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1.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599588

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A prospective and non-randomized concurrent controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To address the early effects of concurrent treatment with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on fusion rates in patients who have undergone spinal surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Intervertebral pseudarthrosis has been reported after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) or posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), especially in patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis. No study has assessed the early effects of concurrent treatment with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on fusion rates. METHODS: Patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis who underwent TLIF or PLIF in our department were included. Patients in the VK2+VD3 group received vitamin K2, vitamin D3 and calcium treatment, while subjects in the control group only received Calcium and vitamin D3. Spine fusion was evaluated by computed tomography. The Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOA-BPEQ) and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to assess the clinical and neurological symptoms. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were measured for osteoporotic evaluation. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were included, and nine patients subsequently discontinued because of 2019-nCoV. At six months postoperatively, complete fusion rates were significantly higher in the VK2+VD3 group than that in the control group (91.18% vs 71.43%, p = 0.036). At six months postoperatively, BMD was increased in the VK2+VD3 group and was higher than that in the control group, although there was no significant difference. At three months postoperatively, a significant increase in P1NP (91.81%) and a slight decrease in ß-CROSS (8.06%) were observed in the VK2+VD3 group. In both groups, the JOA-BPEQ and VAS scores were significantly improved after spine surgery. CONCLUSION: Administration of vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 can increase lumbar interbody fusion rates, improve clinical symptoms, promote bone information and avoid further decline in BMD within six months after TLIF or PLIF.Level of Evidence: 3.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.

3.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(6): 644-650, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread throughout the world. During treatment, we found that the majority of patients had a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb). Interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) was the primary suspected drug that was related to Hb reduction. Thus, the study aimed to investigate whether IFN-α2b could induce Hb reduction in severe patients with COVID-19 and its potential mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University with severe COVID-19 infection were enrolled from February 12th to 24th, 2020. The demographics, baseline characteristics, clinical data, and therapeutic regimen were collected retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the declined use of IFN-α2b on day 14. The Hb levels on admission, day 7, day14, and day 21 were collected and analyzed. The primary endpoint was the level of Hb on day 21. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients in the IFN-stop group and 19 patients in the non-IFN-stop group were reviewed. The age, gender, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, nutritional status, disease severity, complications, and other factors of the patients were compared, no difference was found between the IFN-stop group and the non-IFN-stop group. The Hb levels of all patients significantly decreased on day 7 compared with that on admission (p < .0001). In the IFN-stop group, the Hb level was increased in 7 days after IFN-α2b was stopped (p = .0008), whereas no difference was found between day 14 and day 21 in the non-IFN-stop group (p = .3152). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b was associated with Hb reduction in the treatment of severe patients of COVID-19. Clinicians should be aware of the high incidence of Hb reduction for patients treated by IFN-α2b.


Subject(s)
Anemia/chemically induced , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon alpha-2/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038279

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: Ligand-receptor (L-R) interactions mediate cell adhesion, recognition and communication and play essential roles in physiological and pathological signaling. With the rapid development of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies, systematically decoding the intercellular communication network involving L-R interactions has become a focus of research. Therefore, construction of a comprehensive, high-confidence and well-organized resource to retrieve L-R interactions in order to study the functional effects of cell-cell communications would be of great value. RESULTS: In this study, we developed Cellinker, a manually curated resource of literature-supported L-R interactions that play roles in cell-cell communication. We aimed to provide a useful platform for studies on cell-cell communication mediated by L-R interactions. The current version of Cellinker documents over 3,700 human and 3,200 mouse L-R protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and embeds a practical and convenient webserver with which researchers can decode intercellular communications based on scRNA-seq data. And over 400 endogenous small molecule (sMOL) related L-R interactions were collected as well. Moreover, to help with research on coronavirus (CoV) infection, Cellinker collects information on 16 L-R PPIs involved in CoV-human interactions (including 12 L-R PPIs involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection). In summary, Cellinker provides a user-friendly interface for querying, browsing and visualizing L-R interactions as well as a practical and convenient web tool for inferring intercellular communications based on scRNA-seq data. We believe this platform could promote intercellular communication research and accelerate the development of related algorithms for scRNA-seq studies. AVAILABILITY: Cellinker is available at http://www.rna-society.org/cellinker/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

6.
Theranostics ; 11(5): 2170-2181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016389

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An increasing number of children with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is being reported, yet the spectrum of disease severity and expression patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in children at different developmental stages are largely unknow. Methods: We analysed clinical features in a cohort of 173 children with COVID-19 (0-15 yrs.-old) between January 22, 2020 and March 15, 2020. We systematically examined the expression and distribution of ACE2 in different developmental stages of children by using a combination of children's lung biopsies, pluripotent stem cell-derived lung cells, RNA-sequencing profiles, and ex vivo SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral infections. Results: It revealed that infants (< 1yrs.-old), with a weaker potency of immune response, are more vulnerable to develop pneumonia whereas older children (> 1 yrs.-old) are more resistant to lung injury. The expression levels of ACE2 however do not vary by age in children's lung. ACE2 is notably expressed not only in Alveolar Type II (AT II) cells, but also in SOX9 positive lung progenitor cells detected in both pluripotent stem cell derivatives and infants' lungs. The ACE2+SOX9+ cells are readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and the numbers of the double positive cells are significantly decreased in older children. Conclusions: Infants (< 1 yrs.-old) with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more vulnerable to lung injuries. ACE2 expression in multiple types of lung cells including SOX9 positive progenitor cells, in cooperation with an unestablished immune system, could be risk factors contributing to vulnerability of infants with COVID-19. There is a need to continue monitoring lung development in young children who have recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/cytology , Stem Cells/metabolism , Adolescent , Biopsy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immune System , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/virology , Male , RNA-Seq , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Stem Cells/virology
9.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-725

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical characteristics evaluation and risk factors identification of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been well studied, while effecti

10.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(2): 295-300, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19574

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (Covid-19) imposes a major challenge in managing patients undergoing surgical operation. In this study, we analyzed clinical and transmission features of 25 cases of Covid-19 from a single thoracic department, including 13 patients and 12 health care staff. There were 13 males and 12 females. The median age of the patients was 61 (range: 51 to 69) years. The median age of the health care staff was 35 (range: 22 to 51) years. By the end of follow-up date (Mar. 3, 2020), there were 16 non-severe cases (64%) and 9 severe cases (36%), 5 cases were dead (20%). Nineteen (76%) of the infected cases were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test, the rest were clinically diagnosed as suspected Covid-19 cases, and 19 (76%) of the infected cases had positive exposure history. We found that COPD was significantly associated with severity and death (P=0.040, and P=0.038, respectively), and chest operation was significantly associated with death for Covid-19 patients (P=0.039). A potential "super spreader" may be the source of the transmission before the implementation of quarantine and comprehensive protection. It was concluded that Covid-19 is associated with poor prognosis for patients undergoing thoracic operation, especially for those with COPD. Implementation of comprehensive protective measures is important to control nosocomial infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Thoracic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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