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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334201

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pre-mRNA splicing is initiated with the recognition of a single-nucleotide intronic branchpoint (BP) within a BP motif by spliceosome elements. Fifty-six rare variants in 44 human genes have been reported to alter splicing and cause disease by disrupting BP. However, until now, no computational approach has been available to efficiently detect such variants in next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. We established a comprehensive human genome-wide BP database by integrating existing BP data, and by generating new BP data from RNA-seq of lariat debranching enzyme DBR1-mutated patients and from machine-learning predictions. We in-depth characterize multiple features of BP in major and minor introns, and find that BP and BP-2 (two-nucleotides upstream of BP) positions exhibit a lower rate of variation in human populations and higher evolutionary conservation than the intronic background, whilst being comparable to the exonic background. We develop BPHunter as a genome-wide computational approach to systematically and efficiently detect intronic variants that may disrupt BP recognition in NGS data. BPHunter retrospectively identifies 48 of the 56 known pathogenic BP mutations in which we summarize a strategy for prioritizing BP mutation candidates, and the remaining 8 all create AG dinucleotides between BP and acceptor site which is probably the reason for mis-splicing. We demonstrate the utility of BPHunter prospectively by using it to identify a novel germline heterozygous BP variant of STAT2 in a patient with critical COVID-19 pneumonia, and a novel somatic intronic 59-nucleotide deletion of ITPKB in a lymphoma patient, both of which we validate experimentally. BPHunter is publicly available from https://hgidsoft.rockefeller.edu/BPHunter and https://github.com/casanova-lab/BPHunter .

3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782283

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seriously endangers people's lives. The variation in SARS-CoV-2 makes the research and development of vaccines and specific drugs particularly important. However, the prevention and diagnosis of COVID-19 cannot be underestimated in the control of the epidemic. Case Presentation We introduced a 65-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test result of this patient was positive again during treatment. It took 85 days from the first symptom to the final cure. According to the known reports, she is currently the patient with the longest virus shedding in Sichuan Province, China. Due to the patient's special condition, she was treated in four hospitals before and after, and she was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and right lung metastatic adenocarcinoma. We fully introduced the patient's epidemiological history, diagnosis, testing, and treatment process. The patient was finally discharged from the hospital under the treatment of antiviral, hypoglycaemic, anti-anxiety, and a combination of Chinese and Western medicine. Conclusions The epidemic is still rampant, and we should not relax our efforts in the prevention and control of viruses. For the elderly, especially those who are suffering from complications or vulnerable to diseases, it is recommended to extend the observation time. Additionally, medical workers should pay attention to the mental state of patients.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 828691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775698

ABSTRACT

Different countries have adopted various control measures for the COVID-19 pandemic in different periods, and as the virus continues to mutate, the progression of the pandemic and preventive measures adopted have varied dynamically over time. Thus, quantitative analysis of the dynamic impact of different factors such as vaccination, mutant virus, social isolation, etc., on transmission and predicting pandemic progress has become a difficult task. To overcome the challenges above and enable governments to formulate reasonable countermeasures against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we integrate several mathematical methods and propose a new adaptive multifactorial and geographically diverse epidemiological model based on a modified version of the classical susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model. Based on public datasets, a multi-center study was carried out considering 21 regions. First, a retrospective study was conducted to predict the number of infections over the next 30 days in 13 representative pandemic areas worldwide with an accuracy of 87.53%, confirming the robustness of the proposed model. Second, the impact of three scenarios on COVID-19 was quantified based on the scalability of the model: two different vaccination regimens were analyzed, and it was found that the number of infections would progressively decrease over time after vaccination; variant virus caused a 301.55% increase in infections in the United Kingdom; and 3-tier social lockdown in the United Kingdom reduced the infections by 47.01%. Third, we made short-term prospective predictions for the next 15 and 30 days for six countries with severe COVID-19 transmission and the predicted trend is accurate. This study is expected to inform public health responses. Code and data are publicly available at https://github.com/yuanyuanpei7/covid-19.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331322

ABSTRACT

Background: The lack of interaction in pharmacology courses, especially in terms of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has required a fast shift to remote learning at medical schools, causing students to feel anxious and isolated. As a result, new interactive teaching approaches are required to improve pharmacology learning attention and interaction in traditional classrooms or remoting education. Methods: : We introduced the bullet screen into pharmacology teaching. Then, a survey was distributed to first-, second- and third-year pre-clinical undergraduate medical and nursing students at the Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from November 2020 to March 2022. We evaluated the essential features, instructional effectiveness, and recreational value of bullet screens. Responses to structured and open-ended questions about strengths and weaknesses of the bullet screen and overall reflections were coded and compared between medical and nursing students. Results: : For the essential features, bullet screen has a high degree of acceptability among students, and this novel instructional style conveniently increased the classroom interaction. For instructional effectiveness, bullet screen might inspire students’ in-depth thinking. Meanwhile, students tended to consider bullet-screen comments as a way to express their support rather than to make additional comments or to express their opposition. For the recreational value, the process of using bullet screen was interesting. The lack of idea might lead to the relative differences between medical and nursing students, indicating that guiding the appropriate use of bullet screen is necessary. Conclusions: : The bullet screen may be popularized as an auxiliary teaching approach to promote interaction between teachers and students in the curriculum as well as remote education. It's interesting and beneficial in pharmacology courses, yet there are several aspects that might be improved for popularization.

6.
Iran J Public Health ; 50(11): 2202-2210, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716268

ABSTRACT

Background: Given the long-term impact of public health emergencies on adolescents' mental health, extensive effort should be exerted in the psychological intervention of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study combined solution-focused theory and video health education to explore the intervention effect of this model on adolescents' mental health. Methods: Overall, 126 volunteers with anxiety symptoms from four communities in 2021 in Anhui Province, China were randomly divided into the intervention and control groups (63 members in each group). The control group only received health education popularized in the community. By contrast, the intervention group was given the same health education and provided with solution-focused psychological counseling and short video health education related to the pandemic. Results: Results after the intervention were as follows: 1) The Self-rating Anxiety Scale scores of both groups were low, but the effect on the intervention group was better than the control group (P < 0.05). 2) Both groups' positive and negative affect scores were higher and lower than those before the intervention were, but changes in the scores of the intervention group were greater than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The group intervention of solution-focused theory combined with video health education can improve the mental health level of adolescents, effectively alleviate their anxiety and negative emotions, and improve their positive emotions.

7.
Bull Math Biol ; 84(4): 47, 2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712322

ABSTRACT

In order to understand how Wuhan curbed the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, we build a network transmission model of 123 dimensions incorporating the impact of quarantine and medical resources as well as household transmission. Using our new model, the final infection size of Wuhan is predicted to be 50,662 (95%CI: 46,234, 55,493), and the epidemic would last until April 25 (95%CI: April 23, April 29), which are consistent with the actual situation. It is shown that quarantining close contacts greatly reduces the final size and shorten the epidemic duration. The opening of Fangcang shelter hospitals reduces the final size by about 17,000. Had the number of hospital beds been sufficient when the lockdown started, the number of deaths would have been reduced by at least 54.26%. We also investigate the distribution of infectious individuals in unquarantined households of different sizes. The high-risk households are those with size from two to four before the peak time, while the households with only one member have the highest risk after the peak time. Our findings provide a reference for the prevention, mitigation and control of COVID-19 in other cities of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 97-102, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the status of immune responses after primary and booster immunization for SARS-CoV-2 variants and evaluate the differences in disease resistance based upon titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the variants. METHODS: Participants aged 18-59 years received 2 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, 14 days apart, and a booster dose after 12 months. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (baseline), 1 and 6 months after primary immunization, and at multiple instances within 21 days of the booster dose. NAbs against the spike protein of Wuhan-Hu-1 and 3 variants were measured using pseudovirus neutralization assays. RESULTS: Of 400 enrolled participants, 387 completed visits scheduled within 6 months of the second dose and 346 participants received the booster dose in the follow-up research. After 1 month of primary immunization, geometric mean titers (GMTs) of NAbs peaked for Wuhan-Hu-1, whereas GMTs of other variants were <30. After 6 months of primary immunization, GMTs of NAbs against all strains were <30. After 3 days of booster immunization, GMTs were unaltered, seroconversion rates reached approximately 50% after 7 days, and GMTs of NAbs against all strains peaked at 14 days. CONCLUSION: Two-dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine induced the formation of NAbs and memory-associated immune responses, and high titers of NAbs against the variants obtained after booster immunization may further improve the effectiveness of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315685

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) was entered into the critical period of epidemic prevention. Our hospital was designated as a hospital for severe pneumonia in Wuhan. Timely and effective pharmaceutical emergency support system is of great significance for the epidemic prevention and control of COVID-19. Method: In order to ensure COVID-19 patients' medication needs and ensure the safety treatment, we focus on the key points and difficult problems in the practice of pharmaceutical management during the period of COVID-19, and then formulate appropriate pharmaceutical emergency support system combined with clinical practice. Results: The pharmaceutical department quickly launched the emergency mechanism, formulated the key drug catalog for COVID-19, purchased some treatment drugs, reformed the emergency pharmacy process, established the donated drug management system, established the pharmacist consultation team, set up the "cloud pharmacy" for patients with chronic diseases other than COVID-19, and strengthened pharmacist protection management. Conclusion: During the period of COVID-19, the pharmaceutical administration is a professional, comprehensive, complex and systematic emergency project to ensure the drug supply and safety administration.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315349

ABSTRACT

Background: A new type of coronavirus, novel coronavirus (COVID-19), is causing an increasing number of cases of pneumonia and was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization on 30 January 2020. The virus first appeared in Wuhan, China in late December 2019 and traditional Chinese herbal medicine is being used for its treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis will assess studies of the effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods We will search electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) and Wanfang database using keywords related to COVID-19 and traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Reference lists of relevant trials and reviews will be searched. We will manually search grey literature, such as conference proceedings and academic degree dissertations, and trial registries. Two independent reviewers will screen studies (XL and DZ), extract data (YL and LG) and evaluate risk of bias (YL and DZ). Data analysis will be conducted using Review Manager software (version 5.3.5) and R software (version 3.6.1). Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed using a standard Chi-square test with a significance level of P < 0.10. Biases associated with study size (e.g. publication bias) will be investigated using funnel plots, the Egger 's test and Begg 's test and Trim and Fill analysis. Discussion This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of the effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for COVID-19. The use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treatment or prevention of these novel viral infections affecting the pneumonia will be investigated. Systematic review registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020168004

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315346

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization declared on 11 March 2020 that the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) has escalated from epidemic into pandemic. As the initial outbreak area, China has taken multiple active measures to deal with the epidemic. Updated versions of diagnosis and treatment guideline for novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients have been issued, and traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been recommended as a treatment. The objective of this study will be to summarize the recommendations in current clinical practice guidelines about the use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for COVID-19 patients. We will also evaluate and report on the methodological and reporting quality of these guidelines. Methods: : In this systematic review, we will search for guidelines, expert consensuses and policy documents published since December 2019 in electronic databases (e.g. PubMed, EMBASE, and Chinese databases) and on websites of governments or organizations (e.g. The National Guideline Clearinghouse [NGC], Guidelines International Network [GIN], National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network [SIGN] and WHO]). Eligible documents will be independently selected, and relevant data will be independently extracted by two reviewers. We will also independently evaluate the methodological quality and reporting quality of the included guidelines, using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch & Evaluation (AGREE) II tool and Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in healthcare (RIGHT) statement, respectively. Any discrepancies will be discussed and resolved through discussion among the reviewers. We will use the extracted information to summarize their recommendations for traditional Chinese herbal formulae and Chinese patent medicine for COVID-19 patients, and to summarize the strength and quality of these recommendations with reference to the results of AGREE II and RIGHT tools. Discussion: This review will summarize the recommendations in current clinical practice guidelines and provide insight into the implementation strategies for traditional Chinese herbal medicine in COVID-19 patients. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020179205

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315232

ABSTRACT

Background: At the end of 2019, the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had severely damaging people’s life. China’s public health emergency management system had played an essential role in the handling and response of it, which had been appreciated by the World Health Organization and some countries. Hence it is necessary to make an overall analysis of the development of China’s health emergency management system. It can provide a reference for scholars to understand the current situation and look for new research points. Methods: : We collected 2247 international from the Web of Science database, 959 Chinese articles from China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Bibliometric and mapping knowledge domains analysis methods were used in this study for temporal distribution analysis, cooperation network, co-word network analysis. Results: : The first international article in this field was published in 1991, while Chinese in 2005. Research institutions mainly come from universities and health institutions. Developed countries and European countries published more articles, while east of China published more. There are 52 burst words for international articles from 1999–2018, while 18 burst words for Chinese articles from 2003–2018. International top-ranked articles by citation appeared in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2014, 2015, 2016, while Chinese appeared in 2003, 2004, 2009, 2011. Conclusions: : There are differences in the regional or economic distribution of international and Chinese cooperation networks. International research often relates to hot issues, mainly focus on the emergency preparedness and monitoring for public health events, while China’s focus on the public health emergency and their disposal. International begins the research with terrorism and bioterrorism, followed by disaster planning and emergency preparedness, epidemics and infectious diseases. China takes severe acute respiratory syndrome as the research background and legal system construction as the research starting point, followed by mechanism, structure, system, and learning from abroad of public health emergency management.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315207

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. Since then, there was an outbreak in Wuhan and the coronavirus spread quickly nationwide. Thousands of healthcare providers fought against COVID-19 in Wuhan and other areas of China. The present study aimed to investigate the levels and related factors of sleep quality of healthcare professionals fighting against COVID-19 in high risk area (Hubei Province) and low risk area (Jiangsu Province), and association between sleep quality and health. Methods: : A total of 253 healthcare professionals in Hubei Province (n=119, female 72.3%, mean age=32.13±5.50, nurse 80.7%) and Jiangsu Province(n=134, female 94.0%, mean age=30.2±5.52, nurse 96.3%) were surveyed from February to March 2020. Sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI) and health were assessed using an internet survey. Results: : The global PSQI score of Hubei sample and Jiangsu sample was 9.74±5.00 and 7.79±4.64, respectively. The global PSQI score and the scores of subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration and use of sleep medications in Hubei sample were significantly higher than that of Jiangsu sample (p<0.05). For Hubei sample, fear of infection, fatigue in Class 3 protection and worry about family were predictors of poor sleep quality (OR=5.020, 95%CI 1.761-14.306, OR=3.859, 95%CI 1.168-12.753, OR=3.576, 95%CI 1.002-12.759, respectively), while dizziness in Class 3 protection was predictor of poor sleep quality for Jiangsu sample (OR=7.063, 95%CI 2.323-21.470). Poor sleep quality was associated with reduced self-reported health after controlling for covariates for all samples(β=-0.75, p<0.01, β=-0.52, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions: : Sleep quality of healthcare professionals in Hubei was worse than that in Jiangsu. Poor sleep quality was associated to poor health. Our findings call for systematic sleep intervention program that are specially designed to help healthcare professionals fighting against infectious disease to improve their sleep quality.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312630

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, COVID-19 has been confirmed in more than18.8 million patients and leads to 0.70 million deaths worldwide. The mortality and disease severity predictors of COVID-19 have been investigated in many studies. However, they are based on early or partial datasets from high epidemic areas. Here, we retrospect benign clinical and epidemiological outcomes-associated factors from a solved epidemic in a low epidemic area. Methods: : All 98 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients in a local epidemic (Zhuhai, China) from January 17, 2020 to March 10, 2020 were enrolled. Data were updated until all patients having final outcomes. Results: : Patients were all hospitalized. The case fatality rate was 1.0%. There were no local secondary infection cases. The median age was 46.3 years. Underlying diseases were found in 33.7% patients. The severe/critical rate was 19.4%. The mean period from disease onset to admission was 4.4 days. Compared with serious/critical cases, mild/common cases on admission were much younger, lacks of comorbidities and normal in functions of vital organs and indicators of secondary bacterial infections. The lymphocyte counts in serious/critical cases began to be significantly lower 3 days before their identification dates. The absence of lymphopenia before the eighth day from disease onset can exclude the possibility of 78.5% to be serious/critical ill. Most patients (88.8%) received antiviral treatments. Early antiviral treatment significantly shortened the viral RNA-negative conversion time. The delayed antiviral treatment was associated with critical patients. Conclusions: : Younger age, lack of aging-related diseases and early hospitalization of all patients to conduct antiviral treatment and prevention of secondary epidemic were the important benign clinical and epidemiological outcomes-associated factors of COVID-19. In combating COVID-19, the active intervention strategies are crucial in low epidemic areas and the continuous monitoring of lymphocytes may be useful to sort patients reasonably in high epidemic areas.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309031

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) has been widely spread in China and several other countries. Early finding of this pneumonia from huge numbers of suspects gives clinicians a big challenge. The aim of the study was to develop a rapid screening model for early predicting NCP in a Zhejiang population, as well as its utility in other areas. A total of 880 participants who were initially suspected of NCP from Jan 17 to Feb 19 were included. Potential predictors were selected via stepwise logistic regression analysis. The model was established based on epidemiological features, clinical manifestations, white blood cell count, and pulmonary imaging changes, with the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of 0.920 (95% confidence interval : 0.902-0.938;AUROC=0.915, and its standard deviation of 0.028, as evaluated in 5-fold cross-validation). At a value of whether the predicted score >4.0, the model could detect NCP with a specificity of 98.3%;at a cut-off value of < -0.5, the model could rule out NCP with a sensitivity of 97.9%. The study demonstrated that the rapid screening model was a helpful and cost-effective tool for early predicting NCP and had great clinical significance given the high activity of NCP.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325405

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 has caused a sizeable global outbreak and has been declared as a public health emergency of international concern. Sufficient evidence shows that temperature has an essential link with respiratory infectious diseases. The objectives of this study were to describe the exposure-response relationship between ambient temperature, including extreme temperatures, and mortality of COVID-19. Methods: The Poisson distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was constructed to evaluate the non-linear delayed effects of ambient temperature on death, by using the daily new death of COVID-19 and ambient temperature data from January 10 to March 31, 2020, in Wuhan, China. Results: During the period mentioned above, the average daily number of COVID-19 deaths was approximately 45.2. Poisson distributed lag non-linear model showed that there was a non-linear relationship (U-shape) between the effect of ambient temperature and mortality. With confounding factors controlled, the daily cumulative relative death risk decreased by 12.5 % (95 % CI [3.8 %, 20.4 %]) for every 1.0 °C increase in temperature. Moreover, the delayed effects of the low temperature are acute and short-term, with the most considerable risk occurring in 5–7 days of exposure. The delayed effects of the high temperature appeared quickly, then decrease rapidly, and increased sharply 15 days of exposure, mainly manifested as acute and long-term effects. Sensitivity analysis results demonstrated that the results were robust. Conclusions: The relationship between ambient temperature and COVID-19 mortality was non-linear. There was a negative correlation between the cumulative relative risk of death and temperature. Additionally, exposure to high and low temperatures had divergent impacts on mortality.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325404

ABSTRACT

Background: During the epidemic of COVID-19 of China, the emergency medical teams are facing serious stress in the front-line. As far as we know, there are no studies to test the applicability and measurement properties of the 10-item Chinese perceived stress scale (CPSS-10) in the emergency medical team. Methods: From March 17 to 27, 2020, an online survey was conducted on the emergency medical teams of Liaoning Province who supporting Wuhan. The CPSS-10 was used to measure the stress of medical workers. Classical test theory (CTT), bifactor model and multidimensional graded response model (MGRM) were used to analyze the measurement characteristics and differential item functioning (DIF) of CPSS-10. Results: The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of CPSS-10 was 0.86. Bifactor model confirmed that CPSS-10 was a two-factor structure. MGRM showed ordered response categories of K10. Item 8 could distinguish individual stress, but the slope of this item was very large (slope is 7.97, which was higher than 4), showing local dependence. There was a significant age DIF, but no DIF in gender. After removing the items 2, 5, and 8, the CPSS-7 showed high reliability, without DIF of age and gender, and there was no local dependence. Conclusions: MGRM could provide useful measurement information about CPSS-10 and CPSS-7. MGRM found that CPSS-10 did not fully conform to the item response theory (IRT). CPSS-7 had proved to be a more effective and reliable tool for assessing the perceived stress of emergency medical team.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE : To study the clinical characteristics of patients infected with the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) responsible for coronavirus disease (COVID-2019). METHODS : Data were collected from 20 patients admitted to the Pidu District People ’ s Hospital in Chengdu from January 26, 2020 to March 1, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection. Clinical data were collected using the World Health Organization (WHO) nCoV CASE RECORDFORM Version 1.2 28JAN2020, which includes parameters such as: temperature, epidemiological characteristics, social network, history of exposure, and incubation period. If information was unclear, the team reviewed the original data and contacted patients directly if necessary. RESULTS : The median age of the 20 COVID-19 infected patients studied was 42.5 years. In this cohort, four patients became severely ill and one deteriorated rapidly during treatment. This patient was transferred to another medical center with an intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment. This patient died after admission to the ICU. Two of the twenty patients remained positive SARS-Cov-2 more than three weeks, and they were quarantined in a medical facility without medication. According to our analysis, all of the studied cases were infected by human-to-human transmission due to the lack of protective measures;transmission through contact within families requires confirmation. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever in 13 (65%) patients, cough in 9 (45%), headache in 3 (15%), fatigue in 6 (30%), diarrhea in 3 (15%), and abdominal pain in 2 (10%). Six patients (30%) developed shortness of breath upon admission. The median time from exposure to onset of illness was 6.5 days (interquartile range 3.25–9 days), and from the onset of symptoms to first hospital admission was 3.5 (1.25–7) days. CONCLUSION : Compared with patients infected with SARS-Cov-2 in Wuhan (up to the end of February 2020), the symptoms of patients in one hospital in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, were relatively mild and patients were discharged from the hospital after only a short stay. However, the fasting blood glucose of the infected individuals was found to be slightly elevated because of the state of emergency. The dynamic changes in lymphocyte levels can predict disease status of COVID-19. They are also suggestive of changes in mean platelet volume during disease progression. This suggests that the patients had mild cases of COVID-19. However, because there is no effective drug treatment for COVID-19, it is important to detect and identify severe cases from mild cases early.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325332

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in one designated medical institutions in Chengdu. Methods: : 20 patients admitted to one hospital in designated medical institutions in Chengdu with laboratory confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection. Data were collected from 26 January 2020 to 1 March 2020. Clinical data were collected using Self-constructed questionnaire refer to World health organization nCoV CASE RECORDFORM Version 1.2 28JAN2020. If information was not clear, The team will review the original data from the designated computer. Results: : Of the 20 COVID-19 infected patients studied (median age 42.5 years), 4 patients became severe sick and one was critical deteriorated in the process of treatment, they were later transferred to the superior medical institutions for treatment. This patient died after admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The other two mild patients remained positive for pharyngeal swabs of SARS-Cov-2 more than 3 weeks, so they were quarantined in a medical facility without medication. All studied cases were infected by human to human transmission without taking protective measures. It requires further confirmation of transmission through contact within families. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever in 13 (65%) patients, cough in 9 (45%), headache in 3 (15%), fatigue in 6 (30%), diarrhoea in 3 (15%), and Abdominal pain in 2 (10%). Six patients (30%) developed shortness of breath on admission. The median time from exposure to onset of illness was 6.5 days (interquartile range 3.25-9 days), and from the onset of symptoms to first hospital admission was 3.5(1.25-7) days. Conclusion: Up to the end of February 2020, compared with patients initially infected with SARS-Cov-2 in Wuhan, the symptoms of patients in this study was relatively mild and the patients are easily cured and discharged from hospital. the patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19 is general type of patients infected with SARS-Cov-2 in China. However, The COVID-19 is a self-limiting disease with no effective drug to treat it, it is important to detect and identify severe cases from mild cases early.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325264

ABSTRACT

As per the indicated need in literature, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize inflammatory markers of MIS-C patients with COVID-19, Kawasaki disease (KD), and coronary artery abnormalities. We searched nine databases for studies on inflammatory markers of MIS-C. After quality check, data were pooled using a fixed- or random-effects model. Inflammatory markers included white blood cell count (WBC) or leukocytes, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelet count (PLT), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), ferritin, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for comparisons by severity and age. Twenty studies with 2,990 participants yielded 684 MIS-C patients. Compared to non-severe COVID-19 patients, MIS-C patients had lower ALC and higher ANC, CRP and D-dimer levels. Compared to severe COVID-19 patients, MIS-C patients had lower LDH and PLT counts and higher ESR levels. Compared to KD patients, MIS-C patients had lower ALC and PLT, and higher CRP and ferritin levels. Severe MIS-C patients had higher levels of WBC, CRP, D-dimer and ferritin. For MIS-C, younger children had lower CRP and ferritin levels than medium-aged/older children. Measurement of inflammatory markers might assist clinicians in accurate evaluation and diagnosis of MIS-C and the associated disorders.

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