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1.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621953

ABSTRACT

In the age of synthetic biology, plastid engineering requires a nimble platform to introduce novel synthetic circuits in plants. While effective for integrating relatively small constructs into the plastome, plastid engineering via homologous recombination of transgenes is over 30 years old. Here we show the design-build-test of a novel synthetic genome structure that does not disturb the native plastome: the 'mini-synplastome'. The mini-synplastome was inspired by dinoflagellate plastome organization, which is comprised of numerous minicircles residing in the plastid instead of a single organellar genome molecule. The first mini-synplastome in plants was developed in vitro to meet the following criteria: (i) episomal replication in plastids; (ii) facile cloning; (iii) predictable transgene expression in plastids; (iv) non-integration of vector sequences into the endogenous plastome; and (v) autonomous persistence in the plant over generations in the absence of exogenous selection pressure. Mini-synplastomes are anticipated to revolutionize chloroplast biotechnology, enable facile marker-free plastid engineering, and provide an unparalleled platform for one-step metabolic engineering in plants.

2.
Frontiers in public health ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602671

ABSTRACT

Personal protective behaviors of healthcare workers (HCWs) and dynamic changes in them are known to play a major role in the hospital transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, 1,499 HCWs in Chinese hospitals completed an online survey about their knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 transmission and their personal protective behaviors before and after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Of all the respondents, 89% were vaccinated at the time of the survey and 96% believed that the vaccine was effective or highly effective. Further, 88% of the vaccinated HCWs expressed that they would get revaccinated if the vaccination failed. Compared with HCWs with a lower education level, those with a higher education level had less fear of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and reported a lower negative impact of the pandemic on how they treated patients. Physicians and nurses were willing to believe that short-range airborne and long-range fomite are possible transmission routes. HCWs with a higher education level had a better knowledge of COVID-19 but worse personal protective behaviors. The fact that HCWs with a longer work experience had worse personal protective behaviors showed that HCWs gradually relax their personal protective behaviors over time. Moreover, vaccination reduced the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on how the HCWs treated patients. Importantly, the survey revealed that after vaccination, HCWs in China did not relax their personal protective behaviors, and it may bring a low potential risk for following waves of variant virus (e.g., delta).

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010048, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first community transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant of concern (VOC) in Guangzhou, China occurred between May and June 2021. Herein, we describe the epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak and evaluate the implemented containment measures against this outbreak. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention provided the data on SARS-CoV-2 infections reported between 21 May and 24 June 2021. We estimated the incubation period distribution by fitting a gamma distribution to the data, while the serial interval distribution was estimated by fitting a normal distribution. The instantaneous effective reproductive number (Rt) was estimated to reflect the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical severity was compared for cases with different vaccination statuses using an ordinal regression model after controlling for age. Of the reported local cases, 7/153 (4.6%) were asymptomatic. The median incubation period was 6.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.42-6.71) days and the means of serial intervals decreased from 5.19 (95% CI: 4.29-6.11) to 3.78 (95% CI: 2.74-4.81) days. The incubation period increased with age (P<0.001). A hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 was implemented in Guangzhou, with Rt decreasing from 6.83 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 3.98-10.44) for the 7-day time window ending on 27 May 2021 to below 1 for the time window ending on 8 June and thereafter. Individuals with partial or full vaccination schedules with BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac accounted for 15.3% of the COVID-19 cases. Clinical symptoms were milder in partially or fully vaccinated cases than in unvaccinated cases (odds ratio [OR] = 0.26 [95% CI: 0.07-0.94]). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 in Guangzhou was timely and effective. Authorised inactivated vaccines are likely to contribute to reducing the probability of developing severe disease. Our findings have important implications for the containment of COVID-19.

4.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(20): e2021GL095560, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594456

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 prompted strict lockdowns, reduced human activity, and reduced emissions of air pollutants. We measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry instrument in Changzhou, China from 8 January through 27 March, including periods of pre-lockdown, strict measures (level 1), and more relaxed measures (level 2). We analyze the data using positive matrix factorization and resolve four factors: textile industrial emissions (62 ± 10% average reduction during level 1 relative to pre-lockdown), pharmaceutical industrial emissions (40 ± 20%), traffic emissions (71 ± 10%), and secondary chemistry (20 ± 20%). The two industrial sources showed different responses to the lockdown, so emissions from the industrial sector should not be scaled uniformly. The quantified changes in VOCs due to the lockdowns constrain emission inventories and inform chemistry-transport models, particularly for sectors where activity data are sparse, as the effects of lockdowns on air quality are explored.

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 785518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581105

ABSTRACT

Background: Nurses have a high incidence of shift work sleep disorder, which places their health and patient safety in danger. Thus, exploring the factors associated with shift work sleep disorder in nurses is of great significance in improving their sleep health, nursing personnel staffing, and scheduling during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of shift work sleep disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore the factors associated with shift work sleep disorder in Chinese nurses. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study using an online survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used to include 4,275 nurses from 14 hospitals in Shandong, China from December 2020 to June 2021. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis and random forest were used to identify the factors associated with shift work sleep disorder. Results: The prevalence of shift work sleep disorder in the sampled shift nurses was 48.5% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical fatigue, psychological stress, shift work more than 6 months per year, busyness during night shift, working more than 40 h per week, working more than four night shifts per month, sleeping more than 8 h before night shift, using sleep medication, irregular meals, and high-intensity physical activity were associated with increased odds of shift work sleep disorder. Good social support, good work-family balance, napping two or three times per week, resting more than one day after shifts, intervals of 8 days or more between shifts, and taking turns to rest during the night shift were associated with decreased odds of shift work sleep disorder. Conclusions: Shift work sleep disorder may be associated with scheduling strategies and personal behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. To reduce the incidence of shift work sleep disorders in nurses, nursing managers should increase night shift staffing, extend rest days after shift, increase night shift spacing, and reduce overtime, and nurses need to seek more family and social support and control their sleep schedules and diet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/epidemiology , Work Schedule Tolerance
6.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(6): 974-981, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of Shumian capsule in improving the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety, depression, and other symptoms of convalescent patients of COVID-19. METHODS: Totally 200 patients were collected and randomly divided into experiment group (n = 100) and control group (n = 100). The control group was treated with Shumian capsule simulator, and the experiment group was treated with Shumian capsule. The improvement of TCM symptom score, the total effective rate and symptom disappearance rate of TCM symptoms in the two groups before and after treatment were observed, and the clinical effect was evaluated. RESULTS: One week after treatment, the scores of anxiety symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the scores of insomnia and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the total effective rate and disappearance rate of TCM symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). After 2 weeks of treatment, the scores of insomnia, anxiety, depression and the total effective rate of TCM symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the disappearance rate of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in heart rate, respiration, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Shumian capsule can significantly improve the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression in COVID-19's convalescent patients with sleep and mood disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 756790, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574359

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 can result in myocardial injury in the acute phase. However, information on the late cardiac consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study to investigate the late cardiac consequences of COVID-19. Standard echocardiography and myocardial strain assessment were performed, and cardiac blood biomarkers were tested in 86 COVID-19 survivors 327 days (IQR 318-337 days) after recovery. Comparisons were made with 28 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls and 30 risk factor-matched patients. Results: There were no significant differences in all echocardiographic structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain, right ventricular (RV) longitudinal strain, LV end-diastolic volume, RV dimension, and the ratio of peak early velocity in mitral inflow to peak early diastolic velocity in the septal mitral annulus (E/e') among COVID-19 survivors, healthy controls and risk factor-matched controls. Even 26 patients with myocardial injury at admission did not have any echocardiographic structural and functional abnormalities. There were no significant differences among the three groups with respect to serum concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Conclusion: This study showed that COVID-19 survivors, including those with myocardial injury at admission and those with severe and critical types of illness, do not have any echocardiographic evidence of cardiac structural and functional abnormalities 327 days after diagnosis.

8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-16, 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569478

ABSTRACT

A cross-sectional field survey was conducted from November 2020 to January 2021 among 7259 participants to investigate the public perception, willingness, and information sources for COVID-19 vaccination, with the focus on the elderly and non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) population. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify associated factors of the vaccination willingness. The willingness rate of the elderly to accept the future COVID-19 vaccine (79.08%) was lower than that of the adults aged 18-59 (84.75%). The multiple analysis didn't identify significant relationship between NCD status and the vaccination intention. The main reasons for vaccine hesitancy by the public were: concern for vaccine safety, low infection risk, waiting and seeing others getting vaccinated, concern of vaccine effectiveness and price. Their relative importance differed between adults aged 18-59 and the elderly, and between adults aged 18-59 with or without NCD. Perception for vaccination importance, vaccine confidence, and trust in health workers were significant predictors of the vaccination intention in both age groups. The elderly who perceived high infection risk or had trust in governments were more likely to accept the vaccine. Compared with the adults aged 18-59, the elderly used fewer sources for COVID-19 vaccination information and more trusted in traditional media and family, relatives, and friends for getting vaccination recommendations. To promote vaccine uptake, the vaccination campaigns require comprehensive interventions to improve vaccination attitude, vaccine accessibility and affordability, and tailor strategies to address specific concerns among different population groups and conducted via their trusted sources, especially for the elderly.

9.
Frontiers in public health ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564459

ABSTRACT

As Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines became available in December 2020, increasingly more surveys were organized to examine the acceptance of vaccination, while most of them were conducted online. This study aimed to explore the difference between online and traditional on-site surveys in terms of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. From November to December 2020, an online survey (n = 2013) and an on-site survey (n = 4,316) were conducted simultaneously in China. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify influencing factors of acceptance, and propensity score matching (PSM) was adopted to balance the outcomes. As a result, 90.0% of the online respondents accepted COVID-19 vaccination, while it was only 82.1% in the on-site survey. After applying PSM, the acceptance rate of the on-site survey was declined to 78.6%. The age structure, residence location, education, and health status were observed as important factors in addressing vaccination acceptance, which needed to be specifically considered when designing online surveys.

10.
J Infect ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the prevalence of post-sequelae and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test (CAT) scoring one year after hospital discharge among older COVID-19 patients, as well as potential risk factors. METHODS: A multi-center prospective cohort study involving 1,233 eligible older COVID-19 patients was conducted. All patients were followed-up between Mar 1, 2021 and Mar 20, 2021. CAT scoring was adopted to measure symptom burden in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Of the 1233 eligible cases, 630 (51.1%) reported at least one sequelae. The top six post-sequelae included fatigue (32.4%), sweating (20.0%), chest tightness (15.8%), anxiety (11.4%), myalgia (9.0%), and cough (5.8%). Severe patients had significantly higher percentage of fatigue, sweating, chest tightness, myalgia, and cough (P<0.05), while anxiety was universal in all subjects. Sweating, anxiety, palpitation, edema of lower limbs, smell reduction, and taste change were emerging sequelae. Disease severity during hospitalization (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15-1.84, P = 0.002), and follow-up time (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50-0.99, P = 0.043) were independently associated with risk of post-sequelae, while disease severity during hospitalization was significantly associated with increased risk of emerging sequelae (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71, P = 0.029). The median of CAT score was 2 (0-5) in all patients, and a total of 120 patients (9.7%) had CAT scores ≥10. Disease severity during hospitalization (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.23-2.67, P = 0.003) and age (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.04-1.09, P<0.001) were significantly associated with increased risk of CAT scores ≥10. CONCLUSIONS: While the dramatic decline in the prevalence rate of persistent symptoms is reassuring, new sequelae among older COVID-19 patients cannot be ignored. Disease severity during hospitalization, age, and follow-up time contributed to the risk of post-sequelae and CAT scoring one year after hospital discharge among older COVID-19 patients. Our study provides valuable clues for long-term post-sequelae of the older COVID-19 patients, as well as their risk factors.

11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 596428, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555689

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Understand the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on depression in intensive care unit (ICU) nurses, analyze high-risk factors, and propose appropriate measures to maintain physical and mental health. Methods: A total of 78 nurses in ICU of Beijing Ditan Hospital affiliated with Capital Medical University (Beijing area, COVID-19 patient designated hospital) were investigated with self-rating depression scale (SDS). The Cronbach'sαcoefficient was 0.874, the content validity was 0.853, and the internal consistency was good. General information for the questionnaire: gender, marriage, education, age, title, length of service, ICU years of service, COVID-19 pandemic training, concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic, and current health status. Results: According to the SDS scale score, ICU nurses had a total depression score of 51.36 ± 11.667, and the prevalence rate of depression was 44.9% (35/78). Multi-line regression analysis shows that stress perception, work experience in critical diseases, education and other total scores are risk factors for the occurrence of depression. Conclusion: Work experience in critical illness (ß = 9.930, P < 0.001) had a positive predictive effect on the total score of depression, while stress perception (ß = -0.884, P < 0.001) and education (ß = -6.061, P < 0.001) had a negative predictive effect on the total score of depression, and explained 52.7% variation. These findings point to the need for interventions to address psychological distress and provide the necessary support.

12.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296450

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to the focused application of resources toward developing vaccines to prevent COVID-19. However, the efficacy and safety profiles of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) are still unknown. We aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, seroreactivity, and disease flares after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in MAFLD patients.Methods: For this prospective observational study, we recruited patients receiving two doses SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac). Neutralizing antibody to the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain and IgG to SARS-COV-2 spike-specific were evaluated on Day 0, Day 28, Day 57, and Day 180. All participants with available data were included in the safety and immunogenicity, and disease flares analyses.Findings: 50 MAFLD patients and 50 healthy controls receiving a 0-28 interval vaccination procedure were enrolled. The seroconversion rates of neutralizing antibodies were 16% in MAFLD group (Log10 Geometric Mean Titers (GMT): median 0·783, IQR: 0·719-0·971) and 32% in non-MAFLD group (0·884, IQR: 0·716-1·027) on day 28, and 82% in MAFLD group (1·206, IQR: 1·053-1·467), 90% of non-MAFLD group (1·360, IQR: 1·130-1·464) on day 57, respectively. However, the neutralizing antibody titer in two groups fell below the seropositivity cut-off value on day 180 (MAFLD group 0.928, IQR: 0·773-1·057 vs. non-MAFLD group 0·907, IQR: 0·810-1·009). There was no significant difference in the overall incidence of adverse reactions after two-dose vaccinations between two groups. Furthermore. disease flares were not found in MAFLD group after two-dose vaccinations. On multivariable analysis, NAFLD fibrosis score was negatively associated with seropositive of neutralizing antibody on 180 days (OR 0·03, 95% CI 0·001-0·58, P = 0·022).Interpretation: Two-dose regimen of CoronaVac vaccination in MAFLD patients was safe and well tolerated. MAFLD patients showed a robust immune response after SARS-COV-2 vaccination, which conferred 82% protection against COVID-19 and vaccination does not affect MAFLD disease status.Clinical Trial Registration Details: This trial had been registered in Chinese ClinicalTrials.gov (ChiCTR2100042717).Funding Information: Project of Key Medical Disciplines of Hangzhou, the Health and Science and Technology Planning Project of Hangzhou municipal Health Commission (No. A20210205).Declaration of Interests: JP Shi reports grants from Project of Key Medical Disciplines of Hangzhou for the Department of infectious & Hepatology. QR Zhu reports grants from the Health and Science and Technology Planning Project of Hangzhou municipal Health Commission, during the conduct of the study. All authors declare no competing interests. Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by local Hospital Ethics Committee (2021(E2)-KS-049) and written informed consent was obtained from patients involved before enrolment when data were collected.

13.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295079

ABSTRACT

Background: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is widely employed in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) patients. However, the techniques for predicting HFNC outcome remain scarce. Methods: : PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched until April 20, 2021. We included the studies that evaluated the potential predictive value of ROX (respiratory rate-oxygenation) index for HFNC outcome. This meta-analysis determined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic score, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and pooled area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Results: : We assessed nine studies with 1933 patients, of which 745 patients experienced HFNC failure. This meta-analysis found that sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, diagnostic score, and DOR of ROX index in predicting HFNC failure were 0.67 (95% CI 0.57-0.76), 0.72 (95% CI 0.65-0.78), 2.4 (95% CI 2.0-2.8), 0.46 (95% CI 0.37-0.58), 1.65(95% CI 1.37-1.93), and 5.0 (95% CI 4.0-7.0), respectively. In addition, SROC was 0.75 (95% CI 0.71-0.79). Besides, our subgroup analyses revealed that ROX index had higher sensitivity and specificity for predicting HFNC failure in COVID-19 patients from non-European countries, while the acquisition time of 6 h after receiving HFNC had a lower sensitivity and specificity when compared to other times. Conclusions: : This study demonstrated that ROX index could function as a novel potential marker to identify patients with a higher risk of HFNC failure. However, the prediction efficiency was moderate, and additional research is required to determine the optimal cut-off value and propel acquisition time of ROX index in the future. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021240607.

14.
Humanities & Social Sciences Communications ; 8(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1545729

ABSTRACT

We shed light on the importance of government disclosure in public emergency management. During the outbreak of COVID-19, provinces in China entered a government disclosure regime, which mandated the disclosure of the number of people infected with the virus on a daily basis. Each province also voluntarily disclosed its own virus situation. We find that various forms of province-level government disclosure generally reduced the number of trips made by the infected and sped up their diagnosis. They also raised attention paid to the virus and self-protection awareness as well as reduced mobility among the susceptible. Finally, government voluntary disclosure helped to reduce the duration of local epidemics. We conclude that government disclosure can be effective in instilling the correct human behaviors that are conducive to fighting the pandemic.

15.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546632

ABSTRACT

Dear Editor,We appreciate Albuquerque, et al.'s interest in our paper [1,2], who raised the concern that we did not accurately interpret the interaction test, noting that "one should directly compare the estimates (interaction test)" and "the authors concluded that the association was only present in the AA population, which is not compatible with their analysis."We would like to clarify that our primary clinical question is whether ACE-I/ARB use is associated with the COVID-19 outcomes in each sub-group. We used stratified analysis to answer the question because when race/ethnicity serves as a non-specific proxy for numerous (confounding) factors, these can be (partially) controlled for through stratification [3]. Joint modeling of multiple groups is often used to gain power, but one needs to assume certain coherent distributions across different groups, which is not always true. Additionally, testing the interaction term is to assess association heterogeneity between groups, but it does not directly address whether the treatment is effective in each group.Specifically, we would like to elaborate on the following:1) Our conclusion: "the use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among African American (AA) patients but not non-AA patients" was based on results from the stratified analysis. We reported that ARB in-hospital use was associated with reduced mortality in the AA stratum (OR=0.196; 95%CI:0.074-0.516; P=0.001) with statistical significance. On the other hand, the association in the non-AA stratum is not statistically significant (OR=0.687; 95%CI:0.427-1.106; P=0.122). As stated previously, our primary objective is to assess whether ACE-I/ARB use among AA patients is associated with COVID-19 mortality, rather than the difference between AA and non-AA patients. We were also aware that the estimated ORs across different stratum were not comparable as noted in [4-6].2) We performed the joint modeling of AA and non-AA patients as suggested by [6]. Here, ARB in-hospital use was associated with reduced mortality in entire study population (OR=0.560; 95%CI:0.371-0.846; P=0.006). The interaction term added to the model was not significant (95%CI:0.185-1.292; P=0.149). Interpreting interaction terms in logistic regression is complex and a significant interaction term in log-odds may not be significant in difference-in-differences for probability[7]. Furthermore, the assumption of the additive effects and imbalanced sample sizes could impact the inference.We believe these results and the interpretation are appropriate. We acknowledge that there are cases where comparing the interaction term in greater detail would be an important next step for understanding the association between COVID-19 mortality and race/ethnicity.

16.
BMJ ; 375: n2374, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546498
17.
BMJ ; 375: n2342, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546496
18.
Toxics ; 9(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538524

ABSTRACT

The linear dose-response relationship has long been assumed in assessments of health risk from an incremental chemical emission relative to background emissions. In this study, we systematically examine the relevancy of such an assumption with real-world data. We used the reported emission data, as background emissions, from the 2017 U.S. National Emission Inventory for 95 organic chemicals to estimate the central tendencies of exposures of the general U.S. population. Previously published nonlinear dose-response relationships for chemicals were used to estimate health risk from exposure. We also explored and identified four intervals of exposure in which the nonlinear dose-response relationship may be linearly approximated with fixed slopes. Predicted rates of exposure to these 95 chemicals are all within the lowest of the four intervals and associated with low health risk. The health risk may be overestimated if a slope on the dose-response relationship extrapolated from toxicological assays based on high response rates is used for a marginal increase in emission not substantially higher than background emissions. To improve the confidence of human health risk estimates for chemicals, future efforts should focus on deriving a more accurate dose-response relationship at lower response rates and interface it with exposure assessments.

19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical characteristics, pulmonary diffusion function, chest computerized tomography (CT), and serum lung cell damage indicators of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors 6 months after discharge. METHODS: Data of COVID-19 survivors discharged from hospital between January 21, 2020 and January 11, 2021 and healthy controls were collected. Serum levels of surfactant D (SPD), the receptor for advanced glycation products (RAGE), laminin, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured in healthy controls and COVID-19 survivors 6 months after discharge. The relationships between serum lung cell damage indicator levels and various parameters were explored. RESULTS: Fifty-two COVID-19 survivors (31 non-severe and 21 severe) and 30 controls were included. Serum levels of laminin in COVID-19 survivors 6 months after discharge were significantly higher than those in the controls. The increase was more significant in elderly and female patients. Serum levels of RAGE and vWF were not statistically different from those of the controls. However, 6 months after discharge, COVID-19 survivors with abnormal chest CT and those in the severe group had higher vWF levels. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients had abnormal lung injury indicators 6 months after discharge. The recovery time after infection is currently unknown, and long-term observations are required.

20.
Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis ; 33(5):923-931, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1534316

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the impact of COVID-19 on grain security and the characteristics of the crisis it triggered were examined. Based on the contingency theory, the contingency thinking in grain emergency management was analyzed, and grain emergency decision-making model and emergency management framework were constructed. On this basis, the monitoring and early warning mechanism, emergency management system, emergency support mechanism and normalized epidemic prevention and control mechanism in Wuhan were explored. Finally, it was suggested to ensure grain security by improving the ability of grain emergency management from the following five aspects: contingency quality of managers, agility and flexibility of emergency organizations, food reserves, heterogeneity of emergency plans, and monitoring and early warning.

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