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1.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 5598824, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262420

ABSTRACT

Assessing the length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is helpful in optimizing the use efficiency of hospital beds and medical resources and relieving medical resource shortages. This retrospective cohort study of 97 patients was conducted at Beijing You'An Hospital between January 21, 2020, and March 21, 2020. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression based on the smallest Akaike information criterion value was used to select demographic and clinical variables to construct a nomogram. Discrimination, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration, and Kaplan-Meier curves with the log-rank test were used to assess the nomogram model. The median LOS was 13 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 10-18). Age, alanine aminotransferase, pneumonia, platelet count, and PF ratio (PaO2/FiO2) were included in the final model. The C-index of the nomogram was 0.76 (95%confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.83), and the AUC was 0.88 (95%CI = 0.82-0.95). The adjusted C-index was 0.75 (95%CI = 0.67-0.82) and adjusted AUC 0.86 (95%CI = 0.73-0.95), both after 1000 bootstrap cross internal validations. A Brier score of 0.11 (95%CI = 0.07-0.15) and adjusted Brier score of 0.130 (95%CI = 0.07-0.20) for the calibration curve showed good agreement. The AUC values for the nomogram at LOS of 10, 20, and 30 days were 0.79 (95%CI = 0.69-0.89), 0.89 (95%CI = 0.83-0.96), and 0.96 (95%CI = 0.92-1.00), respectively, and the high fit score of the nomogram model indicated a high probability of hospital stay. These results confirmed that the nomogram model accurately predicted the LOS of patients with COVID-19. We developed and validated a nomogram that incorporated five independent predictors of LOS. If validated in a future large cohort study, the model may help to optimize discharge strategies and, thus, shorten LOS in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay , Nomograms , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies
2.
Results Phys ; 25: 104305, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230749

ABSTRACT

A mathematical model was developed to evaluate and compare the effects and intensity of the coronavirus disease 2019 prevention and control measures in Chinese provinces. The time course of the disease with government intervention was described using a dynamic model. The estimated government intervention parameters and area difference between with and without intervention were considered as the intervention intensity and effect, respectively. The model of the disease time course without government intervention predicted that by April 30, 2020, about 3.08% of the population would have been diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 in China. Guangdong Province averted the most cases. Comprehensive intervention measures, in which social distancing measures may have played a greater role than isolation measures, resulted in reduced infection cases. Shanghai had the highest intervention intensity. In the context of the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the prevention and control experience of some key areas in China (such as Shanghai and Guangdong) can provide references for outbreak control in many countries.

3.
EMBO Rep ; 22(5): e52141, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151026

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine phosphorylation of secretion machinery proteins is a crucial regulatory mechanism for exocytosis. However, the participation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in different exocytosis stages has not been defined. Here we demonstrate that PTP-MEG2 controls multiple steps of catecholamine secretion. Biochemical and crystallographic analyses reveal key residues that govern the interaction between PTP-MEG2 and its substrate, a peptide containing the phosphorylated NSF-pY83 site, specify PTP-MEG2 substrate selectivity, and modulate the fusion of catecholamine-containing vesicles. Unexpectedly, delineation of PTP-MEG2 mutants along with the NSF binding interface reveals that PTP-MEG2 controls the fusion pore opening through NSF independent mechanisms. Utilizing bioinformatics search and biochemical and electrochemical screening approaches, we uncover that PTP-MEG2 regulates the opening and extension of the fusion pore by dephosphorylating the DYNAMIN2-pY125 and MUNC18-1-pY145 sites. Further structural and biochemical analyses confirmed the interaction of PTP-MEG2 with MUNC18-1-pY145 or DYNAMIN2-pY125 through a distinct structural basis compared with that of the NSF-pY83 site. Our studies thus provide mechanistic insights in complex exocytosis processes.


Subject(s)
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Peptides , Phosphorylation , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/metabolism , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor/metabolism
4.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 351-358, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038550

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the responses of cancer patients' indifferent chemotherapy cycles to the unstructured treatment interruption during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Patients and Methods: Data from 156 adult patients with common solid tumors undergoing chemotherapy or ready to begin chemotherapy after surgery before the COVID-19 outbreak were analyzed in the study. Patients' responses to the chemotherapy interruption and their anxiety were assessed. Results: Overall, 141 (90%) patients completed the study, and 115 (81.6%) accepted a switch from their previous intravenous chemotherapy to oral chemotherapy. Of these, 29 (65.9%) patients with lung cancer, 25 (86.2%) with gastric cancer, 33 (89.2%) with colorectal cancer and 28 (90.3%) with breast cancer switched from intravenous to oral treatment, heeding their doctor's advice. Of the participants, 85 (60.3%) patients reported that they had taken at least one kind of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) scores increased in patients with advanced refractory cancer compared with the scores of adjuvant chemotherapy patients (P < 0.05). The prevalence of anxiety was high in cancer patients aged 60 years or older. Furthermore, anxiety was associated with advanced incurable cancer (P < 0.05), and this finding remained after adjusting for chronic pain. In addition, there were significantly increased scores of anxiety in patients with lung cancer (P <0 0.05). Conclusion: Our study shows that most cancer patients remained relatively stable and had switched from intravenous to oral treatment at home. Among them, an increasing number of patients began to seek CAM as a complementary therapeutic approach. Patients with advanced refractory cancer were more likely to experience anxiety, and lung cancer patients should receive special attention.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 300-304, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009578

ABSTRACT

The emergence and re-emergence of coronaviruses (CoV) continually cause circulating epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The resultant disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has rapidly developed into a worldwide pandemic, leading to severe health and economic burdens. Although the recently announced vaccines against COVID-19 has rekindled hope, there is still a major challenge to urgently meet the global need for rapid treatment of the pandemic. Given the urgency of the CoV outbreak, we propose a strategy to screen potential broad-spectrum drugs against CoV in a high-throughput manner, particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Since the essential functional domains of CoV are extensively homologous, the availability of two types of mild CoV, HCoV-OC43 and MHV, should provide a valuable tool for the rapid identification of promising drugs against CoV without the drawbacks of level three biological confinements. The luciferase reporter gene is introduced into HCoV-OC43 and MHV to indicate viral activity, and hence the antiviral efficiency of screened drugs can be quantified by luciferase activity. Compounds with antiviral activity against both HCoV-OC43 and MHV are further evaluated in SARS-CoV-2 after structural optimizations. This system allows large-scale compounds to be screened to search for broad-spectrum drugs against CoV in a high-throughput manner, providing potential alternatives for clinical management of SARS-CoV-2 or other CoV.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Humans , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 506, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A pneumonia associated with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, subsequently named SARS-CoV2) emerged worldwide since December, 2019. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Shaanxi province of China. RESULTS: 1. Among the 245 patients, 132 (53.9%) were males and 113 (46.1%) were females. The average age was 46.15 ± 16.43 years, ranging from 3 to 89 years. 2. For the clinical type, 1.63% (4/245) patients were mild type, 84.90% (208/245) were moderate type, 7.76% (19/245) were severe type, 5.31% (13/245) were critical type and only 0.41% (1/245) was asymptomatic. 3. Of the 245 patients, 116 (47.35%) were input case, 114 (46.53%) were non-input case, and 15 (6.12%) were unknown exposure. 4. 48.57% (119/245) cases were family cluster, involving 42 families. The most common pattern of COVID-19 family cluster was between husband and wife or between parents and children.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Young Adult
7.
Infect Dis Model ; 5: 848-854, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813617

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses a huge challenge all countries, since no one is well prepared for it. To be better prepared for future pandemics, we evaluated association between the internet search data with reported COVID-19 cases to verify whether it could become an early indicator for emerging epidemic. After the keyword filtering and Index composition, we found that there were close correlations between Composite Index and suspected cases for COVID-19 (r = 0.921, P < 0.05). The Search Index was applied for the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogenous Variables (ARIMAX) model to quantify the relationship. Compared with the model based on surveillance data only, the ARIMAX model had smaller Akaike Information Criterion (AIC = 403.51) and the most accurate predictive values. Overall, the Internet search data could serve as a convenient indicator for predicting the epidemic and to monitor its trends.

10.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1185-1191, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747430

ABSTRACT

No therapeutics have been proven effective yet for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To assess the efficacy and safety of Triazavirin therapy for COVID-19, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial involving hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. Participants were enrolled from ten sites, and were randomized into two arms of the study with a ratio of 1:1. Patients were treated with Triazavirin 250 mg versus a placebo three or four times a day for 7 d. The primary outcome was set as the time to clinical improvement, defined as normalization of body temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough, and absorption of pulmonary infection by chest computed tomography (CT) until 28 d after randomization. Secondary outcomes included individual components of the primary outcome, the mean time and proportion of inflammatory absorption in the lung, and the conversion rate to a repeated negative SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test of throat swab sampling. Concomitant therapeutic treatments, adverse events, and serious adverse events were recorded. Our study was halted after the recruitment of 52 patients, since the number of new infections in the participating hospitals decreased greatly. We randomized 52 patients for treatment with Triazavirin (n = 26) or a placebo (n = 26). We found no differences in the time to clinical improvement (median, 7 d versus 12 d; risk ratio (RR), 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-5.6; p = 0.2), with clinical improvement occurring in ten patients in the Triazavirin group and six patients in the placebo group (38.5% versus 23.1%; RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.6-7.0; p = 0.2). All components of the primary outcome normalized within 28 d, with the exception of absorption of pulmonary infection (Triazavirin 50.0%, placebo 26.1%). Patients in the Triazavirin group used less frequent concomitant therapies for respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, or coagulation supports. Although no statistically significant evidence was found to indicate that Triazavirin benefits COVID-19 patients, our observations indicated possible benefits from its use to treat COVID-19 due to its antiviral effects. Further study is required for confirmation.

11.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 39(8): 2653-2663, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691238

ABSTRACT

Segmentation of pneumonia lesions from CT scans of COVID-19 patients is important for accurate diagnosis and follow-up. Deep learning has a potential to automate this task but requires a large set of high-quality annotations that are difficult to collect. Learning from noisy training labels that are easier to obtain has a potential to alleviate this problem. To this end, we propose a novel noise-robust framework to learn from noisy labels for the segmentation task. We first introduce a noise-robust Dice loss that is a generalization of Dice loss for segmentation and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) loss for robustness against noise, then propose a novel COVID-19 Pneumonia Lesion segmentation network (COPLE-Net) to better deal with the lesions with various scales and appearances. The noise-robust Dice loss and COPLE-Net are combined with an adaptive self-ensembling framework for training, where an Exponential Moving Average (EMA) of a student model is used as a teacher model that is adaptively updated by suppressing the contribution of the student to EMA when the student has a large training loss. The student model is also adaptive by learning from the teacher only when the teacher outperforms the student. Experimental results showed that: (1) our noise-robust Dice loss outperforms existing noise-robust loss functions, (2) the proposed COPLE-Net achieves higher performance than state-of-the-art image segmentation networks, and (3) our framework with adaptive self-ensembling significantly outperforms a standard training process and surpasses other noise-robust training approaches in the scenario of learning from noisy labels for COVID-19 pneumonia lesion segmentation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1199-1204, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624244

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, was reported in December 2019. COVID-19 is highly contagious and has rapidly developed from a regional epidemic into a global pandemic. As yet, no effective drugs have been found to treat this virus. This study, an ongoing multicenter and blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), is being conducted at ten study sites in Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate the efficacy and safety of Triazavirin (TZV) versus its placebo in COVID-19 patients. A total of 240 participants with COVID-19 are scheduled to be enrolled in this trial. Participants with positive tests of throat swab virus nucleic acid are randomized (1:1) into two groups: standard therapy plus TZV or standard therapy plus placebo for a 7-day treatment with a 21-day follow-up. The primary outcome is the time to clinical improvement of the subjects. Secondary outcomes include clinical improvement rate, time to alleviation of fever, mean time and proportion of obvious inflammatory absorption in the lung, conversion rate of repeated negative virus nucleic acid tests, mortality rate, and conversion rate to severe and critically severe patients. Adverse events, serious adverse events, liver function, kidney function, and concurrent treatments will be monitored and recorded throughout the trial. The results of this trial should provide evidence-based recommendations to clinicians for the treatment of COVID-19.

13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 318, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615471

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel enveloped RNA beta coronavirus, Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused severe and even fetal pneumonia in China and other countries from December 2019. Early detection of severe patients with COVID-19 is of great significance to shorten the disease course and reduce mortality. Methods: We assembled a retrospective cohort of 80 patients (including 56 mild and 24 severe) with COVID-19 infection treated at Beijing You'an Hospital. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to select the risk factors of severe and even fetal pneumonia and build scoring system for prediction, which was validated later on in a group of 22 COVID-19 patients. Results: Age, white blood cell count, neutrophil, glomerular filtration rate, and myoglobin were selected by multivariate analysis as candidates of scoring system for prediction of disease severity in COVID-19. The scoring system was applied to calculate the predictive value and found that the percentage of ICU admission (20%, 6/30) and ventilation (16.7%, 5/30) in patients with high risk was much higher than those (2%, 1/50; 2%, 1/50) in patients with low risk (p = 0.009; p = 0.026). The AUC of scoring system was 0.906, sensitivity of prediction is 70.8%, and the specificity is 89.3%. According to scoring system, the probability of patients in high risk group developing severe disease was 20.24 times than that in low risk group. Conclusions: The possibility of severity in COVID-19 infection predicted by scoring system could help patients to receiving different therapy strategies at a very early stage. Topic: COVID-19, severe and fetal pneumonia, logistic regression, scoring system, prediction.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Myoglobin/analysis , Neutrophil Infiltration/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Infect Dis ; 222(1): 34-37, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599711

ABSTRACT

A major unanswered question in the current global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is why severe disease develops in a small minority of infected individuals. In the current article, we report that homozygosity for the C allele of rs12252 in the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) gene is associated with more severe disease in an age-dependent manner. This supports a role for IFITM3 in disease pathogenesis and the opportunity for early targeted intervention in at-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Homozygote , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JCI Insight ; 5(13)2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-541270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying immune correlates of COVID-19 disease severity is an urgent need for clinical management, vaccine evaluation, and drug development. Here, we present a temporal analysis of key immune mediators, cytokines, and chemokines in blood of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from serial sampling and follow-up over 4 weeks. METHODS: A total of 71 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Beijing You'an Hospital in China with either mild (53 patients) or severe (18 patients) disease were enrolled with 18 healthy volunteers. We measured 34 immune mediators, cytokines, and chemokines in peripheral blood every 4-7 days over 1 month per patient using a bioplex multiplex immunoassay. RESULTS: We found that the chemokine RANTES (CCL5) was significantly elevated, from an early stage of the infection, in patients with mild but not severe disease. We also found that early production of inhibitory mediators including IL-10 and IL-1RA were significantly associated with disease severity, and a combination of CCL5, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and IL-10 at week 1 may predict patient outcomes. The majority of cytokines that are known to be associated with the cytokine storm in virus infections such as IL-6 and IFN-γ were only significantly elevated in the late stage of severe COVID-19 illness. TNF-α and GM-CSF showed no significant differences between severe and mild cases. CONCLUSION: Together, our data suggest that early intervention to increase expression of CCL5 may prevent patients from developing severe illness. Our data also suggest that measurement of levels of CCL5, as well as IL-1RA and IL-10 in blood individually and in combination, might be useful prognostic biomarkers to guide treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL5/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoassay , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
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