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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An orally aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) has recently been authorized for boosting immunization in China. Our study aims to assess the environmental impact of the use of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV. METHODS: We collected air samples from rooms, swabs from the setting desks of the vaccine nebuliser, mask samples from participants and blood samples of nurses who administered the inoculation in the clinical trials. The viral load of adenovirus type-5 vector in the samples and the antibody levels against the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain in serum were detected. RESULTS: Only one (4.00%) air samples collected before the initiation of vaccination was positive, which were almost positive during and after the vaccination (97.96%, 100%, respectively). All nurses in the trial A showed at least four-fold increase of the neutralizing antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 after the initiation of the study. In trial B, the positive proportion of the mask samples was 72.97% at 30 minutes after vaccination, 8.11% at day 1, and 0% at days 3, 5, and 7, respectively. CONCLUSION: The vaccination with the orally aerosolised Ad5-nCoV could have some spillage of the vaccine vector viral particles in the environment and cause human exposure.

2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous boosting is suggested to be of use in populations who have received inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a heterologous vaccination with the mRNA vaccine CS-2034 versus the inactivated BBIBP-CorV as a fourth dose, as well as the efficacy against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (BA.5) variant. METHODS: This trial contains a randomised, double-blind, parallel-controlled study in healthy participants aged 18 years or older (group A) and an open-label cohort in participants 60 years and older (group B), who had received three doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines at least 6 months before enrolment. Pregnant women and people with major chronic illnesses or a history of allergies were excluded. Eligible participants in group A were stratified by age (18-59 years and ≥60 years) and then randomised by SAS 9.4 in a ratio of 3:1 to receive a dose of the mRNA vaccine (CS-2034, CanSino, Shanghai, China) or inactivated vaccine (BBIBP-CorV, Sinopharm, Beijing, China). Safety and immunogenicity against omicron variants of the fourth dose were evaluated in group A. Participants 60 years and older were involved in group B for safety observations. The primary outcome was geometric mean titres (GMTs) of the neutralising antibodies against omicron and seroconversion rates against BA.5 variant 28 days after the boosting, and incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days. The intention-to-treat group was involved in the safety analysis, while all patients in group A who had blood samples taken before and after the booster were involved in the immunogenicity analysis. This trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Centre (ChiCTR2200064575). FINDINGS: Between Oct 13, and Nov 22, 2022, 320 participants were enrolled in group A (240 in the CS-2034 group and 80 in the BBIBP-CorV group) and 113 in group B. Adverse reactions after vaccination were more frequent in CS-2034 recipients (158 [44·8%]) than BBIBP-CorV recipients (17 [21·3%], p<0·0001). However, most adverse reactions were mild or moderate, with grade 3 adverse reactions only reported by eight (2%) of 353 participants receiving CS-2034. Heterologous boosting with CS-2034 elicited 14·4-fold (GMT 229·3, 95% CI 202·7-259·4 vs 15·9, 13·1-19·4) higher concentration of neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant BA.5 than did homologous boosting with BBIBP-CorV. The seroconversion rates of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralising antibody responses were much higher in the mRNA heterologous booster regimen compared with BBIBP-CorV homologous booster regimen (original strain 47 [100%] of 47 vs three [18·8%] of 16; BA.1 45 [95·8%] of 48 vs two [12·5%] 16; and BA.5 233 [98·3%] of 240 vs 15 [18·8%] of 80 by day 28). INTERPRETATION: Both the administration of mRNA vaccine CS-2034 and inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV as a fourth dose were well tolerated. Heterologous boosting with mRNA vaccine CS-2034 induced higher immune responses and protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 omicron infections compared with homologous boosting, which could support the emergency use authorisation of CS-2034 in adults. FUNDING: Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Jiangsu Provincial Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Project of Science and Technology Plan. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 91: 104586, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a core-shell structured lipopolyplex (LPP) based COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, SW-BIC-213, as a heterologous booster in healthy adults. METHODS: We conducted an open-labeled, two-centered, and three-arm randomised phase 1 trial. Healthy adults, who had completed a two-dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine for more than six months, were enrolled and randomized to receive a booster dose of COVILO (inactivated vaccine) (n = 20) or SW-BIC-213-25µg (n = 20), or SW-BIC-213-45µg (n = 20). The primary study endpoint was adverse events within 30 days post-boosting. The secondary endpoint was the titers of binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against the wild-type (WT) of SARS-CoV-2 as well as variants of concern in serum. The exploratory endpoint was the cellular immune responses. This trial was registered with http://www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR2200060355). FINDINGS: Between Jun 6 and Jun 22, 2022, 60 participants were enrolled and randomized to receive a booster dose of SW-BIC-213 (25 µg, n = 20, or 45 µg, n = 20) or COVILO (n = 20). The baseline demographic characteristics of the participants at enrollment were similar among the treatment groups. For the primary outcome, injection site pain and fever were more common in the SW-BIC-213 groups (25 µg and 45 µg). Grade 3 fever was reported in 25% (5/20) of participants in the SW-BIC-213-45µg group but was resolved within 48 h after onset. No fatal events or adverse events leading to study discontinuation were observed. For secondary and exploratory outcomes, SW-BIC-213 elicited higher and longer humoral and cellular immune responses than that in the COVILO group. INTERPRETATION: SW-BIC-213, a core-shell structured lipopolyplex (LPP) based mRNA vaccine, was safe, tolerable, and immunogenic as a heterologous booster in healthy Chinese adults. FUNDING: Shanghai Municipal Government, the Science and Technology and Economic Commission of Shanghai Pudong New Area, and mRNA Innovation and Translation Center of Shanghai.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , China , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Double-Blind Method
4.
The Lancet Respiratory medicine ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2283523

ABSTRACT

Background Aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is the first approved mucosal respiratory COVID-19 vaccine to be used as a booster after the primary immunisation with COVID-19 vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV, intramuscular Ad5-nCoV, or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac given as the second booster. Methods This is an open-label, parallel-controlled, phase 4 randomised trial enrolling healthy adult participants (≥18 years) who had completed a two-dose primary immunisation and a booster immunisation with inactivated COVID-19 vaccines (CoronaVac only) at least 6 months before, in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, China. We recruited eligible participants from previous trials in China (NCT04892459, NCT04952727, and NCT05043259) as cohort 1 (with the serum before and after the first booster dose available), and from eligible volunteers in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, as cohort 2. Participants were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1:1, using a web-based interactive response randomisation system, to receive the fourth dose (second booster) of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (0·1 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (0·5 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac (0·5 mL), respectively. The co-primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity of geometric mean titres (GMTs) of serum neutralising antibodies against prototype live SARS-CoV-2 virus 28 days after the vaccination, assessed on a per-protocol basis. Non-inferiority or superiority was achieved when the lower limit of the 95% CI of the GMT ratio (heterologous group vs homologous group) exceeded 0·67 or 1·0, respectively. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05303584 and is ongoing. Findings Between April 23 and May 23, 2022, from 367 volunteers screened for eligibility, 356 participants met eligibility criteria and received a dose of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (n=117), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (n=120), or CoronaVac (n=119). Within 28 days of booster vaccination, participants in the intramuscular Ad5-nCoV group reported a significantly higher frequency of adverse reactions than those in the aerosolised Ad5-nCoV and intramuscular CoronaVac groups (30% vs 9% and 14%, respectively;p<0·0001). No serious adverse events related to the vaccination were reported. The heterologous boosting with aerosolised Ad5-nCoV triggered a GMT of 672·4 (95% CI 539·7–837·7) and intramuscular Ad5-nCoV triggered a serum neutralising antibody GMT of 582·6 (505·0–672·2) 28 days after the booster dose, both of which were significantly higher than the GMT in the CoronaVac group (58·5 [48·0–71·4];p<0·0001). Interpretation A heterologous fourth dose (second booster) with either aerosolised Ad5-nCoV or intramuscular Ad5-nCoV was safe and highly immunogenic in healthy adults who had been immunised with three doses of CoronaVac. Funding National Natural Science Foundation of China, Jiangsu Provincial Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Project of Science and Technology Plan.

5.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 29: 100586, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263544

ABSTRACT

Background: BNT162b2, an mRNA vaccine against COVID-19, is being utilised worldwide, but immunogenicity and safety data in Chinese individuals are limited. Methods: This phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included healthy or medically stable individuals aged 18-85 years enrolled at two clinical sites in China. Participants were stratified by age (≤55 or >55 years) and randomly assigned (3:1) by an independent randomisation professional to receive two doses of intramuscular BNT162b2 30 µg or placebo, administered 21 days apart. Study participants, study personnel, investigators, statisticians, and the sponsor's study management team were blinded to treatment assignment. Primary immunogenicity endpoints were the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of neutralising antibodies to live severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and seroconversion rates (SCR) 1 month after the second dose. Safety assessments included reactogenicity within 14 days of vaccination, adverse events (AEs), and clinical laboratory parameters. Randomised participants who received at least one dose were included in the efficacy and safety analyses on a complete case basis (incomplete/missing data not imputed). Results up to 6 months after the second dose are reported. Findings: Overall, 959 participants (all of Han ethnicity) who were recruited between December 5th, 2020 and January 9th, 2021 received at least one injection (BNT162b2, n=720; placebo, n=239). At 1 month after the second dose, the 50% neutralising antibody GMT was 294.4 (95% CI; 281.1-308.4) in the BNT162b2 group and 5.0 (95% CI; 5.0-5.0) in the placebo group. SCRs were 99.7% (95% CI; 99.0%-100.0%) and 0% (95% CI; 0.0%-1.5%), respectively (p<0.0001 vs placebo). Although the GMT of neutralising antibodies in the BNT162b2 group was greatly reduced at 6 months after the second dose, the SCR still remained at 58.8%. BNT162b2-elicited sera neutralised SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. T-cell responses were detected in 58/73 (79.5%) BNT162b2 recipients. Reactogenicity was mild or moderate in severity and resolved within a few days after onset. Unsolicited AEs were uncommon at 1 month following vaccine administration, and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs at 1 month or 6 months after the second dose. Interpretation: BNT162b2 vaccination induced a robust immune response with acceptable tolerability in Han Chinese adults. However, follow-up duration was relatively short and COVID-19 rates were not assessed. Safety data collection is continuing until 12 months after the second dose. Funding: BioNTech - sponsored the trial. Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical Development Inc. (Fosun Pharma) - conducted the trial, funded medical writing. ClinicalTrialsgov registration number: NCT04649021. Trial status: Completed.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 11(7): 613-623, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is the first approved mucosal respiratory COVID-19 vaccine to be used as a booster after the primary immunisation with COVID-19 vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV, intramuscular Ad5-nCoV, or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac given as the second booster. METHODS: This is an open-label, parallel-controlled, phase 4 randomised trial enrolling healthy adult participants (≥18 years) who had completed a two-dose primary immunisation and a booster immunisation with inactivated COVID-19 vaccines (CoronaVac only) at least 6 months before, in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, China. We recruited eligible participants from previous trials in China (NCT04892459, NCT04952727, and NCT05043259) as cohort 1 (with the serum before and after the first booster dose available), and from eligible volunteers in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, as cohort 2. Participants were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1:1, using a web-based interactive response randomisation system, to receive the fourth dose (second booster) of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (0·1 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (0·5 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac (0·5 mL), respectively. The co-primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity of geometric mean titres (GMTs) of serum neutralising antibodies against prototype live SARS-CoV-2 virus 28 days after the vaccination, assessed on a per-protocol basis. Non-inferiority or superiority was achieved when the lower limit of the 95% CI of the GMT ratio (heterologous group vs homologous group) exceeded 0·67 or 1·0, respectively. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05303584 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between April 23 and May 23, 2022, from 367 volunteers screened for eligibility, 356 participants met eligibility criteria and received a dose of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (n=117), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (n=120), or CoronaVac (n=119). Within 28 days of booster vaccination, participants in the intramuscular Ad5-nCoV group reported a significantly higher frequency of adverse reactions than those in the aerosolised Ad5-nCoV and intramuscular CoronaVac groups (30% vs 9% and 14%, respectively; p<0·0001). No serious adverse events related to the vaccination were reported. The heterologous boosting with aerosolised Ad5-nCoV triggered a GMT of 672·4 (95% CI 539·7-837·7) and intramuscular Ad5-nCoV triggered a serum neutralising antibody GMT of 582·6 (505·0-672·2) 28 days after the booster dose, both of which were significantly higher than the GMT in the CoronaVac group (58·5 [48·0-71·4]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: A heterologous fourth dose (second booster) with either aerosolised Ad5-nCoV or intramuscular Ad5-nCoV was safe and highly immunogenic in healthy adults who had been immunised with three doses of CoronaVac. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Jiangsu Provincial Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Project of Science and Technology Plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2155251, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151728

ABSTRACT

Antibody persistence and safety up to 12 months of heterologous orally administered adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in individuals who were primed with two-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) previously, has not been reported yet. This randomized, open-label, single-centre trial included Chinese adults who have received two-dose CoronaVac randomized to low-dose or high-dose aerosolised Ad5-nCoV group, or CoronaVac group. In this report, we mainly evaluated the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against live wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus and omicron BA.4/5 pseudovirus at 12 months after the booster dose and the incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs) till month 12. Of 419 participants, all were included in the safety analysis and 120 (28.64%) were included in the immunogenicity analysis. Serum NAb GMT against live wild-type SARS-CoV-2 was 204.36 (95% CI 152.91, 273.14) in the low-dose group and 171.38 (95% CI 121.27, 242.19) in the high-dose group at month 12, significantly higher than the GMT in the CoronaVac group (8.00 [95% CI 4.22, 15.17], p < 0.0001). Serum NAb GMT against omicron BA.4/5 pseudovirus was 40.97 (95% CI 30.15, 55.67) in the low-dose group and 35.08 (95% CI 26.31, 46.77) in the high-dose group at month 12, whereas the GMT in the CoronaVac group was below the lower limit of detection. No vaccine-related SAEs were observed. Orally administered aerosolised Ad5-nCoV following two-dose CoronaVac priming has a good safety profile and is persistently more immunogenic than three-dose CoronaVac within 12 months after the booster dose.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05043259..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(8): 739-748, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to waning immunity and protection against infection with SARS-CoV-2, a third dose of a homologous or heterologous COVID-19 vaccine has been proposed by health agencies for individuals who were previously primed with two doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous boost immunisation with an orally administered aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in Chinese adults (≥18 years old) who had previously received two doses of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-Sinovac CoronaVac. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a heterologous booster vaccination with a low dose (1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL; 0·1 mL; low dose group), or a high dose (1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL; 0·2 mL; high dose group) aerosolised Ad5-nCoV, or a homologous intramuscular vaccination with CoronaVac (0·5 mL). Only laboratory staff were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint for safety was the incidence of adverse reactions within 14 days after the booster dose. The primary endpoint for immunogenicity was the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of serum neutralising antibodies (NAbs) against live SARS-CoV-2 virus 14 days after the booster dose. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05043259. FINDINGS: Between Sept 14 and 16, 2021, 420 participants were enrolled: 140 (33%) participants per group. Adverse reactions were reported by 26 (19%) participants in the low dose group and 33 (24%) in the high dose group within 14 days after the booster vaccination, significantly less than the 54 (39%) participants in the CoronaVac group (p<0·0001). The low dose group had a serum NAb GMT of 744·4 (95% CI 520·1-1065·6) and the high dose group had a GMT of 714·1 (479·4-1063·7) 14 days after booster dose, significantly higher than the GMT in the CoronaVac group (78·5 [60·5-101·7]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: We found that a heterologous booster vaccine with an orally administered aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is safe and highly immunogenic in adults who have previously received two doses of CoronaVac as the primary series vaccination. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China and Jiangsu Provincial Key Research and Development Program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2689-2697, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051172

ABSTRACT

The rapid widespread Omicron subvariant BA.5 of SARS-CoV-2 has become a potential imminent pandemic threat, but available vaccines lack high efficacy against this subvariant. Thus, it is urgent to find highly protective vaccination strategies within available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Here, by using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay, we demonstrated that the aerosol inhalation of adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine after two dose of inactivated vaccine (I-I-Ad5) led to higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against D614G strain (2041.00[95% CI, 1243.00-3351.00] vs 249.00[149.10-415.70]), Omicron BA.2 (467.10[231.00-944.40] vs 72.21[39.31-132.70]), BA.2.12.1(348.5[180.3-673.4] vs 53.17[31.29-90.37]), BA.2.13 (410.40[190.70-883.3] vs 48.48[27.87-84.32]), and BA.5 (442.40 vs 56.08[35.14-89.51]) than three inactivated vaccine doses (I-I-I). Additionally, the level of neutralizing antibodies against BA.5 induced by I-I-Ad5 was 2.41-fold higher than those boosted by a third dose of RBD subunit vaccine (I-I-S) (p = 0.1308). The conventional virus neutralizing assay confirmed that I-I-Ad5 induced higher titre of neutralizing antibodies than I-I-I (116.80[84.51-161.5] vs 4.40[4.00-4.83]). In addition, I-I-Ad5 induced higher, but later, anti-RBD IgG and IgA in plasma than I-I-I. Our study verified that mucosal immunization with aerosol inhalation of adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine may be an effective strategy to control the probable wave of BA.5 pandemic in addition to two inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adenoviridae/genetics
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e783-e791, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 (Ad5)-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine with homologous prime-boost regimens in healthy participants aged ≥6 years. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants received vaccine or placebo 56 days apart. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and pseudovirus neutralizing antibodies were detected. Adverse events were monitored for 28 days following each vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 430 participants were enrolled in the study, with 30 participants aged 18-55 years (MID cohort), 250 aged ≥56 years (OLD cohort), and 150 aged 6-17 years (MIN cohort). Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine induced significant RBD-specific ELISA antibodies that decreased with increasing age, with geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 1037.5 in the MIN cohort, 647.2 in the MID cohort, and 338.0 in the OLD cohort receiving 5 × 1010 viral particles on day 28 following boost vaccination. Pseudovirus neutralizing antibodies showed a similar pattern, with GMTs of 168.0 in the MIN cohort, 76.8 in the MID cohort, and 79.7 in the OLD cohort. A single dose in children and adolescents induced higher antibody responses than that elicited by 2 doses in adults, with GMTs of 1091.6 and 96.6 for ELISA antibody and neutralizing antibody, respectively. Homologous prime-boost vaccination was safe and tolerable. CONCLUSIONS: Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine with a single dose was safe and induced robust immune responses in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years. A prime-boost regimen needs further exploration for Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine.Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine with a single dose was safe and tolerated, and induced robust immune responses in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years. The boosting effect on immune responses of the homologous prime-boost regime given 56 days apart was limited. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04566770.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Double-Blind Method , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
11.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(12): 1843-1849, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The demonstration of batch-to-batch consistency is indispensable for quality control of vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel-controlled trial to evaluate the immunogenicity consistency of a single shot of Ad5-nCoV in healthy adults who had not previously received any COVID-19 vaccine. All eligible participants were randomly assigned equally to receive one of the three consecutive batches of Ad5-nCoV (5 × 1010 viral particles/vial, 0.5 mL). The primary endpoint was geometric mean titers (GMTs) of serum SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG on day 28 post-vaccination. RESULTS: One thousand fifty participants were enrolled, with 350 (33%) participants per group. On day 28 post-vaccination, GMTs in three groups were 78.3 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (95% CI 70.3-87.3), 82.9 BAU/mL (73.9-92.9), and 78.8 BAU/mL (70.2-88.4), respectively. The two-sided 95% CIs for the GMT ratios between each pair of batches were all between 0.67 and 1.5. The highest incidence of solicited adverse reactions within 7 days post-vaccination was reported by batch 3 recipients (23.1% versus 15.1% in batch 1 recipients and 14.6% in bath 2 recipients; p = 0.0039). None of the serious adverse events were related to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Immunogenicity consistency between consecutive batches of Ad5-nCoV was well established in adults. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05313646).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method , Immunoglobulin G , Adenoviridae , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(8): 1127-1135, 2022 Aug 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974960

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak at the end of 2019 has accelerated the development and research for COVID-19 vaccines worldwide. Among the COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials developed via different platforms, recombinant virus vector-based vaccines have shown excellent immunogenicity and efficacy. However, at the same time, there are serious issues such as vaccine safety and pre-existing antibodies against vectors. This article summarizes the design concept and development history of recombinant virus vector-based vaccines, and focuses on the progress in the clinical studies of vector-based COVID-19 vaccines as well as the challenges, in order to provide reference for the research of recombinant vector-based vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2096970, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956540

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac, also known as the Sinovac inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, has been widely implemented in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. We summarized the results of clinical trials and real-world studies of CoronaVac in this review. The overall efficacy for the prevention of symptomatic COVID-19 (before the emergence of variants of concern) using two doses of 3 µg CoronaVac was 67.7% (95% CI, 35.9% to 83.7%). Effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths was more prominent than that in preventing COVID-19. A third dose inherited the effectiveness against non-variants of concern and increased effectiveness against severe COVID-19 outcomes caused by omicron variants compared to two doses. Most adverse reactions were mild. Few vaccine-related serious adverse reactions have been reported. Moreover, three-dose regimen significantly increased the seroconversion levels of neutralizing antibodies against omicron as compared to two-dose regimen. This review of CoronaVac may provide a scientific basis for optimizing global immunization strategies.

14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 15: 1413-1422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951752

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has seriously affected people's lives, especially those with chronic diseases. Diabetes self-management, which plays an important role in glycaemic control and reducing the risk of acute and long-term complications, may be discouraged by social distancing. Purpose: To evaluate the level of self-management activities in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients and Methods: A survey of with 872 patients with T2DM in the inpatient and outpatient departments through face-to-face interviews was conducted from 1 July, 2020 to 30 September, 2020. The main outcome measures were glycaemic control status and level of self-management activities during the pandemic. Results: In terms of glycaemic control, the data showed that patients with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) < 7.0 mmol/L (36.4%), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) < 10.0 mmol/L (26.3%), or glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) < 7.0% (18.6%) in our investigation has well-controlled blood glucose level, and 11.9% of patients experienced blood glucose <3.9 mmol/L during the outbreak. The diabetes self-management of Chinese patients decreased and the final diabetes self-management score of the Chinese patients was 3.4 ± 1.45. Patients with higher education, diabetes education, comorbidities, and online consultations had higher diabetes self-management scores (P <0.05). Adherence to diabetes self-management in the normal glycaemic control group was higher than that in the substandard glycaemic control group (P<0.05). Among all participants, 72.1% of the patients reduced the frequency of hospital visits, and 44.8% considered that they had diabetes-related stress during the pandemic. The mean anxiety level score rated by 286 patients was 5.3±2.8. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected diabetes self-management, including substandard glycemic control, increased diabetes-related stress, limited exercise range and medical visits. Therefore, future interventions should focus on the online management of chronic diseases and support online consultation' development and promotion, which can overcome physical distance and provide personalized services conveniently.

15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(11): 1314-1324, 2022 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931923

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: A large-scale vaccination of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in adults has been conducted for nearly a year, and there is a growing recognition that immunization for children is also essential. It has been months since emergency use of pediatric COVID-19 vaccine was approved, we reviewed the prevalence and transmission of COVID-19 in children. The prevalence of COVID-19 in children is reduced due to vaccination even in a Delta prevalent period, so an increase in the vaccination rate is needed in children. Although the precise role of children in the transmission requires more research to uncover, they likely played a significant role, according to the available literature. We also described four candidate COVID-19 vaccines for children on their safety and immunogenicity and the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants on childhood vaccination. Safety issues on pediatric vaccines post-approval, like adverse events following immunization and adverse events of special interest require studies on long-term and effective regulatory mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Adv Ther ; 39(8): 3789-3798, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906546

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: BNT162b1 is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Here, we report safety and immune persistence data following a primary two-dose vaccination schedule administered 21 days apart. METHODS: Immune persistence was determined at month 3 in 72 younger participants (aged 18-55 years) and at month 6 in 70 younger and 69 older participants (aged 65-85 years). RESULTS: In younger participants, neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titers (GMTs) for the 10 and 30 µg dose levels declined from 233 and 254 (21 days after dose 2) to 55 and 87 at month 3, respectively, and to 16 and 27 at month 6, respectively. In older participants, nAb GMTs declined from 80 and 160 (21 days after dose 2) to 10 and 21 at month 6. Overall, higher antibody titers were observed in younger participants, and the 30 µg dose induced higher levels of nAb, which declined more slowly by month 6. No serious adverse events were reported in the vaccine group. CONCLUSION: This study showed BNT162b1 maintains a favorable safety profile in younger and older participants in the 6 months after vaccination. This study further extends our understanding of immune persistence and the safety of the BNT162b1 vaccine as a candidate vaccine in the BioNTech pipeline. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04523571, registered August 21, 2020.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(8): 749-760, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All currently available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live-attenuated influenza virus vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (dNS1-RBD) administered by intranasal spray in healthy adults. METHODS: We did double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 1 and 2 trials, followed by a phase 2 extension trial, at a single centre in Jiangsu, China. Healthy adults (≥18 years) who had negative serum or fingertip blood total antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 (in phases 1 and 2), with no prevalent SARS-CoV-2 infection or history of infection and no SARS-CoV-2 vaccination history (in all three trials reported here), were enrolled. Participants were randomly allocated (4:1 in phase 1, 2:1 in phase 2, and 1:1 in the extension trial) to receive two intranasal doses of the dNS1-RBD vaccine or placebo on days 0 and 14 or, for half of the participants in phase 2, on days 0 and 21. To avoid cross-contamination during administration, vaccine and placebo recipients were vaccinated in separate rooms in the extension trial. The phase 1 primary outcome was safety (adverse events recorded on days 0-44; serious adverse events recorded from day 0 until 12 months after the second dose). In the phase 2 and extension trials, the primary immunogenicity outcomes were SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood (measured by IFN-γ ELISpot), proportion of participants with positive conversion for SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG and secretory IgA (s-IgA) antibodies, and concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG in serum and SARS-CoV-2 RBD s-IgA in the nasopharynx (measured by ELISA) at 1 month after the second dose in the per-protocol set for immunogenicity. χ2 test and Fisher's exact test were used to analyse categorical data, and t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare the measurement data between groups. These trials were registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000037782, ChiCTR2000039715, and ChiCTR2100048316). FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2020, and July 4, 2021, 63, 724, and 297 participants without a history of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were enrolled in the phase 1, phase 2, and extension trials, respectively. At least one adverse reaction after vaccination was reported in 133 (19%) of 684 participants in the vaccine groups. Most adverse reactions were mild. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was noted. Specific T-cell immune responses were observed in 211 (46% [95% CI 42-51]) of 455 vaccine recipients in the phase 2 trial, and in 48 (40% [31-49]) of 120 vaccine recipients compared with one (1% [0-5]) of 111 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. Seroconversion for RBD-specific IgG was observed in 48 (10% [95% CI 8-13]) of 466 vaccine recipients in the phase 2 trial (geometric mean titre [GMT] 3·8 [95% CI 3·4-4·3] in responders), and in 31 (22% [15-29]) of 143 vaccine recipients (GMT 4·4 [3·3-5·8]) and zero (0% [0-2]) of 147 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. 57 (12% [95% CI 9-16]) of 466 vaccine recipients had positive conversion for RBD-specific s-IgA (GMT 3·8 [95% CI 3·5-4·1] in responders) in the phase 2 trial, as did 18 (13% [8-19]) of 143 vaccine recipients (GMT 5·2 [4·0-6·8]) and zero (0% [0-2]) of 147 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. INTERPRETATION: dNS1-RBD was well tolerated in adults. Weak T-cell immunity in peripheral blood, as well as weak humoral and mucosal immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, were detected in vaccine recipients. Further studies are warranted to verify the safety and efficacy of intranasal vaccines as a potential supplement to current intramuscular SARS-CoV-2 vaccine pools. Steps should be taken in future studies to reduce the potential for cross-contamination caused by the vaccine strain aerosol during administration. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Science, Fujian Provincial Science, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, and Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Orthomyxoviridae , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects
19.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1003953, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous boost vaccination has been proposed as an option to elicit stronger and broader, or longer-lasting immunity. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous immunization with a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine (Convidecia, hereafter referred to as CV) and a protein-subunit-based COVID-19 vaccine (ZF2001, hereafter referred to as ZF). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, in which healthy adults aged 18 years or older, who have received 1 dose of Convidecia, with no history of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, were recruited in Jiangsu, China. Sixty participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either 1 dose of ZF2001 or placebo control (trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)) administered at 28 days after priming, and received the third injection with ZF2001 at 5 months, referred to as CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M5) regimen, respectively. Sixty participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either 1 dose of ZF2001 or TIV administered at 56 days after priming, and received the third injection with ZF2001 at 6 months, referred to as CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6) and CV/ZF (D0-M6) regimen, respectively. Participants and investigators were masked to the vaccine received but not to the boosting interval. Primary endpoints were the geometric mean titer (GMT) of neutralizing antibodies against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and 7-day solicited adverse reactions. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Between April 7, 2021 and May 6, 2021, 120 eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive ZF2001/ZF2001 (n = 40) or TIV/ZF2001 (n = 20) 28 days and 5 months post priming, and receive ZF2001/ZF2001 (n = 40) or TIV/ZF2001 (n = 20) 56 days and 6 months post priming. Of them, 7 participants did not receive the third injection with ZF2001. A total of 26 participants (21.7%) reported solicited adverse reactions within 7 days post boost vaccinations, and all the reported adverse reactions were mild, with 13 (32.5%) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5) regimen, 7 (35.0%) in CV/ZF (D0- M5) regimen, 4 (10.0%) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6) regimen, and 2 (10.0%) in CV/ZF (D0-M6) regimen, respectively. At 14 days post first boost, GMTs of neutralizing antibodies in recipients receiving ZF2001 at 28 days and 56 days post priming were 18.7 (95% CI 13.7 to 25.5) and 25.9 (17.0 to 39.3), respectively, with geometric mean ratios of 2.0 (1.2 to 3.5) and 3.4 (1.8 to 6.4) compared to TIV. GMTs at 14 days after second boost of neutralizing antibodies increased to 107.2 (73.7 to 155.8) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5) regimen and 141.2 (83.4 to 238.8) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6) regimen. Two-dose schedules of CV/ZF (D0-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M6) induced antibody levels comparable with that elicited by 3-dose schedules, with GMTs of 90.5 (45.6, 179.8) and 94.1 (44.0, 200.9), respectively. Study limitations include the absence of vaccine effectiveness in a real-world setting and current lack of immune persistence data. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous boosting with ZF2001 following primary vaccination with Convidecia is more immunogenic than a single dose of Convidecia and is not associated with safety concerns. These results support flexibility in cooperating viral vectored and recombinant protein vaccines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study on Heterologous Prime-boost of Recombinant COVID-19 Vaccine (Ad5 Vector) and RBD-based Protein Subunit Vaccine; ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04833101.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects
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