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1.
Clin Simul Nurs ; 68: 9-18, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867084

ABSTRACT

Background: A trained lay rescuer is the most important determinant of survival from sudden cardiac arrest. Augmented Reality (AR) device may represent a powerful instrument for CPR assistance and self-training especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A prospective, parallel, 1:1 pilot randomized clinical trial was designed. An AR CPR app was developed and 28 participants were randomly allocated into AR-assisted group and instructor-assisted group. Acceptability, usability, and mean per minute/per cycle chest compression depth, rate and accuracy were measured. Results: The mean scores for acceptability and usability were all rated good in each group. Comparing real-time AR-assisted CPR to instructor-assisted CPR, the mean difference of compression depth was 0.18 (95% CI: -0.18-0.53) cm and rate was -1.58 (95% CI: -6.11-2.95) min-1. Comparing AR self-training to instructor training, the AR group was not significantly different between two groups regarding both compression depth, rate and accuracy (p > .05). Conclusion: We found that the AR CPR app was an acceptable and usable tool both in real-time-assisted CPR and self-training CPR.

2.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(4): nwac004, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821757

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant flared up in late May in Guangzhou, China. Transmission characteristics of Delta variant were analysed for 153 confirmed cases and two complete transmission chains with seven generations were fully presented. A rapid transmission occurred in five generations within 10 days. The basic reproduction number (R0) was 3.60 (95% confidence interval: 2.50-5.30). After redefining the concept of close contact, the proportion of confirmed cases discovered from close contacts increased from 43% to 100%. With the usage of a yellow health code, the potential exposed individuals were self-motivated to take a nucleic acid test and regained public access with a negative testing result. Facing the massive requirement of screening, novel facilities like makeshift inflatable laboratories were promptly set up as a vital supplement and 17 cases were found, with 1 pre-symptomatic. The dynamic adjustment of these three interventions resulted in the decline of Rt from 5.00 to 1.00 within 9 days. By breaking the transmission chain and eliminating the transmission source through extending the scope of the close-contact tracing, health-code usage and mass testing, the Guangzhou Delta epidemic was effectively contained.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 840498, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775703

ABSTRACT

With the continuous development of computer technology, big data acquisition and imaging methods, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in medical fields is expanding. The use of machine learning and deep learning in the diagnosis and treatment of ophthalmic diseases is becoming more widespread. As one of the main causes of visual impairment, myopia has a high global prevalence. Early screening or diagnosis of myopia, combined with other effective therapeutic interventions, is very important to maintain a patient's visual function and quality of life. Through the training of fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, and slit lamp images and through platforms provided by telemedicine, AI shows great application potential in the detection, diagnosis, progression prediction and treatment of myopia. In addition, AI models and wearable devices based on other forms of data also perform well in the behavioral intervention of myopia patients. Admittedly, there are still some challenges in the practical application of AI in myopia, such as the standardization of datasets; acceptance attitudes of users; and ethical, legal and regulatory issues. This paper reviews the clinical application status, potential challenges and future directions of AI in myopia and proposes that the establishment of an AI-integrated telemedicine platform will be a new direction for myopia management in the post-COVID-19 period.

4.
Library Hi Tech ; 40(2):323-339, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1764783

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The massive amount of available information and functionality of the Internet makes selective information seeking effortless. This paper aims to understand the selective exposure to information during a health decision-making task.Design/methodology/approach>This study conducted an experiment with a sample of 36 students to examine the influence of prior attitude, perceived threat level and information limit on users’ selective exposure to and recall of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination information. Participants were assigned to two conditions with or without an upper limit of the number of articles to be examined, and this study collected the number of articles read, the number of articles included in the report and recall score of the articles after one day of the experiment.Findings>This study found that (1) participants with a negative attitude were more inclined to view attitude-consistent information and recalled attitude-consistent information more accurately, while participants with a positive attitude viewed more balanced information;(2) participants perceiving higher health threat level recalled attitude-consistent information more accurately;and (3) an upper limit on the number of articles to be viewed does not have any impact on selective exposure.Research limitations/implications>The findings of this paper pinpoint the disparity of influence of positive and negative attitudes on selective exposure to and selective recall of health information, which was not previously recognized.Practical implications>Vaccination campaigns should focus on reaching people with negative attitudes who are more prone to selective exposure to encourage them to seek more balanced information.Originality/value>This is the first paper to explore selective exposure to COVID-19 vaccination information. This study found that people with a negative attitude and a higher level of perceived health threat are more prone to selective exposure, which was not found in previous research.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310874

ABSTRACT

Aims: : To explore the clinical characteristics and placental pathological changes of pregnant women with 2019 novel coronavirus (CoV) disease (COVID-19) in the third trimester, and to assess the possibility of vertical transmission. Methods: and results: The placenta tissues were evaluated by using immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells and Hofbauer cells, and using severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 RNA Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunofluorescence (IF) double staining. All Eight placentas from the third trimester pregnancy women were studied. all patients were cured, no clinical or serological evidence pointed to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Features of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) such as increased syncytial knots were present in all 8 cases (8/8), and increased focal perivillous fibrin depositions were presented in 7 cases (7/8). No significate inflammatory cell reaction was noted in the placenta. The number of macrophages and inflammatory cells such as T cells, B cells and plasma cells in the placental villous was not significantly increased in all cases. Moreover, all of eight cases demonstrated negative results by FISH using a SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA probe and by IF using a monoclonal antibody against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Conclusions: : We found no evidence of vertical transmission and adverse maternal-fetal outcomes in the placentas of third trimester COVID-19 pregnancy women, which provided further information for the clinical management of those women in the third trimester. However, further studies are still needed for patients with infections in different stage of gestation, especially in first and second trimester.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327662

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants have made great challenges to current vaccine and pandemic control strategies. B.1.1.529 (Omicron), which was classified as a variant of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization on November 26th, 2021, has quickly become the dominant circulating variant and causing waves of infections. It is urgent to understand the current immune status of the general population given that pre-existing immunity has been established by national vaccination or exposure to past variants. Using sera from 85 individuals (including 21 convalescents of natural infection, 15 cases suffered a breakthrough infection after vaccination, and 49 vaccinated participants without infection history), we showed that the cross-neutralizing activity against VOCs such as Omicron can be detected in 53 (62.4%) cases, although less potent than against the Wuhan-1 strain (WT), with a 3.9-fold reduction in geometric mean neutralizing titer (GMT) (130.7, 95% CI 88.4-193.3 vs 506, 355.8-719.7, respectively). Subgroup analysis revealed significantly enhanced neutralizing activity against WT and VOCs in Delta convalescent sera. The neutralizing antibodies against Omicron were detectable in 75% of convalescents and 44.9% of healthy donors (p = 0.006), with a GMT of 289.5, 180.9-463.3 and 42.6, 31.3-59, respectively. However, the protective effect against VOCs was weaker in young convalescents (aged < 18y), with a detectable rate of 50% and a GMT of 46.4 against Omicron, similar to vaccinees. The pan-sarbecovirus neutralizing activities were not observed in vaccinated SARS-CoV-1 survivors. A booster dose significantly increased the breadth and magnitude of neutralization against WT and VOCs to different degrees than full vaccination. In addition, we showed that COVID-19 inactivated vaccines can elicit Omicron-specific T cell responses. The positive rates of ELISpot reactions were 26.7% (4/15) and 43.8% (7/16) in the full vaccination group and the booster vaccination group, respectively. The neutralizing antibody titers declined while T-cell responses remain robust over 6 months. These findings will inform the optimization of public health vaccination and intervention strategies to protect diverse populations against SARS-CoV-2 variants.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325399

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread globally with more than 80,000 people infected, and nearly 3000 patients died. Currently, we are in an urgent need for effective treatment strategy to control the clinical deterioration of COVID-19 patients. Methods: The clinical data of 10 COVID-19 patients receiving short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid (160mg/d) plus immunoglobulin (20g/d) were studied in the North Yard of The First Hospital of Changsha, Hunan from January 17th to February 27th, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings were analyzed. Results: After treatment with combination of low-dose corticosteroid (40-80mg/d) and immunoglobulin (10g/d), patients’lymphocyte count (0.88±0.34 vs 0.59±0.18, P<0.05), oxygenation index including SPO2 (94.90±2.51 vs 90.50±5.91, P<0.05) and PaO2/FiO2 (321.36±136.91 vs 129.30±64.97, P<0.05) were significantly lower than pre-treatment, and CT showed that the pulmonary lesion deteriorated in all patients. While after treatment of short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin, patients’APACHE Ⅱ score (9.10±6.15 vs 5.50±9.01, P<0.05), body temperature (37.59±1.16 vs 36.46±0.25, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (0.59±0.18 vs 1.36±0.51, P<0.05), Lactate dehydrogenase (419.24±251.31 vs 257.40±177.88, P<0.05), and C-reactive protein (49.94±26.21 vs 14.58±15.25, P<0.05) significantly improved compared with post-treatment with low-dose therapy. In addition, oxygenation index including SPO2 (90.50±5.91 vs 97.50±1.18, P<0.05), PaO2 (60.47±14.53 vs 99.07±34.31, P<0.05), and PaO2/FiO2 (129.30±64.97 vs 340.86±146.72, P<0.05) significant improved. Furthermore, CT showed that pulmonary lesions obviously improved in 7 patients. After systematic therapy, 4 out of 10 COVID-19 patients recovered and discharged. Conclusions: Short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin is effective for reversing the continued deterioration of COVID-19 patients who failed to respond to the low-dose therapy. Funding: This work was supported by the Innovative Major Emergency Project Funding against the New Coronavirus Pneumonia in Hunan Province (Dr. Ji-Yang Liu, number 2020SK3014;Dr. Yuan-Lin Xie, number 2020SK3013).

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324239

ABSTRACT

The systemic cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a major cause of the multi-organ injury and fatal outcome induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in severe COVID-19 patients. It has been well-known that metabolism plays a role in modulating the immune responses in infectious diseases. Yet, how the host metabolism correlates with CRS in COVID-19 patients and how the perturbed metabolites affect the cytokine release remains unclear. Here, we performed both metabolomics and cytokine/chemokine profiling on serum samples from the same cohort of healthy controls, mild and severe COVID-19 patients and delineated the global metabolic and immune response landscape along disease progression. Intriguingly, the correlation analysis revealed the tight link between metabolites and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6, M-CSF, IL-1α, IL-1β, implying the potential regulatory role of arginine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and purine metabolism in hyperinflammation. Importantly, we demonstrated that targeting metabolism markedly modulated the proinflammatory cytokines release by PBMCs isolated from SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques ex vivo. Beyond providing a comprehensive resource of metabolism and immunology data of SARS-CoV-2 infection, our study showed that metabolic alterations can be potentially exploited to develop novel strategy for the treatment of fatal CRS in COVID-19.

9.
Cell Biosci ; 12(1): 15, 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and coagulopathy are pervasive pathological features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and thrombotic complications are a sign of severe COVID-19 disease and are associated with multiple organ failure and increased mortality. Platelets are essential cells that regulate hemostasis, thrombus formation and inflammation; however, the mechanism underlying the interaction between platelets and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. RESULTS: The present study performed RNA sequencing on the RNA isolated from platelets obtained from 10 COVID-19 patients and eight healthy donors, and discovered that SARS-CoV-2 not only significantly altered the coding and non-coding transcriptional landscape, but also altered the function of the platelets, promoted thrombus formation and affected energy metabolism of platelets. Integrative network biology analysis identified four key subnetworks and 16 risk regulators underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, involved in coronavirus disease-COVID-19, platelet activation and immune response pathways. Furthermore, four risk genes (upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase II, I and III subunit L, Y-box binding protein 1 and yippee like 2) were found to be associated with COVID-19 severity. Finally, a significant alteration in the von Willebrand factor/glycoprotein Ib-IX-V axis was revealed to be strongly associated with platelet aggregation and immunothrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptional landscape and the identification of critical subnetworks and risk genes of platelets provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immunothrombosis in COVID-19 progression, which may pave the way for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for preventing COVID-19-associated thrombosis and improving the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010048, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first community transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant of concern (VOC) in Guangzhou, China occurred between May and June 2021. Herein, we describe the epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak and evaluate the implemented containment measures against this outbreak. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention provided the data on SARS-CoV-2 infections reported between 21 May and 24 June 2021. We estimated the incubation period distribution by fitting a gamma distribution to the data, while the serial interval distribution was estimated by fitting a normal distribution. The instantaneous effective reproductive number (Rt) was estimated to reflect the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical severity was compared for cases with different vaccination statuses using an ordinal regression model after controlling for age. Of the reported local cases, 7/153 (4.6%) were asymptomatic. The median incubation period was 6.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.42-6.71) days and the means of serial intervals decreased from 5.19 (95% CI: 4.29-6.11) to 3.78 (95% CI: 2.74-4.81) days. The incubation period increased with age (P<0.001). A hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 was implemented in Guangzhou, with Rt decreasing from 6.83 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 3.98-10.44) for the 7-day time window ending on 27 May 2021 to below 1 for the time window ending on 8 June and thereafter. Individuals with partial or full vaccination schedules with BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac accounted for 15.3% of the COVID-19 cases. Clinical symptoms were milder in partially or fully vaccinated cases than in unvaccinated cases (odds ratio [OR] = 0.26 [95% CI: 0.07-0.94]). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 in Guangzhou was timely and effective. Authorised inactivated vaccines are likely to contribute to reducing the probability of developing severe disease. Our findings have important implications for the containment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Prevention/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):727-727, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584413

ABSTRACT

Social isolation has been recognized as a social problem with negative effects on psychological well-being. Older adults are disproportionately affected by social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from the 2020 Health and Retirement Study COVID-19 Project, this study examined the relationship between social isolation and depressive symptoms among two groups of respondents differentiated by whether themselves or their social relationships were diagnosed with COVID-19. This study also explored the moderating role of perceived neighborhood environment. Depressive symptoms were measured using the eight-item CES-D. The index of social isolation was generated using five indicators, including living alone, no social participation, and less than monthly contact with children, family members, and friends. The moderator assessed two aspects of the neighborhood environment, including physical disorder and social cohesion. The results of bivariate analyses showed that respondents who were affected by COVID-19 were younger, more likely to be female, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic Black, and with lower levels of social isolation. The results of multiple regression analyses indicated that social isolation was associated with more depressive symptoms, but this relationship was found to be only significant among respondents who were affected by COVID-19. Perceived neighborhood environment significantly moderated the relationship, as the effect of social isolation on depressive symptoms was stronger for respondents with more neighborhood physical disorders and less social cohesion. This study has implications for practice and policy, in that it underscored the importance of enacting strategies to improve the neighborhood environment, particularly for socially isolated older adults during the COVID-19.

12.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(6): 974-981, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of Shumian capsule in improving the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety, depression, and other symptoms of convalescent patients of COVID-19. METHODS: Totally 200 patients were collected and randomly divided into experiment group (n = 100) and control group (n = 100). The control group was treated with Shumian capsule simulator, and the experiment group was treated with Shumian capsule. The improvement of TCM symptom score, the total effective rate and symptom disappearance rate of TCM symptoms in the two groups before and after treatment were observed, and the clinical effect was evaluated. RESULTS: One week after treatment, the scores of anxiety symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the scores of insomnia and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the total effective rate and disappearance rate of TCM symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). After 2 weeks of treatment, the scores of insomnia, anxiety, depression and the total effective rate of TCM symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the disappearance rate of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in heart rate, respiration, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Shumian capsule can significantly improve the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression in COVID-19's convalescent patients with sleep and mood disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
13.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ; 184:31-44, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1568786

ABSTRACT

In spite of a variety of PM2.5 modeling schemes, general guidance for full-coverage PM2.5 concentration mapping from satellite observations is still lacking. The current technical gap is tied to how to integrate multiscale data from multiple sources to generate a spatially contiguous map that can better recognize PM2.5 distribution patterns without compromising modeling accuracy. In this study, ten different PM2.5 concentration data sets were generated using distinct mapping strategies and compared to one another, aiming to facilitate full-coverage PM2.5 concentration mapping with a generalized approach. The inter-comparison results indicated that different mapping strategies could yield comparable modeling accuracy albeit distinct PM2.5 distributions over space. Although the inclusion of PM2.5 autocorrelation terms as predictors can markedly improve the modeling accuracy, spatial patterns of PM2.5 estimations could be apparently distorted under different parameter configurations. In an attempt to balance the conflicting objectives, the optimal PM2.5 mapping scheme was proposed for broadened applications. A daily full-coverage PM2.5 concentration data set with 5-km resolution in China between 2015 and 2020 was generated for a demonstration to infer an apparent decreasing trend of PM2.5 across China over the past five years. Besides, the examination of COVID-19 pandemic impacts on regional air quality variations reveals a pattern of marked PM2.5 concentration decrease that cannot be easily realized by site-based air quality measurements. It is indicative that the proposed approach in this study can offer an optimal framework in support of various full-coverage PM2.5 mapping practices.

14.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 21(23):17995-18010, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1559957

ABSTRACT

Photochemical pollution over the North China Plain (NCP) is attracting much concern. We usually view peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) as the second most important photochemical pollutant featuring high mixing ratios during warm seasons. Our observations at a background site in the NCP identified high PAN concentrations, even during haze events in autumn. The substantial increasing ratios of PAN, by 244 % and 178 %, over the morning hours (08:00–12:00 local time) on 20 and 25 October 2020 were 10.6 and 7.7 times larger than those on clean days. Polluted days are characterized by higher temperature, higher humidity, and anomalous southerly winds compared with clean days. Enhanced local photochemistry has been identified as being the dominant factor that controls the PAN increase in the morning at the rural site, as the time when prevailing wind turns to a southerly wind is too late to promote direct transport of PAN from the polluted urban region. By removing the effect of direct transport of PAN, we provide a quantitative assessment of net PAN chemical production rate of 0.45 ppb h-1 for the mornings of polluted days, also demonstrating the strong local photochemistry. Using observations and calculated photolysis rates, we find that acetaldehyde oxidation by hydroxyl radical (OH) is the primary pathway of peroxyacetyl radical formation at the rural site. Acetaldehyde concentrations and production rates of HOx (HOx= OH + HO2) on polluted days are 2.8 and 2 times as large as those on clean days, leading to a remarkable increase in PAN in the morning. Formaldehyde (HCHO) photolysis dominates the daytime HOx production, thus contributing to fast photochemistry of PAN. Our observational results suggest the cause of a rapid increase in PAN during haze events in autumn at a rural site of the NCP and provide evidence of important role of HCHO photolysis in secondary pollutants at lower nitrogen oxide emissions. This highlights the urgency of carrying out strict volatile organic compound controls over the NCP during the cold season and not just in summer.

15.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 414, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556321

ABSTRACT

Azvudine (FNC) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Recently, we discovered FNC an agent against SARS-CoV-2, and have taken it into Phase III trial for COVID-19 patients. FNC monophosphate analog inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 coronavirus with an EC50 between 1.2 and 4.3 µM, depending on viruses or cells, and selective index (SI) in 15-83 range. Oral administration of FNC in rats revealed a substantial thymus-homing feature, with FNC triphosphate (the active form) concentrated in the thymus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC (0.07 mg/kg, qd, orally) reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray. Single-cell sequencing suggested the promotion of thymus function by FNC. A randomized, single-arm clinical trial of FNC on compassionate use (n = 31) showed that oral FNC (5 mg, qd) cured all COVID-19 patients, with 100% viral ribonucleic acid negative conversion in 3.29 ± 2.22 days (range: 1-9 days) and 100% hospital discharge rate in 9.00 ± 4.93 days (range: 2-25 days). The side-effect of FNC is minor and transient dizziness and nausea in 16.12% (5/31) patients. Thus, FNC might cure COVID-19 through its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity concentrated in the thymus, followed by promoted immunity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azides/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thymus Gland , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rats , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Thymus Gland/virology
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6828-6832, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544316

ABSTRACT

A cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections was found in a cargo ship under repair in Zhoushan, China. Twelve of 20 crew members were identified as SARS-CoV-2 positive. We analyzed four sequences and identified them all in the Delta branch emerging from India with 7-8 amino acid mutation sites in the spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , China , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , India , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis/methods , Ships/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Remote Sensing of Environment ; : 112775, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1510274

ABSTRACT

Ozone (O3) is an important trace and greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, posing a threat to the ecological environment and human health at the ground level. Large-scale and long-term studies of O3 pollution in China are few due to highly limited direct ground and satellite measurements. This study offers a new perspective to estimate ground-level O3 from solar radiation intensity and surface temperature by employing an extended ensemble learning of the space-time extremely randomized trees (STET) model, together with ground-based observations, remote sensing products, atmospheric reanalysis, and an emission inventory. A full-coverage (100%), high-resolution (10 km) and high-quality daily maximum 8-h average (MDA8) ground-level O3 dataset covering China (called ChinaHighO3) from 2013 to 2020 was generated. Our MDA8 O3 estimates (predictions) are reliable, with an average out-of-sample (out-of-station) coefficient of determination of 0.87 (0.80) and root-mean-square error of 17.10 (21.10) μg/m3 in China. The unique advantage of the full coverage of our dataset allowed us to accurately capture a short-term severe O3 pollution exposure event that took place from 23 April to 8 May in 2020. Also, a rapid increase and recovery of O3 concentrations associated with variations in anthropogenic emissions were seen during and after the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. Trends in O3 concentration showed an average growth rate of 2.49 μg/m3/yr (p < 0.001) from 2013 to 2020, along with the continuous expansion of polluted areas exceeding the daily O3 standard (i.e., MDA8 O3 = 160 μg/m3). Summertime O3 concentrations and the probability of occurrence of daily O3 pollution have significantly increased since 2015, especially in the North China Plain and the main air pollution transmission belt (i.e., the “2 + 26” cities). However, a decline in both was seen in 2020, mainly due to the coordinated control of air pollution and ongoing COVID-19 effects. This carefully vetted and smoothed dataset is valuable for studies on air pollution and environmental health in China.

18.
Journal of Travel Medicine ; 27(8), 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1410186

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 is a global public health emergency that has been caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Since it has a higher number of cases than SARS, it is considered a more infectious disease. The prevalence of COVID-19 in air passengers increases when the pandemic is over. Due to the rapid urbanization and the establishment of a transportation hub in China, the number of COVID-19 cases in Guangzhou has been reduced to low levels since early 2020. However, the resurgence risk remains significant. This study aims to provide an overview of the policies and control measures related to the entry of COVID-19 cases from abroad. After the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Guangdong was widely publicized, the local government issued a series of measures to contain its spread. All travellers and residents who entered the city after passing through immigration checkpoints were required to submit a RT-PCR test. From March to July 2020, a total of 268 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in China. Most of the imported cases were male and were engaged in commercial activities. The majority of the cases originated from Europe and Asia. Out of the 85 imported cases identified, 73.5% were detected during the customs inspection and 19.0% were under centralized quarantine. The remaining cases were confirmed during a consultation with a healthcare professional. Twenty-four samples were collected from the living areas of 12 imported cases, which indicated that SARS-CoV-2 was prevalent in these areas. The majority of the positive samples were from household objects such as door handle, sink, and remote control.

19.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; 65(3): 252-270, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337166

ABSTRACT

Social isolation has been recognized as a critical public health problem. As the most vulnerable population, older adults are disproportionately affected by social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purposes of this study were to examine the association between social isolation and loneliness among U.S. older adults and to explore the moderating effect of solitary activity by using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Social isolation was measured by six indicators, including marital status, living arrangement, social participation in any clubs or social organizations, and the frequency of social contact with children, family members, and friends. Loneliness was assessed by eleven questions derived from the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Solitary activity included 11 types of activities that respondents could perform alone with limited or no social interaction. Results from the multivariate regression analyses indicated that unmarried status and lower frequency of social contact were associated with more perceived loneliness. Solitary activity significantly moderated the negative effects of the low frequency of social contact with family members on loneliness. The findings implicate that social work programs and interventions can aim to expand social networks and provide more opportunities for solitary activities, particularly for isolated older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Friends , Humans , Pandemics , Social Isolation
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6828-6832, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326782

ABSTRACT

A cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections was found in a cargo ship under repair in Zhoushan, China. Twelve of 20 crew members were identified as SARS-CoV-2 positive. We analyzed four sequences and identified them all in the Delta branch emerging from India with 7-8 amino acid mutation sites in the spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , China , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , India , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis/methods , Ships/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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