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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335239

ABSTRACT

Objectives To understand the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection during the early stage of Omicron variant outbreak in Shanghai. Methods This study included local COVID-19 cases <18 years in Shanghai referred to the exclusively designated hospital by the end of March 2022 since emergence of Omicron epidemic. Clinical data, epidemiological exposure and COVID-19 vaccination status were collected. Relative risks (RR) were calculated to assess the effect of vaccination on symptomatic infection and febrile disease. Results A total of 376 pediatric cases of COVID-19 (median age:6.0±4.2 years) were referred to the designated hospital during the period of March 7-31, including 257 (68.4%) symptomatic cases and 119 (31.6%) asymptomatic cases. Of the 307 (81.6%) children;3 years eligible for COVID-19 vaccination, 110 (40.4%) received 2-dose vaccines and 16 (4.0%) received 1-dose vaccine. The median interval between 2-dose vaccination and infection was 3.5 (IQR: 3, 4.5) months (16 days-7 months). Two-dose COVID-19 vaccination reduced the risks of symptomatic infection and febrile disease by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI:0.53-0.79) and 33% (RR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.51-0.81). Two hundred and sixteen (83.4%) symptomatic cases had fever (mean duration: 1.7±1.0.8 days), 104 (40.2%) had cough, 16.4% had transient leukopenia;307 (81.6%) had an epidemiological exposure in household (69.1%), school (21.8%) and residential area (8.8%). Conclusion The surge of pediatric COVID-19 cases and multiple transmission model reflect wide dissemination of Omicron variant in the community. Asymptomatic infection is common among Omicron-infected children. COVID-19 vaccination can offer protection against symptomatic infection and febrile disease.

2.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(2): 319-326, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816974

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission is much more common than previously thought. Based on our knowledge about SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) infection, the aerosol transmission routes for all respiratory infections must be reassessed. Thus far, the COVID-19 outbreak has caused catastrophic public health and economic crises, posing a serious threat to the lives and health of people around the world and directing public attention toward the airborne transmission of pathogens. The novel coronavirus transmission in the form of nanoaerosols in a wider range hinders prevention and early warning efforts. As a classical bioaerosol sampler, the Andersen six-stage sampler is widely used in the collection and research of aerosol particles. In this study, the physical and biological collection efficiency of the six-stage sampler was explored by qPCR and colony counting method. Results showed that the physical collection efficiency reached more than 50% when the particle size was larger than 0.75 µm. However, the overall biological collection efficiency was only 0.25%. In addition, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect the microbial state after sampling, and the results showed that the proportion of the collected live bacteria was less than 15% of the total. This result is of great significance not only for the application of the Andersen six-stage sampler in collecting nanosized bioaerosols, but also provides reference for the selection of subsequent detection technologies for effective collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Aerosols/analysis , Humans , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Nurs Manag ; 30(4): 901-912, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779260

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aim to study the effect of role overload, work engagement and perceived organisational support on nurses' job performance, including task performance, interpersonal facilitation and job dedication. BACKGROUND: Many nurses have suffered from role overload at work during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the investigations of the influence mechanisms and boundary conditions through and under which role overload is associated with job performance have shown inconsistent results. METHODS: A total of 595 Chinese nurses were studied from November 2020 to February 2021. Confirmatory factor analysis, maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping analysis were used to test the mediating process and the moderating effect. RESULTS: Work engagement partly mediated the relationships of role overload with task performance (ß = -.253, p < .001, 95% CI: [-.315, -.204]) and interpersonal facilitation (ß = -.202, p < .001, 95% CI: [-.261, -.145]); work engagement also fully mediated the relationship between role overload and job dedication (ß = -.239, p < .001, 95% CI: [-.302, -.186]). Perceived organisational support moderated the relationships of role overload with task performance, interpersonal facilitation and work dedication (ß = -.171, p < .001, ß = -.154, p < .001 and ß = -.175, p < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Work engagement is the linchpin linking role overload to distal outcomes of job performance. Perceived organisational support mitigates the ways in which role overload undermines job performance. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Hospital administrators can minimize the effects of role overload and create a more supportive organisational environment to promote the job performance of nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Work Performance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Work Engagement
4.
Environ Int ; 162: 107153, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706132

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a great challenge to the world's public health system. Nosocomial infections have occurred frequently in medical institutions worldwide during this pandemic. Thus, there is an urgent need to construct an effective surveillance and early warning system for pathogen exposure and infection to prevent nosocomial infections in negative-pressure wards. In this study, visualization and construction of an infection risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosol and surface transmission in a negative-pressure ward were performed to describe the distribution regularity and infection risk of SARS-CoV-2, the critical factors of infection, the air changes per hour (ACHs) and the viral variation that affect infection risk. The SARS-CoV-2 distribution data from this model were verified by field test data from the Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital ICU ward. ACHs have a great impact on the infection risk from airborne exposure, while they have little effect on the infection risk from surface exposure. The variant strains demonstrated significantly increased viral loads and risks of infection. The level of protection for nurses and surgeons should be increased when treating patients infected with variant strains, and new disinfection methods, electrostatic adsorption and other air purification methods should be used in all human environments. The results of this study may provide a theoretical reference and technical support for reducing the occurrence of nosocomial infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Humans , Patient Isolators , Risk Assessment
6.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 16, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the host genetic architecture and viral immunity contributes to the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Alterations of immune responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells play a crucial role in the detrimental progression of COVID-19. However, the effects of host genetic factors on immune responses for severe COVID-19 remain largely unknown. METHODS: We constructed a computational framework to characterize the host genetics that influence immune cell subpopulations for severe COVID-19 by integrating GWAS summary statistics (N = 969,689 samples) with four independent scRNA-seq datasets containing healthy controls and patients with mild, moderate, and severe symptom (N = 606,534 cells). We collected 10 predefined gene sets including inflammatory and cytokine genes to calculate cell state score for evaluating the immunological features of individual immune cells. RESULTS: We found that 34 risk genes were significantly associated with severe COVID-19, and the number of highly expressed genes increased with the severity of COVID-19. Three cell subtypes that are CD16+monocytes, megakaryocytes, and memory CD8+T cells were significantly enriched by COVID-19-related genetic association signals. Notably, three causal risk genes of CCR1, CXCR6, and ABO were highly expressed in these three cell types, respectively. CCR1+CD16+monocytes and ABO+ megakaryocytes with significantly up-regulated genes, including S100A12, S100A8, S100A9, and IFITM1, confer higher risk to the dysregulated immune response among severe patients. CXCR6+ memory CD8+ T cells exhibit a notable polyfunctionality including elevation of proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis. Moreover, we observed an increase in cell-cell interactions of both CCR1+ CD16+monocytes and CXCR6+ memory CD8+T cells in severe patients compared to normal controls among both PBMCs and lung tissues. The enhanced interactions of CXCR6+ memory CD8+T cells with epithelial cells facilitate the recruitment of this specific population of T cells to airways, promoting CD8+T cell-mediated immunity against COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: We uncover a major genetics-modulated immunological shift between mild and severe infection, including an elevated expression of genetics-risk genes, increase in inflammatory cytokines, and of functional immune cell subsets aggravating disease severity, which provides novel insights into parsing the host genetic determinants that influence peripheral immune cells in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Monocytes/virology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology/methods , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Megakaryocyte Progenitor Cells/immunology , Megakaryocyte Progenitor Cells/virology , Monocytes/metabolism , Quantitative Trait Loci , Receptors, CCR1/immunology , Receptors, CCR1/metabolism , Receptors, CXCR6/immunology , Receptors, CXCR6/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index
7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327464

ABSTRACT

Background Understanding the host genetic architecture and viral immunity contributes to the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Alterations of immune responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells play a crucial role in the detrimental progression of COVID-19. However, the effects of host genetic factors on immune responses for severe COVID-19 remain largely unknown. Methods We constructed a powerful computational framework to characterize the host genetics-influenced immune cell subpopulations for severe COVID-19 by integrating GWAS summary statistics (N = 969,689 samples) with four independent scRNA-seq datasets (N = 606,534 cells). Results We found that 34 risk genes were significantly associated with severe COVID-19, and the number of highly-expressed genetics-risk genes increased with the severity of COVID-19. Three cell-subtypes that are CD16+monocytes, megakaryocytes, and memory CD8+T cells were significantly enriched by COVID-19-related genetic association signals. Notably, three causal risk genes of CCR1, CXCR6 , and ABO were specifically expressed in these three cell types, respectively. CCR1 + CD16+monocytes and ABO + megakaryocytes with significant up-regulated genes including S100A12, S100A8, S100A9 , and IFITM1 confer higher risk to the cytokine storms among severe patients. CXCR6 + memory CD8+ T cells exhibit a notable polyfunctionality of multiple immunologic features, including elevation of proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis. Moreover, we observed a prominent increase in cell-cell interactions of both CCR1 + CD16+monocytes and CXCR6 + memory CD8+T cells in severe patients compared to normal controls among both PBMCs and lung tissues, and elevated interactions with epithelial cells could contribute to enhance the resident to lung airway for against COVID-19 infection. Conclusions We uncover a major genetics-modulated immunological shift between mild and severe infection, including an increase in up-regulated genetic-risk genes, excessive secreted inflammatory cytokines, and functional immune cell subsets contributing high risk to severity, which provides novel insights in parsing the host genetics-influenced immune cells for severe COVID-19.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322254

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the evolution and characteristics of "fibrosis-like" strips on chest CT in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: : From January 17, 2020, to February 27, 2020, inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia in Enze Hospital, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, were selected. The chest CT data of the patients were collected, and patients were included in the present study according to the predefined inclusion criteria. The dynamic evolution process and outcome of "fibrosis-like" strips on chest CT were analyzed. Results: : A total of 36 patients (20 males and 16 females) with COVID-19 were included in the study, all of whom were diagnosed with mild or common COVID-19;"fibrosis-like" strips were observed in 29 patients (80.6%) on the first chest CT scan, and "fibrosis-like" strips were observed in 7 patients (19.4%) on the second chest CT scan, Repeated chest CT during the course of treatment showed that all patients with "fibrosis-like" strips had varying degrees of absorption. "Fibrosis-like" strips in 15 patients demonstrated a trend of first increasing in number, and then decreasing in number;"fibrosis-like" strips in 3 patients demonstrated a trend of first decreasing in number first, followed by an increase in number and then a decrease in number;and "fibrosis-like" strips in 18 patients demonstrated a trend of a gradual decrease in number. Follow-up chest CT after treatment showed that "fibrosis-like" strips in 15 patients completely disappeared in both lungs, and "fibrosis-like" strips completely disappeared in unilateral lung of 8 cases. Conclusion: In the present study, we observed that "fibrosis-like" strips in COVID-19 patients had characteristics of early appearance and rapid morphological changes as well as rapid absorption, suggesting that "fibrosis-like" strips may be a sign of subsegmental atelectasis rather than fibrotic changes.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322242

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the correlations between serum calcium and clinical severity and outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: In this clinical retrospective study, the levels of serum calcium, hormone levels and clinical laboratory parameters of admission were recorded. The clinical severity and outcome variables were also recorded. Results: From February 10 to February 28 2020, 241 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 180 (74.7%) had hypocalcemia on admission. The median serum calcium levels were 2.12 (IQR, 2.04-2.20) mmol/L, median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 55.27 (IQR, 42.73-73.15) pg/mL, median 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (VD) levels were 10.20 (IQR, 8.20-12.65) ng/mL. The serum calcium levels were significantly positive correlated with VD levels (P =0.004), whereas negative correlated with PTH levels (P = 0.048). Patients with lower serum calcium levels (especially ≤2.0 mmol/L) had worse clinical parameters, higher incidence of organ injury septic shock and higher 28-day mortality. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock, and 28-day mortality were 0.923 (P <0.001), 0.905 (P =0.001), and 0.929 (P <0.001), respectively. The overall mortality of COVID-19 was 4.1% (10/241), whereas the mortality of critical patients was up to 40.0% (10/25). Conclusions: Serum calcium was associated with clinical severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. Hypocalcemia may be associated with imbalanced VD and PTH.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306870

ABSTRACT

Individualism has long been linked to economic growth. Using the COVID-19 pandemic, we show that such a culture can hamper the economy’s response to crises, a period with heightened coordination frictions. Exploiting variation in US counties’ frontier experience, we show that more individualistic counties engage less in social distancing and charitable transfers, and are less willing to receive COVID-19 vaccines. The effect of individualism is stronger where social distancing has higher externality and holds at the individual level when we exploit migrants for identification. Our results suggest that individualism can exacerbate collective action problems during economic downturns.

12.
International journal of general medicine ; 14:10429-10438, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610040

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 outbreak began in Wuhan and pandemics occur. Although SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins have been detected in serum of COVID-19 patients, their dynamics and association with outcomes have not been fully characterized. Methods This retrospective cohort study investigated the association between SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. We recruited 137 participants who were diagnosed with COVID-19 in four wards of the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Among the 137 participants, 81 patients were recovered, 23 patients died, and 33 patients remained hospitalized by the end of the study. SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins were analyzed by chemiluminescence assays. Laboratory and radiological characteristics, and clinical outcomes were compared between the recovered group and the deceased group. Furthermore, a matched cohort study was conducted in which each non-survivor was matched to two recovered patients of similar age. Results SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM levels peaked in the fourth week after the onset of COVID-19, while serum IgG levels rose earlier and remained high up to the eighth week. In the age-matched cohort study, the serum IgM, but not IgG levels, were higher among the non-survivors than in the recovered group (P = 0.006). The area under the ROC curve for the IgM and IgG levels was 0.702 (95% CI: 0.560–0.845, P = 0.006) and 0.596 (95% confidence interval: 0.449–0.744, P = 0.194), respectively. We also showed that patients with COVID-19 who had high IgM or IgG levels (stratified according to best cut-off) exhibited significantly lower overall survival (Kaplan–Meier survival curves, P < 0.05). Discussion These results indicate the association between immunoglobulins and outcome in patients with COVID-19 and demonstrated that elevated serum IgM levels could indicate poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Further, the information about the profile of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgGs may be useful for the future epidemiological investigations of COVID-19 therapies.

13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10591-10599, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the epidemic, the mental health of college students was generally poor, especially anxiety and depression, which should be treated using counseling and intervention. This study aimed to observe the influence of dialectical behavior therapy on the anxiety and depression of medical students during the normalization of the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: A total of 26 medical students (experimental group) were treated with dialectical behavior therapy intervention for 4 weeks. Changes in depression, anxiety, and stress levels were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, the Somatic Self-rating Scale (SSS), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). This group was compared with 26 medical students (control group) without intervention. RESULTS: The value-added scores of the PHQ-9 (t=2.543, P=0.014) and GAD-7 scales (t=3.790, P=0.000) in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while in the SSS scale, the value-added score of the depressive symptoms subscale (t=2.234, P=0.030) in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. For the total score of the PSS-10 scale (t=2.435, P=0.018), the value-added score of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention of dialectical behavior therapy can effectively alleviate the depression and anxiety of medical students during the normalization of epidemic prevention and control. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100048784.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dialectical Behavior Therapy , Epidemics , Psychotherapy, Group , Students, Medical , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety Disorders/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Internet Research ; 31(6):2033-2054, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1515142

ABSTRACT

PurposeWith the popularity of the internet, access to health-related information has become more convenient. However, the easy acquisition of e-health information could lead to unfavorable consequences, such as health anxiety. The purpose of this paper is to explore a set of important influencing factors that lead to health anxiety.Design/methodology/approachBased on the stimulus–organism–response (S-O-R) framework, we propose a theoretical model of health anxiety, with metacognitive beliefs and catastrophic misinterpretation as the mediators between stimulus factors and health anxiety. Using 218 self-reported data points, the authors empirically examine the research model and hypotheses.FindingsThe study results show that anxiety sensitivity positively affects metacognitive beliefs. The severity of physical symptoms has a significant positive impact on catastrophic misinterpretation. Metacognitive beliefs and catastrophic misinterpretation have significant positive impacts on health anxiety.Originality/valueBased on the S-O-R model, this paper develops a comprehensive model to explain health anxiety and verifies the model using firsthand data.

15.
Asian J Pharm Sci ; 16(6): 772-783, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474287

ABSTRACT

Strong infectivity enables coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to rage throughout the world. Moreover, the lack of drugs with definite therapeutic effects further aggravates the spread of the pandemic. Remdesivir is one of the most promising anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) drugs. However, the limited clinical effects make its therapeutic effect controversial, which may result from the poor accumulation and activation of remdesivir in the lung. Therefore, we developed lyophilized remdesivir liposomes (Rdv-lips) which can be reconstituted as liposomal aerosol for pulmonary delivery to improve the in vivo behavior of existing remdesivir cyclodextrin conclusion compound (Rdv-cyc) injections. Liposome encapsulation endowed remdesivir with much higher solubility and better biocompatibility. The in vitro liposomal aerosol characterization demonstrated that Rdv-lips possessed a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 4.118 µm and fine particle fraction (<5 µm) higher than 50%, indicating good pulmonary delivery properties. Compared to the Rdv-cyc intravenous injection group, the Rdv-lips inhalation group displayed a nearly 100-fold increase in the remdesivir-active metabolite nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) concentration and better NTP accumulation in the lung than the Rdv-cyc inhalation group. A faster transition from remdesivir to NTP of Rdv-lips (inhalation) could also be observed due to better cell uptake. Compared to other preparations, the superiority of Rdv-lips was further evidenced by the results of an in vivo safety study, with little possibility of inducing inflammation. In conclusion, Rdv-lips for pulmonary delivery will be a potent formulation to improve the in vivo behavior of remdesivir and exert better therapeutic effects in COVID-19 treatment.

16.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003788, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social innovations in health are inclusive solutions to address the healthcare delivery gap that meet the needs of end users through a multi-stakeholder, community-engaged process. While social innovations for health have shown promise in closing the healthcare delivery gap, more research is needed to evaluate, scale up, and sustain social innovation. Research checklists can standardize and improve reporting of research findings, promote transparency, and increase replicability of study results and findings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The research checklist was developed through a 3-step community-engaged process, including a global open call for ideas, a scoping review, and a 3-round modified Delphi process. The call for entries solicited checklists and related items and was open between November 27, 2019 and February 1, 2020. In addition to the open call submissions and scoping review findings, a 17-item Social Innovation For Health Research (SIFHR) Checklist was developed based on the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) Checklist. The checklist was then refined during 3 rounds of Delphi surveys conducted between May and June 2020. The resulting checklist will facilitate more complete and transparent reporting, increase end-user engagement, and help assess social innovation projects. A limitation of the open call was requiring internet access, which likely discouraged participation of some subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The SIFHR Checklist will strengthen the reporting of social innovation for health research studies. More research is needed on social innovation for health.


Subject(s)
Checklist , Health Services Research , Research Design , Socioeconomic Factors , Delphi Technique , Diffusion of Innovation , Humans , Social Determinants of Health , Stakeholder Participation
17.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463773

ABSTRACT

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), also known as glycyrrhizin, is a triterpene glycoside isolated from plants of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice). GA possesses a wide range of pharmacological and antiviral activities against enveloped viruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus. Since the S protein (S) mediates SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell attachment and cell entry, we assayed the GA effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection using an S protein-pseudotyped lentivirus (Lenti-S). GA treatment dose-dependently blocked Lenti-S infection. We showed that incubation of Lenti-S virus, but not the host cells with GA prior to the infection, reduced Lenti-S infection, indicating that GA targeted the virus for infection. Surface plasmon resonance measurement showed that GA interacted with a recombinant S protein and blocked S protein binding to host cells. Autodocking analysis revealed that the S protein has several GA-binding pockets including one at the interaction interface to the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and another at the inner side of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) which might impact the close-to-open conformation change of the S protein required for ACE2 interaction. In addition to identifying GA antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, the study linked GA antiviral activity to its effect on virus cell binding.


Subject(s)
Glycyrrhizic Acid/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects
18.
Sustainable Production and Consumption ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1284540

ABSTRACT

As an important strategic emerging industry to promote sustainable economic development, new energy vehicles (NEVs) play multiple vital roles in energy saving and emission reduction and promote the transformation and upgrading of the automobile industry. China's government has formulated abundant policies to support the NEV industry. Existing studies do not pay enough attention to the latent information from NEV policy documents. This paper explores the latent topics of numerous NEV policy documents and their impact on promoting NEVs at the city level by combining the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model and the econometric method. The results show that the latent topics of NEV policy documents can be categorized into charging infrastructure operation, promotion subsidy, and production support. The prevalence of the promotion subsidy topic is the strongest among the three types of topics. Total topic prevalences significantly promote NEV sales. The 2013 year is a turning point in policy preferences, and this change boosts NEV sales. The prevalence of promotion subsidy topic has an inverted U-shaped effect on NEV sales. The NEV sales will increase by 19% when the prevalence of production support topic increases by 1. Under the COVID-19, although the promotion subsidy policy is still dominant, the production support policy has been paid more attention. Finally, combining the development of China's NEV industry under the COVID-19 epidemic, the paper puts forward pertinent policy suggestions.

19.
Insights Imaging ; 12(1): 73, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To retrospectively analyze CT appearances and progression pattern of COVID-19 during hospitalization, and analyze imaging findings of follow-up on thin-section CT. METHODS: CT findings of 69 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated on initial CT, peak CT, and pre-discharge CT. CT pattern were divided into four types on CT progression. Lesion percentage of pulmonary lobe (lobe score) was graded. Correlation analysis was made between scores and intervals. 53 patients were followed up by CT. RESULTS: Among 69 patients, 33.3% exhibited improvement pattern, 65.2% peak pattern, 1.5% deterioration pattern, and 0% fluctuation pattern. The lobe scores were positively correlated with most of intervals. It was more common to observe consolidation, pleural thickening and pleural effusion on the peak CT, and irregular line and reticulation on pre-discharge CT. The peak-initial interval were shortened when the initial CT with consolidation and pleural thickening. The intervals were extended when the irregular lines appeared on peak CT and reticulation on pre-discharge CT. Among 53 follow-up patients, 37.7% showed normal chest CT, and 62.3% showed viral pneumonia remained that mainly included GGO (100.0%) and irregular lines (33.3%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 displayed different appearances on CT as progressing. The peak pattern was the most common progression pattern. The CT appearances showed closely related to the intervals. The COVID-19 pneumonia can be remained or completely absorbed on CT with follow-up.

20.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 803-810, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217483

ABSTRACT

To understand the epidemiological and clinical features of the symptomatic and asymptomatic pediatric cases of COVID-19, we carried out a prospective study in Shanghai during the period of January 19 to April 30, 2020. A total of 49 children (mean age 11.5 ± 5.12 years) confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in the study, including 11 (22.4%) domestic cases and 38 (77.6%) imported cases. Nine (81.8%) local cases and 12 (31.6%) imported cases had a definitive epidemiological exposure. Twenty-eight (57.1%) were symptomatic and 21 (42.9%) were asymptomatic. Neither asymptomatic nor symptomatic cases progressed to severe diseases. The mean duration of viral shedding for SARS-CoV-2 in upper respiratory tract was 14.1 ± 6.4 days in asymptomatic cases and 14.8 ± 8.4 days in symptomatic cases (P > 0.05). Forty-five (91.8%) cases had viral RNA detected in stool. The mean duration of viral shedding in stool was 28.1 ± 13.3 days in asymptomatic cases and 30.8 ± 18.6 days in symptomatic participants (P > 0.05). Children < 7 years shed viral RNA in stool for a longer duration than school-aged children (P < 0.05). Forty-three (87.8%) cases had seropositivity for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 within 1-3 weeks after confirmation with infection. In conclusion, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection may be common in children in the community during the COVID-19 pandemic wave. Asymptomatic cases shed viral RNA in a similar pattern as symptomatic cases do. It is of particular concern that asymptomatic individuals are potentially seed transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and pose a challenge to disease control.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Virus Shedding
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