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1.
Journal of virology ; : e0171922, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2213880

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the most severe emerging infectious disease in the current century. The discovery of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV-2) in bats and pangolins in South Asian countries indicates that SARS-CoV-2 likely originated from wildlife. To date, two SARSr-CoV-2 strains have been isolated from pangolins seized in Guangxi and Guangdong by the customs agency of China, respectively. However, it remains unclear whether these viruses cause disease in animal models and whether they pose a transmission risk to humans. In this study, we investigated the biological features of a SARSr-CoV-2 strain isolated from a smuggled Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica) captured by the Guangxi customs agency, termed MpCoV-GX, in terms of receptor usage, cell tropism, and pathogenicity in wild-type BALB/c mice, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-transgenic mice, and human ACE2 knock-in mice. We found that MpCoV-GX can utilize ACE2 from humans, pangolins, civets, bats, pigs, and mice for cell entry and infect cell lines derived from humans, monkeys, bats, minks, and pigs. The virus could infect three mouse models but showed limited pathogenicity, with mild peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration observed in lungs. Our results suggest that this SARSr-CoV-2 virus from pangolins has the potential for interspecies infection, but its pathogenicity is mild in mice. Future surveillance among these wildlife hosts of SARSr-CoV-2 is needed to monitor variants that may have higher pathogenicity and higher spillover risk. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, which likely spilled over from wildlife, is the third highly pathogenic human coronavirus. Being highly transmissible, it is perpetuating a pandemic and continuously posing a severe threat to global public health. Several SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV-2) in bats and pangolins have been identified since the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. It is therefore important to assess their potential of crossing species barriers for better understanding of their risk of future emergence. In this work, we investigated the biological features and pathogenicity of a SARSr-CoV-2 strain isolated from a smuggled Malayan pangolin, named MpCoV-GX. We found that MpCoV-GX can utilize ACE2 from 7 species for cell entry and infect cell lines derived from a variety of mammalian species. MpCoV-GX can infect mice expressing human ACE2 without causing severe disease. These findings suggest the potential of cross-species transmission of MpCoV-GX, and highlight the need of further surveillance of SARSr-CoV-2 in pangolins and other potential animal hosts.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 930673, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198851

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, is one of the fastest-evolving viral diseases that has instigated a worldwide pandemic. Severe inflammatory syndrome and venous thrombosis are commonly noted in COVID-19 patients with severe and critical illness, contributing to the poor prognosis. Interleukin (IL)-6, a major complex inflammatory cytokine, is an independent factor in predicting the severity of COVID-19 disease in patients. IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α participate in COVID-19-induced cytokine storm, causing endothelial cell damage and upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels. In addition, IL-6 and PAI-1 form a vicious cycle of inflammation and thrombosis, which may contribute to the poor prognosis of patients with severe COVID-19. Targeted inhibition of IL-6 and PAI-1 signal transduction appears to improve treatment outcomes in severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients suffering from cytokine storms and venous thrombosis. Motivated by studies highlighting the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and thrombosis in viral immunology, we provide an overview of the immunothrombosis and immunoinflammation vicious loop between IL-6 and PAI-1. Our goal is that understanding this ferocious circle will benefit critically ill patients with COVID-19 worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
American Heart Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149200

ABSTRACT

Background Lowering blood pressure (BP) effectively reduces the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in high CV risk individuals. The optimal target of BP lowering among high CV risk individuals remains unclear. Methods The Effects of intensive Systolic blood Pressure lowering treatment in reducing RIsk of vascular evenTs (ESPRIT) trial is a multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of intensive BP lowering strategy (Systolic BP target <120 mmHg) and standard BP lowering strategy (Systolic BP target <140 mmHg). Participants aged at least 50 years old with baseline systolic BP within 130-180 mmHg at high CV risk, defined by established CV diseases or two major CV risk factors, were enrolled. The primary outcome is a composite CV outcome of myocardial infarction, coronary or non-coronary revascularization, hospitalization or emergency department visit from new-onset heart failure or acute decompensated heart failure, stroke, or death from CV diseases. Secondary outcomes include components of the primary composite outcome, all-cause death, a composite of the primary outcome or all-cause death, kidney outcomes, as well as cognitive outcomes. Results Despite of the interruption of COVID-19 outbreak, the ESPRIT trial successfully enrolled and randomized 11,255 participants from 116 hospitals or primary health care institutions. The mean age of the participants was 64.6 (standard deviation [SD], 7.1) years, 4,650 (41.3%) were women. Among them 28.9%, 26.9% and 38.7% had coronary heart disease, prior stroke and diabetes mellitus, respectively. COVID-19 outbreak affected the BP lowering titration process of the trial, and delayed the reach of BP target. Conclusion The ESPRIT trial will address the important question on the optimal BP lowering target for individuals with high CV risk, and generate high quality evidence for treating millions of patients from East Asian countries.

5.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 14(6): 604-652, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144267

ABSTRACT

In the last few decades, there has been a progressive increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in China, where it now affects approximately 250 million people. AR prevention and treatment include allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, allergen immunotherapy (AIT), and patient education, among which AIT is the only curative intervention. AIT targets the disease etiology and may potentially modify the immune system as well as induce allergen-specific immune tolerance in patients with AR. In 2017, a team of experts from the Chinese Society of Allergy (CSA) and the Chinese Allergic Rhinitis Collaborative Research Group (C2AR2G) produced the first English version of Chinese AIT guidelines for AR. Since then, there has been considerable progress in basic research of and clinical practice for AIT, especially regarding the role of follicular regulatory T (TFR) cells in the pathogenesis of AR and the use of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) in nasal secretions for the diagnosis of AR. Additionally, potential biomarkers, including TFR cells, sIgG4, and sIgE, have been used to monitor the incidence and progression of AR. Moreover, there has been a novel understanding of AIT during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Hence, there was an urgent need to update the AIT guideline for AR by a team of experts from CSA and C2AR2G. This document aims to serve as professional reference material on AIT for AR treatment in China, thus improving the development of AIT across the world.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1030238, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142035

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the positivity and levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in vaccinated children to evaluate the humoral immune response of vaccination on pediatric population. Analysis on the causes of antibody positivity in unvaccinated children. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on children who were admitted to the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics. The clinical data of serological testing of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were collected from SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated or unvaccinated children with no evidence of prior novel coronavirus infection. Chemiluminescence immunoassay was utilized for the in vitro determination of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Results: A total of 3,321 healthy children aged 6-11 years received two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. At 1 month after the second dose, the positive rate (96.5%) and levels [8.039 (interquartile range (IQR), 6.067-9.098)] of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies reached the peak and remained at a high level for 2-3 months, after which the positive rate and level of vaccine-induced IgG antibody gradually decreased. Compared with 1 month after the second dose of vaccine, the positive rate of IgG antibody decreased to 70.4% at 7 months, and the antibody level decreased by 69.0%. A total of 945 children aged 3-5 years received one or two doses of inactivated vaccine. The positive rate and levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody in participants remained high for 3 months after vaccination. There was no gender-based difference in positive rate of IgG antibody in children aged 3-11 years old (P>0.05). Among the 5,309 unvaccinated children aged 0 day to 11 years, 105 (2.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody, which was associated with passive infusion. The maternal humoral response to COVID-19 vaccination in noninfected pregnant women was transferred through the placenta to the fetus, and some children obtained SARS-CoV-2-positive antibodies through blood transfusion. Conclusions: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines could induce robust humoral immune response that gradually declined within several months after the second dose. Therefore, it helps to determine whether children receive a booster dose and elicit a long-term memory immune response. Positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in unvaccinated children were associated with passive IgG antibody infusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Humans , Child , Female , Child, Preschool , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccination
7.
Intensive Care Res ; : 1-12, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129636

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the end of July 2021, SARS-CoV-2 (Delta variant) invaded Henan Province, China, causing a rapid COVID-19 spread in the province. Among them, the clinical features of COVID-19 (Delta Variant)/HIV co-infection have attracted our attention. Methods: We included 12 COVID-19 patients living with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) from July 30, 2021 to September 17, 2021 in Henan Province, China. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and computed tomography (CT) imaging data were dynamically collected from first nucleic acid positive to hospital discharge. Laboratory findings included SARS-CoV-2 viral load, HIV viral load, IgM, IgG, cytokines, lymphocyte subpopulation, ferritin, etc. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS version 26·0 and GraphPad Prism version 9·0. Results: It was founded that the low Ct value persisted for about 21 days, and the viral shedding time (turn negative time) of the patients was 32·36 ± 2·643 days. Furthermore, chest CT imaging revealed that lesions were obviously and rapidly absorbed. It was surprising that IgM levels were statistically higher in patients taking azvudine or convalescent plasma than in patients not taking these drugs (P < 0·001, P = 0·0002, respectively). IgG levels were significantly higher in patients treated with the combined medication of BRII/196 and BRII/198 than in those not treated with these drugs (P = 0·0029). IgM was significantly higher in those with low HIV viral load than those with high HIV viral load (P < 0·001). In addition, as treatment progressed and patients' condition improved, IL-17a showed a decreasing trend. Conclusions: Based on this study, we found that HIV infection might not exacerbate COVID-19 severity. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s44231-022-00018-z.

8.
Vaccines ; 10(12):2042, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2127265

ABSTRACT

The nucleocapsid (N) protein contributes to key steps of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle, including packaging of the virus genome and modulating interactions with cytoplasmic components. Expanding knowledge of the N protein acting on cellular proteins and interfering with innate immunity is critical for studying the host antiviral strategy. In the study on SARS-CoV-2 infecting human bronchial epithelial cell line s1(16HBE), we identified that the N protein can promote the interaction between GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain-binding protein 2 (G3BP2) and tripartite motif containing 25 (TRIM25), which is involved in formation of the TRIM25-G3BP2-N protein interactome. Our findings suggest that the N protein is enrolled in the inhibition of type I interferon production in the process of infection. Meanwhile, upgraded binding of G3BP2 and TRIM25 interferes with the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, which may contribute to SARS-CoV-2 escaping from cellular innate immune surveillance. The N protein plays a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our study suggests that the N protein and its interacting cellular components has potential for use in antiviral therapy, and adding N protein into the vaccine as an antigen may be a good strategy to improve the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine. Its interference with innate immunity should be strongly considered as a target for SARS-CoV-2 infection control and vaccine design.

9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6952, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119472

ABSTRACT

Data on safety and immunity elicited by a third booster dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in children and adolescents are scarce. Here we conducted a study based on a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial (NCT04551547) to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a third dose of CoronaVac. In this study, 384 participants in the vaccine group were assigned to two cohorts. One received the third dose at a 10-months interval (cohort 1) and the other one at a 12-months interval (cohort 2). The primary endpoint is safety and immunogenicity following a third dose of CoronaVac. The secondary endpoint is antibody persistence following the primary two-dose schedule. Severities of local and systemic adverse reactions reported within 28 days after dose 3 were mild and moderate in both cohorts. A third dose of CoronaVac increased GMTs to 681.0 (95%CI: 545.2-850.7) in cohort 1 and 745.2 (95%CI: 577.0-962.3) in cohort 2. Seropositivity rates against the prototype were 100% on day 28 after dose 3. Seropositivity rates against the Omicron variant were 90.6% (cohort 1) and 91.5% (cohort 2). A homologous booster dose of CoronaVac is safe and induces a significant neutralising antibody levels increase in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Double-Blind Method , Antibodies, Viral
10.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(10): 280, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are implemented. Dysbiosic gut microbiota is implicated in the COVID-19 patients. Whereas, how intestinal microbiota are affected by vaccination remains elusive, and it is important to investigate the microbial shifts during vaccines treatment. METHODS: In the present study, we assessed the gut microbial composition in healthy adults, and performed comparison before and post an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, BBIBP-CorV vaccination. RESULTS: Microbial diversity in shannon, pielou evenness, simpson and invsimpson index was remarkably suppressed by vaccination. Ruminococcus and Actinomyces were observed to be strikingly deficient, and Faecalibacterium was dramatically augmented after BBIBP-CorV treatment. Potential functional profiles of gut microbiome in amino acid metabolism, lipid biosynthesis proteins and steroid biosynthesis were remarkably increased, while the capacity in renin-angiotensin system was remarkably decreased following vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that inactivated BBIBP-CorV against SARS-CoV-2 could elicit modulations on gut microbial composition and functions, which might favor host immune response and protect from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110123

ABSTRACT

Since the start of COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 6 million people have lost their lives worldwide directly or indirectly. Despite intensified efforts to clarify the immunopathology of COVID-19, the key factors and processes that trigger an inflammatory storm and lead to severe clinical outcomes in patients remain unclear. As an inflammatory storm factor, IL-33 is an alarmin cytokine, which plays an important role in cell damage or infection. Recent studies have shown that serum IL-33 is upregulated in COVID-19 patients and is strongly associated with poor outcomes. Increased IL-33 levels in severe infections may result from an inflammatory storm caused by strong interactions between activated immune cells. However, the effects of IL-33 in COVID-19 and the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, we systematically discuss the biological properties of IL-33 under pathophysiological conditions and its regulation of immune cells, including neutrophils, innate lymphocytes (ILCs), dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4+ T cells, Th17/Treg cells, and CD8+ T cells, in COVID-19 phagocytosis. The aim of this review is to explore the potential value of the IL-33/immune cell pathway as a new target for early diagnosis, monitoring of severe cases, and clinical treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Interleukin-33 , Cytokines/metabolism
12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2138051, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107201

ABSTRACT

To report potential vaccine-induced inflammatory ocular adverse events following inactivated COVID-19 vaccination. Retrospective study of patients with uveitis and other ocular complications following inactivated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination at a tertiary referral center between May 2021 and August 2021. Data collection consisted of demographic and clinical data. The study included 8 eyes of 5 patients (4 females, 1 male), with a mean age of 37.2 ± 12.5 years (range 28-59 years). Mean time between vaccination and ocular complications onset was 13.2 ± 11.9 days (range 3-30 days), including two patients after the first dose of the vaccine and 3 patients after the second dose. The cases reported were three anterior uveitis, one herpetic keratitis and iridocyclitis, and one posterior uveitis. Patients received treatment with local and/or systemic steroids and all the patients had good visual outcomes. Ocular inflammatory events may occur after vaccination with possible gender preponderance. However, they are rare and manageable. Overall, the efficacy and safety of vaccination should be emphasized.

13.
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems and Community Development ; 11(4):261-271, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2100227

ABSTRACT

"Hospitals not only provide access to healthcare services in rural areas;they also serve as major employers and economic drivers. The goal of this pilot study was to improve our understanding of how a rural healthcare system in Appalachian Kentucky could be leveraged to expand access to fresh fruits and vegetables. We conducted 11 semi-structured interviews with food system and healthcare stakeholders in Hazard, Kentucky, to (1) improve our understanding of key barriers to accessing and utilizing fresh produce for healthcare worker and patient populations, (2) identify models for direct-to-consumer market channels and farm-to-institution programming in collaboration with a local hospital, and (3) explore the potential of those models to foster greater consumption of fruit and vegetables among community members. Stakeholders emphasized the need for staff support and funding during program development and discussed the difficulty in maintaining prior local food and health promotion efforts when pilot funding expired. Other considerations included the importance of community ownership, robust communication and coordination among stakeholders, and attunement to the opportunities and challenges of a hospital-based approach. Direct farm-to-consumer models were considered feasible but would require accommodation for low-income consumers, such as vouchers, sliding-scale payment methods, or ""double dollar"" programs. Farm-to-hospital initiatives were discussed in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and reduced hospital cafeteria usage, which may limit the success of some events but highlights the potential for to-go options such as pre-prepared salads, lightly processed snacks, and medically tailored meal kits. Results of this study illustrate the challenges and opportunities of leveraging a rural hospital as an anchor institution for expanding local food system development in rural Appalachia. This study also offers insights into the intersections of health, culture, and economy in an Appalachian community, and provides a framework for expanding local food system initiatives."

14.
Journal of Regional Science ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2097837

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the impact of urban density, city government efficiency, and medical resources on COVID‐19 infection and death outcomes in China. We adopt a simultaneous spatial dynamic panel data model to account for (i) the simultaneity of infection and death outcomes, (ii) the spatial pattern of the transmission, (iii) the intertemporal dynamics of the disease, and (iv) the unobserved city‐specific and time‐specific effects. We find that, while population density increases the level of infections, government efficiency significantly mitigates the negative impact of urban density. We also find that the availability of medical resources improves public health outcomes conditional on lagged infections. Moreover, there exists significant heterogeneity at different phases of the epidemiological cycle. [ FROM AUTHOR]

15.
Science ; 376(6590): eabi9591, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088383

ABSTRACT

In this work, we find that CD8+ T cells expressing inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are the human equivalent of Ly49+CD8+ regulatory T cells in mice and are increased in the blood and inflamed tissues of patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, these CD8+ T cells efficiently eliminated pathogenic gliadin-specific CD4+ T cells from the leukocytes of celiac disease patients in vitro. We also find elevated levels of KIR+CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ regulatory T cells, in COVID-19 patients, correlating with disease severity and vasculitis. Selective ablation of Ly49+CD8+ T cells in virus-infected mice led to autoimmunity after infection. Our results indicate that in both species, these regulatory CD8+ T cells act specifically to suppress pathogenic T cells in autoimmune and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Mice , Receptors, KIR , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
16.
Virology ; 576: 61-68, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086825

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants have posed significant challenges to the hopes of using ancestral strain-based vaccines to address the risk of breakthrough infection by variants. We designed and developed a bivalent vaccine based on SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Beta variants (named SCTV01C). SCTV01C antigens were stable at 25 oC for at least 6 months. In the presence of a squalene-based oil-in-water adjuvant SCT-VA02B, SCTV01C showed significant protection efficacy against antigen-matched Beta variant, with favorable safety profiles in rodents. Notably, SCTV01C exhibited cross-neutralization capacity against Omicron subvariants (BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.3, and BA.4/5) in mice, superior to a WT (D614G)-based vaccine, which reinforced our previously published findings that SCTV01C exhibited broad-spectrum neutralizing potencies against over a dozen pre-Omicron variants and the Omicron BA.1 variant. In summary, variant-based multivalent protein vaccine could be a platform approach to address the challenging issues of emerging variants, vaccine hesitancy and the needs of affordable and thermal stable vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Mice , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Combined , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Squalene , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Water , Antibodies, Neutralizing
17.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; : 101005, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085847

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Telemedicine enthusiasm and uptake in radiation oncology rapidly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, but it is unclear if and how telemedicine should be used after the COVID-19 public health emergency ends is unclear. Herein, we report on our institution's provider experience after the mature adoption of telemedicine. Methods and Materials: We distributed a survey to all radiation oncology attending physicians at our institution in October 2021 to assess satisfaction, facilitators, and barriers to telemedicine implementation. We performed quantitative and qualitative analyses to characterize satisfaction and identify influencing factors whether telemedicine is employed. We calculated the average proportion of visits that providers expected to be appropriately performed with telemedicine for each disease site and visit type. Results: A total of 60 of the 82 eligible radiation oncologists (73%) responded to the survey, of whom 78% were satisfied with telemedicine in the radiation oncology department and 83% wished to continue offering video visits after the COVID-19 public health emergency ends. Common patient factors influencing whether physicians offer telemedicine include the patient's travel burden, patient preferences, and whether a physical examination is required. Approximately 20% of new consultations and 50% of weekly management visits were estimated to be appropriate for telemedicine. The central nervous system/pediatrics and thoracic faculty considered telemedicine appropriate for the greatest proportion of new consultations, and 93% of respondents felt comfortable determining whether telemedicine was appropriate. Conclusions: Surveyed radiation oncologists were satisfied with telemedicine in their practice, and wished to continue offering video visits in the future. Our data suggest that payers should continue to support this patient-centered technology.

18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(8): 739-748, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to waning immunity and protection against infection with SARS-CoV-2, a third dose of a homologous or heterologous COVID-19 vaccine has been proposed by health agencies for individuals who were previously primed with two doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous boost immunisation with an orally administered aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in Chinese adults (≥18 years old) who had previously received two doses of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-Sinovac CoronaVac. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a heterologous booster vaccination with a low dose (1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL; 0·1 mL; low dose group), or a high dose (1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL; 0·2 mL; high dose group) aerosolised Ad5-nCoV, or a homologous intramuscular vaccination with CoronaVac (0·5 mL). Only laboratory staff were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint for safety was the incidence of adverse reactions within 14 days after the booster dose. The primary endpoint for immunogenicity was the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of serum neutralising antibodies (NAbs) against live SARS-CoV-2 virus 14 days after the booster dose. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05043259. FINDINGS: Between Sept 14 and 16, 2021, 420 participants were enrolled: 140 (33%) participants per group. Adverse reactions were reported by 26 (19%) participants in the low dose group and 33 (24%) in the high dose group within 14 days after the booster vaccination, significantly less than the 54 (39%) participants in the CoronaVac group (p<0·0001). The low dose group had a serum NAb GMT of 744·4 (95% CI 520·1-1065·6) and the high dose group had a GMT of 714·1 (479·4-1063·7) 14 days after booster dose, significantly higher than the GMT in the CoronaVac group (78·5 [60·5-101·7]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: We found that a heterologous booster vaccine with an orally administered aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is safe and highly immunogenic in adults who have previously received two doses of CoronaVac as the primary series vaccination. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China and Jiangsu Provincial Key Research and Development Program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(5): 781-787, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The prognosis value of fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4) in COVID-19 is controversial. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between the FIB-4 index and COVID-19 disease progression. METHODS: We performed meta-analysis using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. A fixed- or random-effects model was used for evaluating heterogeneity. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included. The meta-analysis of unadjusted results showed that compared to lower FIB-4 index, patients with higher FIB-4 index had increased odds of mortality (OR=5.1, 95%CI 3.67-7.09; P<0.001), ICU admission (OR=2.32, 95%CI: 1.65-3.25, P<0.00001) and need for mechanical ventilator support (OR=3.51, 95%CI: 2.1-5.85, P<0.001). In addition, the meta-analysis of adjusted results showed patients with higher FIB-4 index was associated with increased risk of mortality (OR=3.01, 95%CI: 2.21-4.09, P<0.001) and need for mechanical ventilator support (OR=3.76, 95%CI: 2.08-6.82, P<0.001) compared to patients with lower FIB-4 index. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicated that high FIB-4 index score was associated with the severity and mortality in COVID-19 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrosis , Humans , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
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