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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 716, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral medication coverage remains sub-optimal in much of the United States, particularly the Sothern region, and Non-Hispanic Black or African American persons (NHB) continue to be disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. The "Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S." (EHE) initiative seeks to reduce HIV incidence nationally by focusing resources towards the most highly impacted localities and populations. This study evaluates the impact of hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage to estimate the levels of coverage needed to achieve EHE goals in the South. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based network model of 500,000 individuals to simulate the HIV epidemic and hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage. RESULTS: New infections declined by 78.6% at 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 94.3% at 100%/50% ART/PrEP. Declines in annual incidence rates surpassed 75% by 2025 with 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 90% by 2030 with 100%/50% ART/PrEP coverage. Increased ART coverage among NHB MSM was associated with a linear decline in incidence among all MSM. Declines in incidence among Hispanic/Latino and White/Other MSM were similar regardless of which MSM race group increased their ART coverage, while the benefit to NHB MSM was greatest when their own ART coverage increased. The incidence rate among NHB women declined by over a third when either NHB heterosexual men or NHB MSM increased their ART use respectively. Increased use of PrEP was associated with a decline in incidence for the groups using PrEP. MSM experienced the largest absolute declines in incidence with increasing PrEP coverage, followed by NHB women. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that it is possible to reach EHE goals. The largest reductions in HIV incidence can be achieved by increasing ART coverage among MSM and all race groups benefit regardless of differences in ART initiation by race. Improving ART coverage to > 90% should be prioritized with a particular emphasis on reaching NHB MSM. Such a focus will reduce the largest number of incident cases, reduce racial HIV incidence disparities among both MSM and women, and reduce racial health disparities among persons with HIV. NHB women should also be prioritized for PrEP outreach.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Disease Eradication , HIV Infections , Health Status Disparities , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Goals , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e81, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313523

ABSTRACT

This study aims to understand the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the paediatric population during the outbreak of the Omicron variant in Shanghai. We retrospectively analysed the population-based epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection in children in Minhang District, Shanghai, based on the citywide surveillance system during the outbreak period in 2022 (March to May). During this time, a total of 63,969 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were notified in Minhang District, out of which 4,652 (7.3%) were children and adolescents <18 years. The incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children was 153 per 10,000. Of all paediatric cases, 50% reported to be clinically symptomatic within 1-3 days after PCR confirmation by parents or themselves, with 36.3% and 18.9% of paediatric cases reporting fever and cough. Also, 58.4% of paediatric cases had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and 52.1% had received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccination. Our findings are informative for the implementation of appropriate measures to protect children from the threat of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , China/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool
3.
MMWR Suppl ; 72(1): 1-12, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300464

ABSTRACT

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) is the largest public health surveillance system in the United States, monitoring a broad range of health-related behaviors among high school students. The system includes a nationally representative Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and separate school-based YRBSs conducted by states, tribes, territories, and local school districts. In 2021, these surveys were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic underscored the importance of data in understanding changes in youth risk behaviors and addressing the multifaceted public health needs of youths. This overview report describes 2021 YRBSS survey methodology, including sampling, data collection procedures, response rates, data processing, weighting, and analyses. The 2021 YRBS participation map, survey response rates, and a detailed examination of student demographic characteristics are included in this report. During 2021, in addition to the national YRBS, a total of 78 surveys were administered to high school students across the United States, representing the national population, 45 states, two tribal governments, three territories, and 28 local school districts. YRBSS data from 2021 provided the first opportunity since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to compare youth health behaviors using long-term public health surveillance. Approximately half of all student respondents represented racial and ethnic minority groups, and approximately one in four identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning, or other (a sexual identity other than heterosexual) (LGBQ+). These findings reflect shifts in youth demographics, with increased percentages of racial and ethnic minority and LGBQ+ youths compared with previous YRBSS cycles. Educators, parents, local decision makers, and other partners use YRBSS data to monitor health behavior trends, guide school health programs, and develop local and state policy. These and future data can be used in developing health equity strategies to address long-term disparities so that all youths can thrive in safe and supportive environments. This overview and methods report is one of 11 featured in this MMWR supplement. Each report is based on data collected using methods presented in this overview. A full description of YRBSS results and downloadable data are available (https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adolescent , United States/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Pandemics , Minority Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Population Surveillance
4.
MMWR Suppl ; 72(1): 55-65, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304470

ABSTRACT

Disproportionate rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, and unintended pregnancy among adolescents persist and might have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study uses 2019 and 2021 data from the nationally representative Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to characterize changes in sexual behaviors and receipt of sexual and reproductive health services among U.S. high school students before and during the pandemic. Outcomes included HIV testing (lifetime), STD testing (past 12 months), condom use (last sexual intercourse), and primary contraceptive method used to prevent pregnancy (last sexual intercourse). Except for HIV testing, all analyses were limited to currently sexually active students. Weighted prevalence and 95% CIs of outcomes for 2019 and 2021 were calculated for each year by demographics (sex [female or male], age, and race and ethnicity) and sex of sexual contacts (opposite sex only, both sexes, same sex only). For each year, pairwise t-tests with Taylor series linearization were used to identify demographic differences among outcomes. Across years, change in prevalence of outcomes was assessed by using absolute and relative measures of association overall and by demographics. During 2019-2021, the prevalence of HIV testing decreased by 3.68 percentage points, from 9.4% to 5.8%. Among sexually active students, prevalence of STD testing decreased by 5.07 percentage points, from 20.4% to 15.3%. Among sexually active students reporting opposite sex or both sexes sexual contact, intrauterine device or implant use at last sexual intercourse increased by 4.11 percentage points, from 4.8% to 8.9%, and no contraceptive method use increased by 2.74 percentage points, from 10.7% to 13.4%. Because of disruptions throughout the pandemic, results underscore the importance of improving access to a range of health services for adolescents and improving STD/HIV and unintended pregnancy prevention.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Reproductive Health Services , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Pregnancy , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Female , Adolescent , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Students , HIV Infections/epidemiology
5.
MMWR Suppl ; 72(1): 84-92, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296576

ABSTRACT

Adolescence is a critical phase of development and is frequently a period of initiating and engaging in risky behaviors, including alcohol and other substance use. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated stressors might have affected adolescent involvement in these behaviors. To examine substance use patterns and understand how substance use among high school students changed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC analyzed data from the nationally representative Youth Risk Behavior Survey. This report presents estimated prevalences among high school students of current (i.e., previous 30 days) alcohol use, marijuana use, binge drinking, and prescription opioid misuse and lifetime alcohol, marijuana, synthetic marijuana, inhalants, ecstasy, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, and injection drug use and prescription opioid misuse. Trends during 2009-2021 were assessed using logistic regression and joinpoint regression analyses. Changes in substance use from 2019 to 2021 were assessed using prevalence differences and prevalence ratios, stratified by demographic characteristics. Prevalence of substance use measures by sexual identity and current co-occurring substance use were estimated using 2021 data. Substance use prevalence declined during 2009-2021. From 2019 to 2021, the prevalence of current alcohol use, marijuana use, and binge drinking and lifetime use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine and prescription opioid misuse decreased; lifetime inhalant use increased. In 2021, substance use varied by sex, race and ethnicity, and sexual identity. Approximately one third of students (29%) reported current use of alcohol or marijuana or prescription opioid misuse; among those reporting current substance use, approximately 34% used two or more substances. Widespread implementation of tailored evidence-based policies, programs, and practices likely to reduce risk factors for adolescent substance use and promote protective factors might further decrease substance use among U.S. high school students and is urgently needed in the context of the changing marketplaces for alcohol beverage products and other drugs (e.g., release of high-alcohol beverage products and increased availability of counterfeit pills containing fentanyl).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Adolescent , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Ethanol , Students , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology
7.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 20: E14, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281865

ABSTRACT

We estimated the prevalence of short sleep duration (<8 h/average school night) among high school students (grades 9-12) during the COVID-19 pandemic by using data from the Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (January-June 2021; N = 7,705). An adjusted logistic regression model predicted prevalence ratios for more difficulty doing schoolwork during the pandemic compared with before the pandemic. Most (76.5%) students experienced short sleep duration, and two-thirds perceived more difficulty doing schoolwork. Students who slept less than 7 hours per school night or experienced poor mental health were more likely to report increased difficulty doing schoolwork. Addressing students' sleep duration could complement efforts to bolster their mental health and learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Humans , Sleep Duration , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Students
8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 43(3): 255-60, 2023 Mar 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Shugan Tiaoshen acupuncture (acupuncture for soothing the liver and regulating the mentality) combined with western medication on depression and sleep quality in the patients with depression-insomnia comorbidity due to COVID-19 quarantine, and investigate the potential mechanism from the perspective of cortical excitability. METHODS: Sixty patients with depression-insomnia comorbidity due to COVID-19 quarantine were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a sham-acupuncture group, 30 cases in each one. The patients of both groups were treated with oral administration of sertraline hydrochloride tablets. In the acupuncture group, Shugan Tiaoshen acupuncture was supplemented. Body acupuncture was applied to Yintang (GV 24+), Baihui (GV 20), Hegu (LI 4), Zhaohai (KI 6), Qihai (CV 6), etc. The intradermal needling was used at Xin (CO15), Gan (CO12) and Shen (CO10). In the sham-acupuncture group, the sham-acupuncture was given at the same points as the acupuncture group. The compensatory treatment was provided at the end of follow-up for the patients in the sham-acupuncture group. In both groups, the treatment was given once every two days, 3 times a week, for consecutive 8 weeks. The self-rating depression scale (SDS) and insomnia severity index (ISI) scores were compared between the two groups before and after treatment and 1 month after the end of treatment (follow-up) separately. The cortical excitability indexes (resting motor threshold [rMT], motor evoked potential amplitude [MEP-A], cortical resting period [CSP]) and the level of serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were measured before and after treatment in the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment and in follow-up, SDS and ISI scores were decreased in both groups compared with those before treatment (P<0.05), and the scores in the acupuncture group were lower than those in the sham-acupuncture group (P<0.05), and the decrease range in the acupuncture group after treatment was larger than that in the sham-acupuncture group (P<0.05). After treatment, rMT was reduced (P<0.05), while MEP-A and CSP were increased (P<0.05) in the acupuncture group compared with that before treatment. The levels of serum 5-HT in both groups were increased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05). The rMT in the acupuncture group was lower than that in the sham-acupuncture group, while MEP-A and CSP, as well as the level of serum 5-HT were higher in the acupuncture group in comparison with the sham-acupuncture group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Shugan Tiaoshen acupuncture combined with western medication can relieve depression and improve sleep quality in the patients with depression-insomnia comorbidity due to COVID-19 quarantine, which is probably related to rectifying the imbalanced excitatory and inhibitory neuronal functions.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Depression , Quarantine , Serotonin , Comorbidity
9.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(2): e13097, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We used a case-ascertained study to determine the features of household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in Shanghai, China. METHODS: In April 2022, we carried out a household transmission study from 309 households of 335 SARS-CoV-2 pediatric cases referred to a designated tertiary Children's Hospital. The detailed information can be collected from the 297 households for estimating the transmission parameters. The 236 households were qualified for estimating the secondary infection attack rates (SARI ) and secondary clinical attack rates (SARC ) among adult household contacts, characterizing the transmission heterogeneities in infectivity and susceptibility, and assessing the vaccine effectiveness. RESULTS: We estimated the mean incubation period and serial interval of Omicron variant to be 4.6 ± 2.1 and 3.9 ± 3.7 days, respectively, with 57.2% of the transmission events occurring at the presymptomatic phase. The overall SARI and SARC among adult household contacts were 77.11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 73.58%-80.63%) and 67.03% (63.09%-70.98%). We found higher household susceptibility in females. Infectivity was not significantly different between children and adults and symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. Two-dose and booster-dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccination were 14.8% (5.8%-22.9%) and 18.9% (9.0%-27.7%) effective against Omicron infection and 21.5% (10.4%-31.2%) and 24.3% (12.3%-34.7%) effective against the symptomatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: We found high household transmission during the Omicron wave in Shanghai due to presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission despite implementation of strict interventions, indicating the importance of early detection and timely isolation of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Marginal effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against Omicron infection poses a great challenge for outbreak containment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines
11.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28539, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2219762

ABSTRACT

The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron BA.2.75 and BA.2.76 subvariants contained 35 and 29 additional mutations in its spike (S) protein compared with the reference SARS-CoV-2 genome, respectively. Here, we measured the evasion degree of the BA.1, BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BA.2.75, and BA.2.76 subvariants from neutralizing immunity in people previously infected with the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2, determined the effect of vaccination on immune evasion, and compared the titers of neutralizing antibodies in serums between acute infection and convalescence. Results showed that the neutralization effect of serums from patients with different vaccination statuses and BA.1/BA.2 breakthrough infection decreased with the Omicron evolution from BA.1 to BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BA.2.75, and BA.2.76. This study also indicated that the existing vaccines could no longer provide effective protection, especially for the emerging BA.2.75 and BA.2.76 subvariants. Therefore, vaccines against emerging epidemic strains should be designed specifically. In the future, we can not only focus on the current strains, but also predict and design new vaccines against potential mutant strains. At the same time, we can combine the virus strains' infection characteristics to develop protective measures for virus colonization areas, such as nasal protection spray. Besides, further studies on the Y248N mutation of BA.2.76 subvariant were also necessary to explore its contribution to the enhanced immune evasion ability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology
12.
J Child Adolesc Trauma ; : 1-15, 2022 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158240

ABSTRACT

Vulnerabilities of adolescents during times of crisis have been previously identified, but little research has investigated the compounding effects of lifetime adversities and pandemic-related stress on adolescent mental health. This study uses adolescent self-report data to model relationships between stress exposures and indicators of poor mental health from the longitudinal COVID Experiences (CovEx) Surveys. These surveys were administered online in English to U.S. adolescents ages 13-19 using the NORC AmeriSpeak® panel, a probability-based panel designed to be representative of the U.S. household population. Two waves of data were collected (Wave 1: October-November 2020, n = 727; Wave 2: March-May 2021, n = 569). Measures included demographics, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, 8 items), pandemic-related stress (Pandemic-Related Stress Index [PRSI], 7 items), and depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents [PHQ-A], 9 items). Path analyses were conducted to examine pathways between Wave 1 ACEs, Wave 1 PRSI, and Wave 2 PHQ with covariates of sex and race/ethnicity. Females had higher ACEs, PRSI, and PHQ scores than males. The PRSI score at Wave 1 was positively associated with the PHQ at Wave 2 (b = 0.29, SE = 0.14, p < 0.001). ACEs at Wave 1 were positively associated with PRSI at Wave 1 (b = 0.31, SE = 0.03, p < 0.001) and with PHQ at Wave 2 (b = 0.32, SE = 0.12, p < 0.001). The direct effect of ACEs on PHQ (b = 0.23, SE = 0.12, p < 0.001) remained significant even after accounting for the indirect effect of pandemic-related stress (b = 0.09, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001). Pandemic-related stress had a direct, adverse impact on adolescent depressive symptoms and demonstrates a compounding effect of childhood adversity and pandemic-related stress on depression. Findings can aid the design of interventions that promote mental health and support adolescent coping and recovery. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40653-022-00502-0.

14.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045993

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the exhibition of artworks in museums and galleries. Many have displayed their collection online. In this context, experiencing an online exhibition is essential for visitors to appreciate and understand the artwork. Compared with offline exhibitions, visitors to online exhibitions are often unable to communicate their experiences with other visitors. Therefore, in this study, by facilitating communication via Zoom call, we established a system that allows two people to visit the museum together through the Google Arts and Culture (GA&C) website. To reduce the psychological distance between online visitors and help increase user engagement, we designed and developed a media device based on moiré pattern visualization of electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The participants were divided into two groups to visit the online museum, communicating remotely through Zoom. The objective of this study was to test whether a real-time EEG signal visualization device could help close the psychological distance between participants and whether it could increase user engagement with the online exhibition. Participants were randomly assigned to either the normal online exhibition experience (NOEE) group or EEG signal visualization device (ESVD) group. Participants in the NOEE group experienced four online exhibitions (Task1, Task2, Task3, and Task4) together (two participants per test unit). The conditions for participants in the ESVD group remained the same, apart from adding a media device to enable them to visualize EEG signals. A total of 40 university students participated in this study. Independent samples t-tests revealed that participants in the ESVD group perceived a significantly closer psychological distance between themselves and the participants on the opposite side than those in the NOEE group (t = −2.699;p = 0.008 < 0.05). A one-way ANOVA revealed that participants experienced Task3 with significantly closer psychological distance assessments than Task1 (p = 0.002 < 0.05), Task2 (p = 0.000 < 0.05), and Task4 (p = 0.001 < 0.05). Repeated ANOVAs revealed that participants in the ESVD group had higher overall user engagement than those in the NOEE group, with marginal significance (p = 0.056 < 0.1). Thus, this study shows that EEG visualization media devices can reduce the psychological distance between two participants when experiencing an online exhibition. Moreover, it can increase user engagement to some extent.

15.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045573

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic required more responsibilities from teachers, including implementing prevention strategies, changes in school policies, and managing their own mental health, which yielded higher dissatisfaction in the field. Methods A cross-sectional web survey was conducted among educators to collect information on their experiences teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the 2020–2021 academic year. Qualtrics, an online survey platform, fielded the survey from May 6 to June 8, 2021 to a national, convenience sample of 1,807 respondents. Results Findings revealed that overall, 43% of K-12 teachers reported a greater intention to leave the profession than previously recalled prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Intention to leave was multi-level, and associated with socio-demographic factors (e.g., age: AOR = 1.87, p < 0.05), individual factors (e.g., perceived COVID risks: AOR = 1.44, p < 0.05), and teachers’ agency (e.g., dissatisfaction with school/district communications and decisions: AOR = 1.34, p < 0.05). We also found demographic disparities with respect to race and gender (e.g., female teachers: AOR: 1.78, p < 0.05) around teachers’ ability to provide feedback to schools on opening/closing and overall dissatisfaction with school/district COVID-19 prevention strategies implementation and policies. Conclusion These findings are consistent with the Job-Demand and Resources Model (JD-R), which posits that lack of organizational support can exacerbate job stressors, leading to burnout. Specifically, dissatisfaction with the way school policies were implemented took a toll on teachers’ mental health, leading to a desire to leave the profession. These findings are also consistent with research conducted once in-person teaching resumed in 2020–2021, specifically that the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated preexisting teacher shortages that led to self-reported issues of stress, burnout, and retention. Implications Further research is necessary to understand the resources that may be most useful to reduce the demands of teaching in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some teachers are more likely to leave the field, and educational agencies may wish to target their teacher-retention efforts with emphasis on strong employee wellness programs that help educators to manage and reduce their stress. Education agency staff may wish to review policies and practices to provide meaningful opportunities to give input to school/district decisions and enable proactive communication channels.

16.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(6): 1059-1065, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection during the early stage of Omicron variant outbreak in Shanghai. METHODS: This study included local COVID-19 cases <18 years in Shanghai referred to the exclusively designated hospital from March 7 to March 31, 2022. Clinical data, epidemiological exposure, and COVID-19 vaccination status were collected. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated to assess the effect of vaccination on symptomatic infection and febrile disease. RESULTS: A total of 376 pediatric cases of COVID-19 (median age: 6.0 ± 4.2 years) were referred to the designated hospital, including 257 (68.4%) symptomatic cases and 119 (31.6%) asymptomatic cases. Of the 307 (81.6%) children ≥3 years eligible for COVID-19 vaccination, 110 (35.8%) received two doses of vaccines. The median interval between the completion of two-dose vaccination and infection was 3.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3, 4.5) months. Compared with no vaccination, two-dose COVID-19 vaccination reduced the risks of symptomatic infection and febrile disease by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.79) and 33% (RR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.51-0.81) among confirmed cases. Eighty-four percent of symptomatic cases had fever (mean duration: 1.7 ± 1.0.8 days), 40.5% had cough, and 16.4% had transient leukopenia. Three hundred and seven (81.6%) had an epidemiological exposure in household (69.1%), school (21.8%), and residential area (8.8%). CONCLUSION: The surge of pediatric COVID-19 cases and multiple transmission model reflect wide dissemination of Omicron variant in the community. Asymptomatic infection is common among Omicron-infected children. COVID-19 vaccination can offer some protection against symptomatic infection and febrile disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 372, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study attempts to explore the influencing factors and solutions of the colloidal gold method for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-specific IgM/IgG antibody detection, summarize the clinical experience and perfect the examination process, improving the application value of antibody detection in COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 13,329 peripheral whole blood/plasma/serum samples were obtained for COVID-19 screening from children who visited the Children's Hospital of the Capital Institute of Pediatrics outpatient clinic from April 22, 2020, to November 30, 2020. The colloidal gold method was adopted for 2019-nCoV-specific IgM/IgG antibody detection. The virus nucleic acid test results, clinical records, and serum protein fingerprint results of antibody-positive patients were collected. RESULTS: All samples were examined using the colloidal gold method with two 2019-nCoV-specific IgM/IgG antibody detection kits. Four patients were tested single antibody-positive using both kits. The details were as follows: two cases of IgM ( +) and IgG (-) using plasma and serum separately, two cases of IgM (-) and IgG ( +) using serum and whole blood. The protein fingerprinting results and nucleic acid tests of 2019-nCoV antibodies were negative in the 4 cases. Considering the epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, and test results, these 4 children were ruled out for 2019-nCoV infection. CONCLUSIONS: When the colloidal gold method was used to detect 2019-nCoV-specific IgM/IgG antibodies, it was important to ascertain the test results as precisely as possible. Specimen type and patient history may interfere with the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Gold Colloid , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(2): 319-326, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816974

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission is much more common than previously thought. Based on our knowledge about SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) infection, the aerosol transmission routes for all respiratory infections must be reassessed. Thus far, the COVID-19 outbreak has caused catastrophic public health and economic crises, posing a serious threat to the lives and health of people around the world and directing public attention toward the airborne transmission of pathogens. The novel coronavirus transmission in the form of nanoaerosols in a wider range hinders prevention and early warning efforts. As a classical bioaerosol sampler, the Andersen six-stage sampler is widely used in the collection and research of aerosol particles. In this study, the physical and biological collection efficiency of the six-stage sampler was explored by qPCR and colony counting method. Results showed that the physical collection efficiency reached more than 50% when the particle size was larger than 0.75 µm. However, the overall biological collection efficiency was only 0.25%. In addition, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect the microbial state after sampling, and the results showed that the proportion of the collected live bacteria was less than 15% of the total. This result is of great significance not only for the application of the Andersen six-stage sampler in collecting nanosized bioaerosols, but also provides reference for the selection of subsequent detection technologies for effective collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Aerosols/analysis , Humans , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Nurs Manag ; 30(4): 901-912, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779260

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aim to study the effect of role overload, work engagement and perceived organisational support on nurses' job performance, including task performance, interpersonal facilitation and job dedication. BACKGROUND: Many nurses have suffered from role overload at work during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the investigations of the influence mechanisms and boundary conditions through and under which role overload is associated with job performance have shown inconsistent results. METHODS: A total of 595 Chinese nurses were studied from November 2020 to February 2021. Confirmatory factor analysis, maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping analysis were used to test the mediating process and the moderating effect. RESULTS: Work engagement partly mediated the relationships of role overload with task performance (ß = -.253, p < .001, 95% CI: [-.315, -.204]) and interpersonal facilitation (ß = -.202, p < .001, 95% CI: [-.261, -.145]); work engagement also fully mediated the relationship between role overload and job dedication (ß = -.239, p < .001, 95% CI: [-.302, -.186]). Perceived organisational support moderated the relationships of role overload with task performance, interpersonal facilitation and work dedication (ß = -.171, p < .001, ß = -.154, p < .001 and ß = -.175, p < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Work engagement is the linchpin linking role overload to distal outcomes of job performance. Perceived organisational support mitigates the ways in which role overload undermines job performance. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Hospital administrators can minimize the effects of role overload and create a more supportive organisational environment to promote the job performance of nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Work Performance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Work Engagement
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