, and observational studies were used for sensitivity analyses. No serious adverse events associated with awake prone positioning were reported. The study protocol was prospectively registered with PROSPERO, CRD42021271285. FINDINGS: A total of 1243 studies were identified, we assessed 138 full-text articles and received the aggregated results of three unpublished RCTs; therefore, after exclusions, 29 studies were included in the study. Ten were RCTs (1985 patients) and 19 were observational studies (2669 patients). In ten RCTs, awake prone positioning compared with the supine position significantly reduced the need for intubation in the overall population (RR 0·84 [95% CI 0·72-0·97]). A reduced need for intubation was shown among patients who received advanced respiratory support (ie, high-flow nasal cannula or non-invasive ventilation) at enrolment (RR 0·83 [0·71-0·97]) and in intensive care unit (ICU) settings (RR 0·83 [0·71-0·97]) but not in patients receiving conventional oxygen therapy (RR 0·87 [0·45-1·69]) or in non-ICU settings (RR 0·88 [0·44-1·76]). No obvious risk of bias and publication bias was found among the included RCTs for the primary outcome. INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19-related acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, awake prone positioning reduced the need for intubation, particularly among those requiring advanced respiratory support and those in ICU settings. Awake prone positioning should be used in patients who have acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and require advanced respiratory support or are treated in the ICU. FUNDING: OpenAI, Rice Foundation, National Institute for Health Research, and Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.

16.
Res Int Bus Finance ; 60: 101581, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740155

ABSTRACT

In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that in countries with severe disaster experience (SDE), the response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is characterized by a higher level of attention in the population, more timely market responses, and stricter government containment measures. Specifically, we find that during the first COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, people in countries with SDE searched for related information more frequently on Google than did people in countries with mild disaster experience (MDE). Moreover, we find that a higher level of attention to COVID-19, as measured by Google search index usage, led to greater declines in stock market indexes in countries with SDE than in those with MDE. Finally, we find that compared with countries with MDE, those with SDE implemented more stringent social distancing policies in response to domestic COVID-19 outbreaks, and individuals in the latter group of countries were more likely to follow government-imposed rules of social distancing in both the early outbreak and reopening phases. Our findings suggest that disaster experience increases risk aversion and is an essential mechanism by which individuals, markets, and countries respond to COVID-19 in a timely manner.

17.
J Appl Psychol ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730258

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to create tremendous uncertainty in workplaces. Building on a social identity perspective, this study develops and tests a model of how and why COVID-19-associated uncertainty affects employee work outcomes. The model differentiates uncertainty as either internal (job insecurity) or external (perceived environmental uncertainty) to the organization and reveals their different effects on employee organizational identification, which positively affects employee work outcomes (work effort, organizational citizenship behavior, and performance). With a latent change score to model intraindividual changes, we found that increases (or decreases) in job insecurity before versus during the pandemic related to subsequent decreases (or increases) in organizational identification, whereas increases (or decreases) in perceived environmental uncertainty before versus during the pandemic related to subsequent increases (or decreases) in organizational identification; increases (or decreases) in organizational identification then related to increases (or decreases) in positive work outcomes. These findings complement existing theoretical views that uncertainty typically leads to poor performance by inducing anxiety, and that organizational identification suffers during a crisis such as COVID-19. In turn, this research offers practical implications to help organizations avoid discouraging and even encourage greater organizational identification and performance during crises. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

18.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(11):1112-1116, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1726093

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in October 2021 and the risk of importation.

19.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329048

ABSTRACT

Background: The human microbiome plays an important role in modulating the host metabolism and immune system. Connections and interactions have been found between the microbiome of the gut and oral-pharynx in the context of SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections, hence, to broaden our understanding of host-viral responses in general and to deepen our knowledge of COVID-19, we performed a large-scale, systematic evaluation of the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on human microbiota in patients with varying disease severity. Results We processed 521 samples from 203 COVID-19 patients with varying disease severity and 94 samples from 31 healthy donors, consisting of 213 pharyngeal swabs, 250 sputum, and 152 faecal samples, and obtained meta-transcriptomes as well as SARS-CoV-2 sequences from each sample. Detailed assessment of these samples revealed altered microbial composition and function in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and gut of COVID-19 patients, and these changes are significantly associated with disease severity. Moreover, URT and gut microbiota show different patterns of alteration, where gut microbiome seems to be more variable and in direct correlation with viral load;and microbial community in upper respiratory tract renders high risk of antibiotic resistance. Longitudinally, microbial composition remains relatively stable during the study period. Conclusions Our study has revealed different trends and the relative sensitivity of microbiome in different body sites to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, while the use of antibiotics is often essential for prevention and treatment of secondary infections, our results indicate a need to evaluate potential antibiotic resistance in the management of COVID-19 patients in the ongoing pandemic. Moreover, longitudinal follow-up to monitor the restoration of the microbiome could enhance our understanding of the long-term effects of COVID-19.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 826: 154118, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699885

ABSTRACT

Today, the world faces an enormous increase in plastic waste pollution caused by the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Plastic pollution has been already one of the greatest threats to our planet before the Coronavirus outbreak. The disposal of millions of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the form of face masks has significantly contributed to the generation of plastic waste and has exacerbated plastic pollution. In an attempt to mitigate pollution caused by the excess PPE waste, an innovative way was developed in this research to reduce pandemic-generated wastes by using the shredded face mask (SFM) fibers as an additive to hot mix asphalt (HMA) to enhance rutting resistance. Rutting or permanent deformation is one of the major distresses of asphalt pavement. Since the SFM behaves as a semi-liquid between 115.5 and 160 °C, which is in the range of HMA mixing and paving temperature, it can function as a binding agent to glue the aggregates. When the pavement is cooled down to ambient temperature, the hardened SFM can provide stability and stiffness to HMA. Based on the results of this study, the modified mixes exhibited excellent resistance to permanent deformation under the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA), as rutting depth values were reduced from 3.0 mm to 0.93 mm by increasing the SFM content from 0% to 1.5%. From the rutting test results and premature distress mechanism study, the appropriate addition of SFM modifiers could improve the high-temperature properties of HMA that can be used to strengthen high-compression and shearing zones in the pavement structure.

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