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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627415

ABSTRACT

The crucial role of the parietal cortex in working memory (WM) storage has been identified by fMRI studies. However, it remains unknown whether repeated parietal intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) can improve WM. In this within-subject randomized controlled study, under the guidance of fMRI-identified parietal activation in the left hemisphere, 22 healthy adults received real and sham iTBS sessions (five consecutive days, 600 pulses per day for each session) with an interval of 9 months between the two sessions. Electroencephalography signals of each subject before and after both iTBS sessions were collected during a change detection task. Changes in contralateral delay activity (CDA) and K-score were then calculated to reflect neural and behavioral WM improvement. Repeated-measures ANOVA suggested that real iTBS increased CDA more than the sham one (p = .011 for iTBS effect). Further analysis showed that this effect was more significant in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere (p = .029 for the hemisphere-by-iTBS interaction effect). Pearson correlation analyses showed significant correlations for two conditions between CDA changes in the left hemisphere and K score changes (ps <.05). In terms of the behavioral results, significant K score changes after real iTBS were observed for two conditions, but a repeated-measures ANOVA showed a nonsignificant main effect of iTBS (p = .826). These results indicate that the current iTBS protocol is a promising way to improve WM capability based on the neural indicator (CDA) but further optimization is needed to produce a behavioral effect.

2.
Anal Methods ; 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1617007

ABSTRACT

Improved diagnostics are needed to manage the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we enhanced the color changes and sensitivity of colorimetric SARS-CoV-2 RT-LAMP assays based on triarylmethane dyes. We determined a mechanism for the color changes and obtained sensitivities of 10 RNA copies per microliter.

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 778863, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605602

ABSTRACT

Aims: The study aimed to understand the role and the core values of pharmacists and the professional expectations of medical staff for pharmacists in treating COVID-19 patients from the perspectives of the frontline medical staff. The findings help to understand and provide a reference for the career growth path of future pharmacists. Methods: A phenomenological method was used to conduct in-depth interviews with frontline medical staff working in isolation wards during COVID-19. The interview data were analyzed, and the themes were extracted. Results: Pharmacists played a positive role in ensuring the supply of non-routinely stocked drugs, including traditional Chinese medicine preventative preparations, providing drug information and medication consultation for complex patients, and identifying adverse drug reactions. However, at present, the integration of pharmacists and nurses is poor with inadequate communication, and the pharmaceutical care activities provided to physicians were still not comprehensive. Conclusions: The level of pharmaceutical care provided by pharmacists needs to be further strengthened. Frontline medical teams generally have high professional expectations for pharmacists, including expecting pharmacists to become drug therapy experts. They expect pharmacists to fully participate in clinical decision-making, especially playing a central role in managing drug interactions, contraindications, and other clinical uses of drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacists , Humans , Medical Staff , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 758294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581342

ABSTRACT

Objective: This meta-analysis compared the efficacy and safety of five kinds of COVID-19 vaccines in different age groups (young adults and older adults), aiming to analyze the difference of adverse events (AEs) rate and virus geometric mean titer (GMT) values between young and older people, in order to find a specific trend, and explore the causes of this trend through meta-analysis. Method: Meta-analysis was used to analyze the five eligible articles. The modified Jadad scoring scale was used to evaluate the quality of eligible literature with a scoring system of 1 to 7. The primary endpoint of the effectiveness index was GMT. The primary endpoints of the safety index were the incidence of local AEs and systemic AEs. Stata 12.0 software was used for meta-analysis. Revman 5.0 software was used to map the risk of publication bias, and Egger's test was used to analyze publication bias. Results: The GMT values of young adults were higher than older adults (SMD = 1.40, 95% CI (0.79, 2.02), P<0.01). There was a higher incidence of local and systemic AEs in young people than in the elderly (OR = 1.10, 95% CI (1.08, 1.12), P<0.01; OR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.14, 1.22), P<0.01). Conclusion: The immune effect of young people after being vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines was better than that of the elderly, but the safety was worse than that of old people, the most common AEs were fever, rash, and local muscle pain, which were tolerable for young people. As the AEs of the elderly were lower, they can also be vaccinated safely; the reason for the low level of GMT in the elderly was related to Immunosenescence. The vaccine tolerance of people of different ages needs to be studied continuously.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2104192, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589262

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with impact on skin and hair loss are reported. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is detected in the skin of some patients; however, the detailed pathological features of skin tissues from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 at a molecular level are limited. Especially, the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect skin cells and impact their function is not well understood. A proteome map of COVID-19 skin is established here and the susceptibility of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived skin organoids with hair follicles and nervous system is investigated, to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is shown that KRT17+ hair follicles can be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and are associated with the impaired development of hair follicles and epidermis. Different types of nervous system cells are also found to be infected, which can lead to neuron death. Findings from the present work provide evidence for the association between COVID-19 and hair loss. hiPSC-derived skin organoids are also presented as an experimental model which can be used to investigate the susceptibility of skin cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and can help identify various pathological mechanisms and drug screening strategies.

6.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110271, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588135

ABSTRACT

The utility of the urinary proteome in infectious diseases remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the proteome and metabolome of urine and serum samples from patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. Our data show that urinary proteins effectively classify COVID-19 by severity. We detect 197 cytokines and their receptors in urine, but only 124 in serum using TMT-based proteomics. The decrease in urinary ESCRT complex proteins correlates with active SARS-CoV-2 replication. The downregulation of urinary CXCL14 in severe COVID-19 cases positively correlates with blood lymphocyte counts. Integrative multiomics analysis suggests that innate immune activation and inflammation triggered renal injuries in patients with COVID-19. COVID-19-associated modulation of the urinary proteome offers unique insights into the pathogenesis of this disease. This study demonstrates the added value of including the urinary proteome in a suite of multiomics analytes in evaluating the immune pathobiology and clinical course of COVID-19 and, potentially, other infectious diseases.

8.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296434

ABSTRACT

Background: The onset of various kidney diseases have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. However, detailed clinical and pathological examination of kidney injury in patients receiving inactivated vaccines are lacking.<br><br>Methods: We screened and analyzed patients with newly diagnosed kidney diseases after inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Peking University First Hospital from January 2021 to August 2021. We obtained samples of blood, urine, and renal biopsy tissues. Clinical and laboratory information, as well as light microscopy, immunostaining and ultrastructural observation were described. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike protein and Nucleoprotein were stained using immune-fluorescence technique in the kidney biopsy samples. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were tested using magnetic particle chemiluminescence immunoassay.<br><br>Findings: The study group included 17 patients, including immune complex mediated kidney diseases (IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy and lupus nephritis), podocytopathy (minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) and others (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, anti-GBM nephritis, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, and thrombotic microangiopathy). Seven patients (41.18%) developed renal disease after the first dose and 10 (58.82%) after the second dose. We found no definitive evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein or Nucleoprotein deposition in the kidney biopsy samples. Serological markers implicated abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. Treatment and follow-up (median = 86 days) showed that biopsy diagnosis informed treatment and prognosis in all patients.<br><br>Interpretation: We observed various kidney diseases following inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration. Our findings provide an evidence against direct vaccine protein deposition as the major pathomechanism, but implicate abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. These findings expand our understanding of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine renal safety.<br><br>Funding: This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91742205, 82170711, 81800636, 82070733, 81625004), Clinical Medicine Plus X—Young Scholars Project of Peking University (PKU2021LCXQ017), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2019-I2M-5-046), Yunnan Provincial Science and Technology Department (202102AA100051 and 202003AC100010, China), and Beijing Young Scientist Program (BJJWZYJH01201910001006).<br><br>Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.<br><br>Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the institutional review board of Peking University First Hospital (2021-352) and the Committee on Human Subject Research and Ethics of Yunnan University (CHSRE2021020). Written Informed Consent Form was obtained from each participant.

9.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293976

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 patients account for most of the mortality of this disease. Early detection and effective treatment of severe patients remain major challenges. Here, we performed proteomic and metabolomic profiling of sera from 46 COVID-19 and 53 control individuals. We then trained a machine learning model using proteomic and metabolomic measurements from a training cohort of 18 non-severe and 13 severe patients. The model correctly classified severe patients with an accuracy of 93.5%, and was further validated using ten independent patients, seven of which were correctly classified. We identified molecular changes in the sera of COVID-19 patients implicating dysregulation of macrophage, platelet degranulation and complement system pathways, and massive metabolic suppression. This study shows that it is possible to predict progression to severe COVID-19 disease using serum protein and metabolite biomarkers. Our data also uncovered molecular pathophysiology of COVID-19 with potential for developing anti-viral therapies.<br><br>Funding: This work is supported by grants from Westlake Special Program for COVID19 (2020), and Tencent foundation (2020), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81972492, 21904107, 81672086), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars (LR19C050001), Hangzhou Agriculture and Society Advancement Program (20190101A04). <br><br>Conflict of Interest: The research group of T.G. is partly supported by Tencent, Thermo Fisher Scientific, SCIEX and Pressure Biosciences Inc. C.Z., Z.K., Z.K. and S.Q. are employees of DIAN Diagnostics.

10.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530192

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe respiratory disease caused by the highly infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, mutations of SARS-CoV-2 accumulate. These mutations may not only make the virus spread faster, but also render current vaccines less effective. In this study, we established a reference sequence for each clade defined using the GISAID typing method. Homology analysis of each reference sequence confirmed a low mutation rate for SARS-CoV-2, with the latest clade GRY having the lowest homology with other clades (99.89%-99.93%), and the homology between other clade being greater than or equal to 99.95%. Variation analyses showed that the earliest genotypes S, V, and G had 2, 3, and 3 characterizing mutations in the genome respectively. The G-derived clades GR, GH, and GV had 5, 6, and 13 characterizing mutations in the genome respectively. A total of 28 characterizing mutations existed in the genome of the latest clades GRY. In addition, we found differences in the geographic distribution of different clades. G, GH, and GR are popular in the USA, while GV and GRY are common in the UK. Our work may facilitate the custom design of antiviral strategies depending on the molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 324-339, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512992

ABSTRACT

Background: Macrophage infiltration around lipotoxic tubular epithelial cells (TECs) is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, how these two types of cells communicate remains obscure. We previously demonstrated that LRG1 was elevated in the process of kidney injury. Here, we demonstrated that macrophage-derived, LRG1-enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs) exacerbated DN. Methods: We induced an experimental T2DM mouse model with a HFD diet for four months. Renal primary epithelial cells and macrophage-derived EVs were isolated from T2D mice by differential ultracentrifugation. To investigate whether lipotoxic TEC-derived EV (EVe) activate macrophages, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were incubated with EVe. To investigate whether activated macrophage-derived EVs (EVm) induce lipotoxic TEC apoptosis, EVm were cocultured with primary renal tubular epithelial cells. Subsequently, we evaluated the effect of LRG1 in EVe by investigating the apoptosis mechanism. Results: We demonstrated that incubation of primary TECs of DN or HK-2 mTECs with lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) increased the release of EVe. Interestingly, TEC-derived EVe activated an inflammatory phenotype in macrophages and induced the release of macrophage-derived EVm. Furthermore, EVm could induce apoptosis in TECs injured by LPC. Importantly, we found that leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1)-enriched EVe activated macrophages via a TGFßR1-dependent process and that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-enriched EVm induced apoptosis in injured TECs via a death receptor 5 (DR5)-dependent process. Conclusion: Our findings indicated a novel cell communication mechanism between tubular epithelial cells and macrophages in DN, which could be a potential therapeutic target.

12.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292220

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Most of humeral shaft fractures in children could be treated satisfactorily by conservative treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the application value of ultrasonography in conservative treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children.Methods : We retrospectively reviewed children admitted to our hospital, for humeral shaft fracture from January 2014 to March 2018. The patients were divided into two groups: ultrasonography group and X-ray group. All patients were instructed to re-examined at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, 24 weeks and 1 year from the injury date for follow-up, and evaluated the prognosis according to the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score at 12 months.Results : A total of 37 children were divided into ultrasonography group, 32 children were divided into X-ray group. There was no significant difference in prognosis between the two groups. The mean number of radiation exposures of ultrasonography group was less and ultrasonic examination found radial nerve injury, and using ultrasound reduced the chance of direct or in direct contact with infected peoples. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a non-invasive, non-radioactive test, which could decrease risk of COVID-19 infection and detect the vascular nerve injury caused by fracture. Ultrasonography may be the examination method for follow-up conservative treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children during the epidemic period.

13.
Surfaces and Interfaces ; : 101572, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1487978

ABSTRACT

The emerging miniaturized energy storage devices focus on wearable, flexible, and portable electronic devices with high energy density, fast energy transfer capability, long charge-discharge cycles, and low cost. In the present work, a one-step chronoamperometry technique was used to fabricate the three-dimensional ternary architecture of iron oxide embedded polypyrrole-rGO matrix (Fe-PrGO) and the corresponding binary (PrGO) and unary (PPy) to have a comparative study on the enhancement of the capacitance. A thorough investigation was carried out to interpret the crystal structure, composition, material morphology, and electrochemical performance. The structure-property-performance correlation was analyzed for realizing the suitability of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites as electrode materials. The prepared electrode showcased a specific capacitance of 442 F g−1 in an aqueous electrolyte (1M KCl) at a current density of 1 A g−1. The Fe-PrGO electrode displayed a good cycle performance with 88% of the original capacity retained over 8000 cycles that may be attributed to the superior ion-transport kinetics offered by the synergistic effect of properly selected components. Our study confirms that Fe-PrGO offers an effective solution to enhance the preparation of metal oxide based low-cost environmentally benign flexible supercapacitors to power the virtual health-care devices that become a permanent outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic and flexible supercapacitor for long cycling applications

14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108292, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487772

ABSTRACT

Leukopenia is a common manifestation of many diseases, including global outbreak SAS-CoV-2 infection. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM -CSF) has been proved to be effective in promoting lymphocyte regeneration, but adverse immunological effects have also emerged. This study aim to investigate the effect of GM -CSF on BCR heavy chain CDR3 repertoire while promoting lymphocyte regeneration. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) and GM -CSF were used to inhibit and stimulate bone marrow hematopoiesis, respectively. High throughput sequencing was applied to detect the characteristics of BCR CDR3 repertoire in controls, CTX group and GM -CSF group. The white blood cells (WBCs) were quickly reduced (P < 0.05) with lymphocytes decreasing causing by CTX, and the WBCs and lymphocytes returned to the level of controls after GM -CSF treatment. The diversity of BCR heavy chain CDR3 repertoire was also significantly decreased in CTX group. Although there is still a big gap from the controls, the diversity was picked up after GM -CSF treatment. The expression of IGHD01-01, IGHD02-14 and IGHJ04-01 with high-frequency usage regularly and significantly changed in three groups, and many genes with low-frequency usage lost in CTX group and did not reappear in GM -CSF group. Moreover, two shared sequences and accounted for the highest proportion in GM -CSF group have been detected in animal model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. These results revealed that GM -CSF can partially restore changes in the BCR heavy chain CDR3 repertoire while promoting lymphocyte regeneration, but it may also lead to rearrangement, proliferation and activation of abnormal B cells, which can provide a basis for further study on the adverse immunological effects and mechanism of GM -CSF treatment.

15.
Clin Exp Med ; 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479486

ABSTRACT

The optimal timing of glucocorticoid treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is uncertain. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of methylprednisolone therapy (MPT) for patients with a high-risk common type (HRCT) COVID-19 pneumonia. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study in Northeast China. A comparison was performed between the standard treatment (SDT) group and the SDT + MPT group to determine the efficacy of methylprednisolone in treating HRCT COVID-19 pneumonia. We collected the medical records of 403 patients with HRCT COVID-19 pneumonia (127 in the SDT + MPT group and 276 in the SDT group). None of the patients had received mechanical ventilation or died. Furthermore, there were no side effects associated with MPT. Patients in the SDT + MPT group treated with methylprednisolone received an intravenous injection for a median interval of five days (interquartile range of 3 to 7 days). The trends in lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, lactic acid dehydrogenase, respiratory rate, SpO2, PaO2, D-dimer and body temperature were similar between the SDT + MPT and SDT groups. The results for the SDT + MPT group seemed to improve faster than those for the SDT group; however, the results were not statistically significant. Clinical outcomes revealed that the average hospitalized days and the rate of progression to severe type COVID-19 pneumonia in both the SDT + MPT group and the SDT group were 14.56 ± 0.57 days versus 16.55 ± 0.3 days (p = 0.0009) and 21.26% (27/127) versus 32.4% (89/276) (p = 0.0247), respectively. The 16-day nucleic acid negative rate was higher in the SDT + MPT group than in the SDT group, 81.73% (104/127) versus 65.27% (180/276) (p = 0.0006). MPT effectively prevents patients with HRCT COVID-19 pneumonia from progressing to the severe stage.

16.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(12): e14544, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478717

ABSTRACT

An essential step for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the attachment to the host cell receptor by its Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). Most of the existing RBD-targeting neutralizing antibodies block the receptor-binding motif (RBM), a mutable region with the potential to generate neutralization escape mutants. Here, we isolated and structurally characterized a non-RBM-targeting monoclonal antibody (FD20) from convalescent patients. FD20 engages the RBD at an epitope distal to the RBM with a KD of 5.6 nM, neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 including the current Variants of Concern such as B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.617.2 (Delta), displays modest cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV, and reduces viral replication in hamsters. The epitope coincides with a predicted "ideal" vulnerability site with high functional and structural constraints. Mutation of the residues of the conserved epitope variably affects FD20-binding but confers little or no resistance to neutralization. Finally, in vitro mode-of-action characterization and negative-stain electron microscopy suggest a neutralization mechanism by which FD20 destructs the Spike. Our results reveal a conserved vulnerability site in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike for the development of potential antiviral drugs.

17.
J Evid Based Med ; 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has turned into a pandemic and resulted in huge death tolls and burdens. Integrating Chinese and western medicine has played an important role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a living evidence-based guideline of integrating Chinese and western medicine for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Living evidence-based guideline. METHODS: This living guideline was developed using internationally recognized and accepted guideline standards, dynamically monitoring the release of new clinical evidence, and quickly updating the linked living systematic review, evidence summary tables, and recommendations. Modified Delphi method was used to reach consensus for all recommendations. The certainty of the evidence, resources, and other factors were fully considered, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to rate the certainty of evidence and the strength of recommendations. RESULTS: The first version of this living guidance focuses on patients who are mild or moderate COVID-19. A multidisciplinary guideline development panel was established. Ten clinical questions were identified based on the status of evidence and a face-to-face experts' consensus. Finally, nine recommendations were reached consensus, and were formulated from systematic reviews of the benefits and harms, certainty of evidence, public accessibility, policy supports, feedback on proposed recommendations from multidisciplinary experts, and consensus meetings. CONCLUSION: This guideline panel made nine recommendations, which covered five traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription granules/decoction (MXXFJD, QFPD, XFBD, TJQW, and JWDY), three Chinese patent medicines (LHQW granules/capsule, JHQG granules, and LHQK granules), and one Chinese herbal injection (XBJ injection). Of them, two were strongly recommended (LHQW granules/capsule and QFPD decoction), and five were weakly recommended (MXXFJD decoction, XFBD decoction, JHQG granules, TJQW granules, and JWDY decoction) for the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19; two were weakly recommended against (XBJ injection and LHQK granules) the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19. The users of this living guideline are most likely to be clinicians, patients, governments, ministries, and health administrators.

18.
Mol Cell Probes ; 60: 101771, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432043

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus with the NA-H275Y mutation, which confers oseltamivir resistance, must be monitored, especially in patients undergoing neuraminidase inhibitor treatment. In this study, we developed a reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay that has high sensitivity (detection limit: 1.0 × 101 copies/µL) and specificity for detecting the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y mutation; the assay is performed within 30 min at a constant temperature of 39° Celsius using an isothermal device. This method is suitable for the clinical application of targeted testing, thereby providing technical support for precision medicine in individual drug applications for patients with severe infection or immunosuppression.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363491

ABSTRACT

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Young Adult
20.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438690

ABSTRACT

Host cell invasion by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mediated by the interaction of the viral spike protein (S) with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through the receptor-binding domain (RBD). In this work, computational and experimental techniques were combined to screen antimalarial compounds from different chemical classes, with the aim of identifying small molecules interfering with the RBD-ACE2 interaction and, consequently, with cell invasion. Docking studies showed that the compounds interfere with the same region of the RBD, but different interaction patterns were noted for ACE2. Virtual screening indicated pyronaridine as the most promising RBD and ACE2 ligand, and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the stability of the predicted complex with the RBD. Bio-layer interferometry showed that artemisone and methylene blue have a strong binding affinity for RBD (KD = 0.363 and 0.226 µM). Pyronaridine also binds RBD and ACE2 in vitro (KD = 56.8 and 51.3 µM). Overall, these three compounds inhibit the binding of RBD to ACE2 in the µM range, supporting the in silico data.

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