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1.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 69(4): 916-927, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Returning to social life after the lifting of COVID-19 lockdown may increase risk of social anxiety, which is highly co-morbid with depression. However, few studies have reported the association between them. AIMS: To explore the complex relationship between social anxiety and depression symptoms in left-behind children after the lifting of the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted 6 months after the lockdown removal. A total of 3,107 left-behind children completed the survey with a mean age of 13.33 and a response rate of 87.77%. Depression and social anxiety severity were assessed by the DSM-5 Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents and the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, respectively. The symptom-level association between the two disorders was examined using network analysis. RESULTS: After the lifting of COVID-19 lockdown, the prevalence of depression and social anxiety in left-behind children was 19.57% and 12.36%, respectively, with a co-morbidity rate of 8.98%. Network analysis showed that "Social tension" and "Social avoidance" had the greatest expected influence; "Humiliation" and "Motor" were bridge symptom nodes in the network. The directed acyclic graph indicated that "Social fright" was at the upstream of all symptoms. CONCLUSION: Attention should be paid to social anxiety symptoms in left-behind children after the lifting of COVID-19 lockdown. Prevention and intervention measures should be taken promptly to reduce the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression symptoms in the left-behind children after the lifting of lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , East Asian People , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1038296, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224930

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic had a major impact on people's mental health. As the SAS-Cov-2 evolves to become less virulent, the number of asymptomatic patients increases. It remains unclear if the mild symptoms are associated with mild perceived stress and mental illness, and the interventions to improve the mental health of the patients are rarely reported. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the level of depression, anxiety and perceived stress of 1,305 COVID-19 patients who received treatment in the Fangcang shelter hospitals in Shanghai, China. Network analysis was used to explore the relationship among depression, anxiety and perceived stress. Results: The prevalence of depression, anxiety and perceived stress in the patients with Omicron infection were 9.03, 4.60, and 17.03%, respectively, lower than the prevalence reported during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. "Restlessness (A5)," "Uncontrollable worry (A2)," "Trouble relaxing (A4)" and "Fatigue (D4)" had the highest expected influence values. "Irritability (A6)" and "Uncontrollable (S1)" were bridge symptoms in the network. Comparative analysis of the network identified differences in the network structures between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Conclusion: This study investigated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and perceived stress and the correlation among them in Omicron-infected patients in Fangcang shelter hospital, in Shanghai, China. The core symptoms identified in the study provide insight into targeted clinical prevention and intervention of mental health in non-severe Omicron-infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Special , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Mobile Health Units
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1034119, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199505

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationship between different dimensions of empathy and individual symptoms of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic remains unclear, despite the established link between empathy and depression. The network analysis offers a novel framework for visualizing the association between empathy and depression as a complex system consisting of interacting nodes. In this study, we investigated the nuanced associations between different dimensions of empathy and individual symptoms of depression using a network model during the pandemic. Methods: 1,177 students completed the Chinese version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), measuring dimensions of empathy, and the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), measuring symptoms of depression. First, we investigated the nuanced associations between different dimensions of empathy and individual depressive symptoms. Then, we calculated the bridge expected influence to examine how different dimensions of empathy may activate or deactivate the symptoms of depression cluster. Finally, we conducted a network comparison test to explore whether network characteristics such as empathy-depression edges and bridge nodes differed between genders. Results: First, our findings showed that personal distress was positively linked to symptoms of depression. These symptoms involved psychomotor agitation or retardation (edge weight = 0.18), sad mood (edge weight = 0.12), trouble with concentrating (edge weight = 0.11), and guilt (edge weight = 0.10). Perspective-taking was found to be negatively correlated with trouble with concentrating (edge weight = -0.11). Empathic concern was negatively associated with suicidal thoughts (edge weight = -0.10) and psychomotor agitation or retardation (edge weight = -0.08). Fantasy was not connected with any symptoms of depression. Second, personal distress and empathic concern were the most positive and negative influential nodes that bridged empathy and depression (values of bridge expected influence were 0.51 and -0.19 and values of predictability were 0.24 and 0.24, respectively). The estimates of the bridge expected influence on the nodes were adequately stable (correlation stability coefficient = 0.75). Finally, no sex differences in the studied network characteristics were observed. Conclusions: This study applied network analysis to reveal potential pathways between different dimensions of empathy and individual symptoms of depression. The findings supported the existing theoretical system and contribute to the theoretical mechanism. We have also made efforts to suggest interventions and preventions based on personal distress and empathic concern, the two most important dimensions of empathy for depressive symptoms. These efforts may help Chinese university students to adopt better practical methods to overcome symptoms of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Male , Female , Depression/epidemiology , Empathy , Psychomotor Agitation , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students
4.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147420

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic had a major impact on people's mental health. As the SAS-Cov-2 evolves to become less virulent, the number of asymptomatic patients increases. It remains unclear if the mild symptoms are associated with mild perceived stress and mental illness, and the interventions to improve the mental health of the patients are rarely reported. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated the level of depression, anxiety and perceived stress of 1,305 COVID-19 patients who received treatment in the Fangcang shelter hospitals in Shanghai, China. Network analysis was used to explore the relationship among depression, anxiety and perceived stress. Results The prevalence of depression, anxiety and perceived stress in the patients with Omicron infection were 9.03, 4.60, and 17.03%, respectively, lower than the prevalence reported during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. “Restlessness (A5),” “Uncontrollable worry (A2),” “Trouble relaxing (A4)” and “Fatigue (D4)” had the highest expected influence values. “Irritability (A6)” and “Uncontrollable (S1)” were bridge symptoms in the network. Comparative analysis of the network identified differences in the network structures between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Conclusion This study investigated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and perceived stress and the correlation among them in Omicron-infected patients in Fangcang shelter hospital, in Shanghai, China. The core symptoms identified in the study provide insight into targeted clinical prevention and intervention of mental health in non-severe Omicron-infected patients.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 993814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099250

ABSTRACT

Background: The relations between depression and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) have been extensively investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is a lack of understanding on how each component of IU may differentially affect depression symptoms and vice versa. The current study used a network approach to reveal the component-to-symptom interplay between IU and depression and identify intervention targets for depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A total of 624 college students participated in the current study. An IU-Depression network was estimated using items from the 12-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We examined the network structure, node centrality, and node bridge centrality to identify component-to-symptom pathways, central nodes, and bridge nodes within the IU-Depression network. Results: Several distinct pathways (e.g., "Frustration when facing uncertainty" and "Feelings of worthlessness") emerged between IU and Depression. "Fatigue" and "Frustration when facing uncertainty" were identified as the central nodes in the estimated network. "Frustration when facing uncertainty," "Psychomotor agitation/retardation," and "Depressed or sad mood" were identified as bridging nodes between the IU and Depression communities. Conclusion: By delineating specific pathways between IU and depression and highlighting the influential role of "Frustration when facing uncertainty" in maintaining the IU-Depression co-occurrence, current findings may inform targeted prevention and interventions for depression during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114863, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042097

ABSTRACT

Existing research proposed that moving from a disorder-level analysis to a symptom-level analysis may provide a more fine-grained understanding of psychopathology. This study aimed to explore the relations between two dimensions (i.e., cognitive reappraisal, CR; expressive suppression, ES) of emotion regulation and individual symptoms of depression and anxiety among medical staff during the late stage of COVID-19 pandemic. We examined depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation among 420 medical staff during the late stage of COVID-19 pandemic via network analysis. Two networks (i.e. emotion regulation-depression network and emotion regulation-anxiety network) were constructed in the present study. Bridge centrality index was calculated for each variable within the two networks. Among the present sample, the prevalences of depression and anxiety are 39.5% and 26.0%. CR and ES showed distinct connections to symptoms of depression and anxiety. Results of bridge centrality showed that in both networks, CR had a negative bridge expected influence value while ES had a positive bridge expected influence value. The results revealed the specific role of CR and ES in relation to depression and anxiety at a symptom level. Implications for clinical preventions and interventions are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Humans , Depression/psychology , Pandemics , Emotions/physiology , Anxiety/psychology , Medical Staff
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 919692, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022946

ABSTRACT

Background: Although poor mental well-being (MW) has been documented among individuals experiencing burnout during the coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, little is known about the complex interrelationship between different components of MW and burnout. This study investigates this relationship among medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic through network analysis. Methods: A total of 420 medical staff were recruited for this study. Components of MW were measured by the 14-item Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), and components of burnout were measured by a 15-item Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) Questionnaire. Network structure was constructed via network analysis. Bridge variables were identified via the bridge centrality index. Results: The edges across two communities (i.e., MW community and burnout community) are almost negative, such as edge MW2 ("Useful") - B14 ("Worthwhile") and edge MW1 ("Optimistic about future") - B13 ("Happy"). The edges within each community are nearly positive. In the MW community, components MW1 ("Optimistic about future") and MW6 ("Dealing with problems") have the lowest bridge centrality. And in the community of burnout, components B13 ("Happy") and B14 ("Worthwhile") have the lowest bridge expected influence. Conclusion: We present the first study to apply the network approach to model the potential pathways between distinct components of MW and burnout. Our findings suggest that promoting optimistic attitudes and problem-solving skills may help reduce burnout among medical staff during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , Medical Staff , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
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