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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 812737, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662638

ABSTRACT

Background: In China, sickness presenteeism, job burnout, and fatigue are common among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. We propose the prevalence of sickness presenteeism can adversely affect nurses' physical and mental health, negatively impact their work productivity and quality, and pose a threat to patients' safety. Therefore, this study examines the mechanism of productivity loss caused by sickness presenteeism, fatigue, and job burnout. Objectives: To investigate the serial-multiple mediating effect of job burnout and fatigue in the relationship between sickness presenteeism and productivity loss among nurses. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional survey was undertaken by administering an online questionnaire from December 2020 to May 2021. Stratified cluster sampling was used to include 3,491 nurses from 14 hospitals in Shandong Province, China. Variables were measured using the Sickness Presenteeism Questionnaire, Stanford Presenteeism Scale, Chalder Fatigue Scale, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, independent-samples t-test, Pearson correlation analysis, hierarchical regression, and bootstrapping method. Results: From the 3,491 nurses who volunteered in this online survey, only 2,968 valid questionnaires were returned. Sickness presenteeism exhibited a prevalence of 70.6% during the COVID-19 pandemic. The average score of health-related productivity loss was 15.05 ± 4.52, fatigue was 8.48 ± 3.40, and job burnout was 39.14 ± 19.64. Sickness presenteeism was positively associated with fatigue and job burnout while job burnout was positively associated with nurse fatigue. Sickness presenteeism, fatigue, and job burnout were also positively correlated with health-related productivity loss. Statistically significant paths via the single mediation of fatigue and job burnout were established. A statistically significant serial-multiple mediating effect of fatigue and job burnout on the association between sickness presenteeism and productivity loss accounted for 35.12% of the total effect size. Conclusions: There was a high incidence of sickness presenteeism and job burnout among Chinese nurses. High-frequency sickness presenteeism may result in increased productivity loss through the two mediating effects of fatigue and job burnout. Sickness presenteeism may increase fatigue, promote job burnout, and result in increased productivity loss among Chinese nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Presenteeism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 15(1): 38-48, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594479

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is required for the cellular entry of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. ACE2, via the Ang-(1-7)-Mas-R axis, is part of the antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the renin-angiotensin system. We studied hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypertension and hypertensive human(h) ACE2 transgenic mice to determine the outcome of COVID-19 with or without AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker treatment. The severity of the illness and the levels of serum cardiac biomarkers (CK, CK-BM, cTnI), as well as the inflammation markers (IL-1, IL-6, CRP), were lesser in hypertensive COVID-19 patients treated with AT1R blockers than those treated with other antihypertensive drugs. Hypertensive hACE2 transgenic mice, pretreated with AT1R blocker, had increased ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 in the kidney and heart, 1 day post-infection. We conclude that those hypertensive patients treated with AT1R blocker may be at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, AT1R blockers had no effect on the severity of the illness but instead may have protected COVID-19 patients from heart injury, via the ACE2-angiotensin1-7-Mas receptor axis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Animals , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Inpatients , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 785518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581105

ABSTRACT

Background: Nurses have a high incidence of shift work sleep disorder, which places their health and patient safety in danger. Thus, exploring the factors associated with shift work sleep disorder in nurses is of great significance in improving their sleep health, nursing personnel staffing, and scheduling during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of shift work sleep disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore the factors associated with shift work sleep disorder in Chinese nurses. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study using an online survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used to include 4,275 nurses from 14 hospitals in Shandong, China from December 2020 to June 2021. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis and random forest were used to identify the factors associated with shift work sleep disorder. Results: The prevalence of shift work sleep disorder in the sampled shift nurses was 48.5% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical fatigue, psychological stress, shift work more than 6 months per year, busyness during night shift, working more than 40 h per week, working more than four night shifts per month, sleeping more than 8 h before night shift, using sleep medication, irregular meals, and high-intensity physical activity were associated with increased odds of shift work sleep disorder. Good social support, good work-family balance, napping two or three times per week, resting more than one day after shifts, intervals of 8 days or more between shifts, and taking turns to rest during the night shift were associated with decreased odds of shift work sleep disorder. Conclusions: Shift work sleep disorder may be associated with scheduling strategies and personal behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. To reduce the incidence of shift work sleep disorders in nurses, nursing managers should increase night shift staffing, extend rest days after shift, increase night shift spacing, and reduce overtime, and nurses need to seek more family and social support and control their sleep schedules and diet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/epidemiology , Work Schedule Tolerance
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295406

ABSTRACT

Backgroud : Both Chlamydia psittaci and COVID-19 virus can cause lung inflammation, which manifests extremely similarly in clinical symptoms and imaging. Especially during the epidemic of COVID-19, psittacosis pneumonia is easily misdiagnosed as COVID-19 pneumonia. The identification of the chest imaging between the two diseases is of special significance when the epidemiological contact history is unclear, and the etiology and nucleic acid test results are not available. This study conducts to compare the imaging characteristics on chest high-resolution CTs (HRCT) between patients with psittaci pneumonia and COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: : A retrospective analysis of the imaging characteristics on chest HRCTs of 10 psittaci pneumonia patients and 13 COVID-19 pneumonia patients. The similarities and differences in HRCT images of patients with psittaci pneumonia and COVID-19 pneumonia were analyzed. Results: : HRCT showed that among the 10 psittaci pneumonia patients, 8 cases (80.00%) had single lobe involvement, and 2 cases (20.00%) had multiple lobe involvement. Among the 13 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, 2 cases had single lobe involvement (15.38%), and 11 cases had multiple lobe involvement (84.62%). The types of lesions in 10 psittaci pneumonia patients included simple consolidation in 5 cases (50.00%), and ground-glass opacity (GGO) with consolidation in 5 cases (50.00%). The types of lesions in 13 COVID-19 pneumonia patients included simple GGO in 6 cases (46.15%), GGO with consolidation in 4 cases (30.77%), GGO with paving stone sign in 2 cases (15.38%), and simple consolidation in 1 case (7.69%). Lymphadenopathy was observed in 1 psittaci pneumonia patient (10.00%) and 1 COVID-19 pneumonia patient (7.69%). Among the 10 psittaci pneumonia patients, 8 cases (80.00%) had bronchial inflation, and 6 patients (60.00%) had pleural effusion. Among the 13 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, 5 patients (38.46%) showed signs of bronchial inflation, while no pleural effusion was observed in 13 patients. Conclusion: : Chest HRCTs can distinguish COVID-19 pneumonia from psittaci pneumonia, and can provide early diagnoses of these two diseases.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293368

ABSTRACT

Backgroud : Both Chlamydia psittaci and COVID-19 virus can cause lung inflammation, which manifests extremely similarly in clinical symptoms and imaging. Especially during the epidemic of COVID-19, psittacosis pneumonia is easily misdiagnosed as COVID-19 pneumonia. The identification of the chest imaging between the two diseases is of special significance when the epidemiological contact history is unclear, and the etiology and nucleic acid test results are not available. This study conducts to compare the imaging characteristics on chest high-resolution CTs (HRCT) between patients with psittaci pneumonia and COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: : A retrospective analysis of the imaging characteristics on chest HRCTs of 10 psittaci pneumonia patients and 13 COVID-19 pneumonia patients. The similarities and differences in HRCT images of patients with psittaci pneumonia and COVID-19 pneumonia were analyzed. Results: : HRCT showed that among the 10 psittaci pneumonia patients, 8 cases (80.00%) had single lobe involvement, and 2 cases (20.00%) had multiple lobe involvement. Among the 13 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, 2 cases had single lobe involvement (15.38%), and 11 cases had multiple lobe involvement (84.62%). The types of lesions in 10 psittaci pneumonia patients included simple consolidation in 5 cases (50.00%), and ground-glass opacity (GGO) with consolidation in 5 cases (50.00%). The types of lesions in 13 COVID-19 pneumonia patients included simple GGO in 6 cases (46.15%), GGO with consolidation in 4 cases (30.77%), GGO with paving stone sign in 2 cases (15.38%), and simple consolidation in 1 case (7.69%). Lymphadenopathy was observed in 1 psittaci pneumonia patient (10.00%) and 1 COVID-19 pneumonia patient (7.69%). Among the 10 psittaci pneumonia patients, 8 cases (80.00%) had bronchial inflation, and 6 patients (60.00%) had pleural effusion. Among the 13 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, 5 patients (38.46%) showed signs of bronchial inflation, while no pleural effusion was observed in 13 patients. Conclusion: : Chest HRCTs can distinguish COVID-19 pneumonia from psittaci pneumonia, and can provide early diagnoses of these two diseases.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149585, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351831

ABSTRACT

The impacts of COVID-19 lockdowns on air quality around the world have received wide attention. In comparison, assessments of the implications for water quality are relatively rare. As the first country impacted by COVID-19, China implemented local and national lockdowns that shut down industries and businesses between January and May 2020. Based on monthly field measurements (N = 1693) and daily automonitoring (N = 65), this study analyzed the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on river water quality in China. The results showed significant improvements in river water quality during the lockdown period but out-of-step improvements for different indicators. Reductions in ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) began relatively soon after the lockdown; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) showed improvements beginning in late January/early February and mid-March, respectively, while increases in pH were more temporally concentrated in the period from mid-March to early May. Compared to April 2019, the Water Quality Index increased at 67.4% of the stations in April 2020, with 75.9% of increases being significant. Changes in water quality parameters also varied spatially for different sites and were mainly determined by the locations and levels of economic development. After the lifting of the lockdown in June, all water quality parameters returned to pre-COVID-19 lockdown conditions. Our results clearly demonstrate the impacts of human activities on water quality and the potential for reversing ecosystem degradation by better management of wastewater discharges to replicate the beneficial impacts of the COVID-19 lockdown. CAPSULE SUMMARY: River water quality improved during China's COVID-19 lockdown, but returned to normal conditions after the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Rivers , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Quality
7.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 103, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 210,000 medical workers have fought against the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei in China since December 2019. However, the prevalence of mental health problems in frontline medical staff after fighting COVID-19 is still unknown. METHODS: Medical workers in Wuhan and other cities in Hubei Province were invited to participate a cross-sectional and convenience sampling online survey, which assessed the prevalence of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RESULTS: A total of 1,091 responses (33% male and 67% female) were valid for statistical analysis. The prevalence was anxiety 53%, insomnia 79%, depression 56%, and PTSD 11%. Healthcare workers in Wuhan were more likely to face risks of anxiety (56% vs. 52%, P = 0.03) and PTSD (15% vs. 9%, P = 0.03) than those in other cities of Hubei. In terms of educational attainment, those with doctoral and masters' (D/M) degrees may experience more anxiety (median of 7.0, [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-8.5] vs. median 5.0 [IQR 5.0-8.0], P = 0.02) and PTSD (median 26.0 [IQR 19.5-33.0] vs. median 23.0 [IQR 19.0-31.0], P = 0.04) than those with lower educational degrees. CONCLUSIONS: The mental problems were an important issue for the healthcare workers after COVID-19. Thus, an early intervention on such mental problems is necessary for healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Prevalence , Psychometrics , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 14, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065867

ABSTRACT

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine proven to be effective against tuberculosis (TB), is the most commonly used vaccine globally. In addition to its effects on mycobacterial diseases, an increasing amount of epidemiological and experimental evidence accumulated since its introduction in 1921 has shown that BCG also exerts non-specific effects against a number of diseases, such as non-mycobacterial infections, allergies and certain malignancies. Recent Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has put BCG, a classic vaccine with significant non-specific protection, into the spotlight again. This literature review briefly covers the diverse facets of BCG vaccine, providing new perspectives in terms of specific and non-specific protection mechanisms of this old, multifaceted, and controversial vaccine.

10.
PeerJ ; 8: e10459, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-946231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has heightened the threat to the health and lives of patients with comorbid diseases. Infection by COVID-19 is especially detrimental to patients on hemodialysis. In this study, we evaluated the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments and prognoses of hemodialysis patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 16 hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 were recruited from Wuhan Fourth Hospital from 5 February to 20 March 2020 for a retrospective, single-center study. A total of 62 non-dialysis patients with COVID-19 were the control group. We collected data on the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments, and clinical outcomes of patients affected by the virus. RESULTS: Hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 had a lower incidence of fever (P = 0.001) and relatively higher incidence of pre-admission comorbidities and shortness of breath than non-dialysis patients with COVID-19 (75% vs. 61%, P = 0.467 50% vs. 33.87%, P = 0.248 ). Hemodialysis patients had lower levels of hemoglobin (P < 0.001), white blood cell counts (P = 0.015), neutrophils (P = 0.016), AST (P = 0.037), ALT (P < 0.001) and procalcitonin (P < 0.001), and higher levels of D-dimer (P < 0.001) and thrombin time (P < 0.001). Hemodialysis patients had a higher incidence of pulmonary effusion, cord-like high-density shadows, pleural thickening, and atelectasis (P < 0.05). Hemodialysis patients also had relatively higher rates of mortality and prolonged hospital stays compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis patients typically present with multiple comorbidities and are considered to be a high-risk group for COVID-19 infections. Hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 may have prolonged hospital stays and unfavorable prognoses and should be closely monitored.

11.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(3): 229-235, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to a major concern and caused a pandemic globally. The goal of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of recovery and death in patients with severe or critical COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, clinical data were collected from 74 severe or critical COVID-19 patients in Wuhan Fourth Hospital between Jan. 25th and Feb. 26th, 2020. All patients were divided into a recovery group or a death group according to clinical outcomes, and the differences between the groups were compared. RESULTS: Of the 74 patients enrolled in the study, 48 (64.9%) were severe cases and 26 (35.1%) were critical cases. Sixty (81.1%) patients were recovered and 14 (18.9%) died. Compared with recovery patients, patients in the death group were older, and had higher incidences of hypertension, coronary disease and dyspnea at admission. Laboratory tests for lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, myoglobin, brain natriuretic peptide and D-dimer indicated higher levels in the death group. The PaO2:FiO2 ratio and minimum SpO2 were lower in the death group, and a higher proportion of these patients received noninvasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of severe COVID-19 or death. Patients with a low blood gas index and poor coagulation function at admission had a high mortality rate. For such patients, comprehensive treatment should be performed as soon as possible to improve the prognosis and reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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