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1.
Science China Information Sciences ; 63(7):1-8, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-690468

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is raging across the world The radiomics, which explores huge amounts of features from medical image for disease diagnosis, may help the screen of the COVID-19 In this study, we aim to develop a radiomic signature to screen COVID-19 from CT images We retrospectively collect 75 pneumonia patients from Beijing Youan Hospital, including 46 patients with COVID-19 and 29 other types of pneumonias These patients are divided into training set (n = 50) and test set (n = 25) at random We segment the lung lesions from the CT images, and extract 77 radiomic features from the lesions Then unsupervised consensus clustering and multiple cross-validation are utilized to select the key features that are associated with the COVID-19 In the experiments, while twenty-three radiomic features are found to be highly associated with COVID-19, four key features are screened and used as the inputs of support vector machine to build the radiomic signature We use area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration curve to assess the performance of our model It yields AUCs of 0 862 and 0 826 in the training set and the test set respectively We also perform the stratified analysis and find that its predictive ability is not affected by gender, age, chronic disease and degree of severity In conclusion, we investigate the value of radiomics in screening COVID-19, and the experimental results suggest the radiomic signature could be a potential tool for diagnosis of COVID-19

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3810, 2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690732

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has posed an unprecedented threat to global public health. However, the interplay between the viral pathogen of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and host innate immunity is poorly understood. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 induces overt but delayed type-I interferon (IFN) responses. By screening 23 viral proteins, we find that SARS-CoV-2 NSP1, NSP3, NSP12, NSP13, NSP14, ORF3, ORF6 and M protein inhibit Sendai virus-induced IFN-ß promoter activation, whereas NSP2 and S protein exert opposite effects. Further analyses suggest that ORF6 inhibits both type I IFN production and downstream signaling, and that the C-terminus region of ORF6 is critical for its antagonistic effect. Finally, we find that IFN-ß treatment effectively blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication. In summary, our study shows that SARS-CoV-2 perturbs host innate immune response via both its structural and nonstructural proteins, and thus provides insights into the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 525, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690147

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes correlates with poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19, but very few studies have evaluated whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is also a risk factor for the poor outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Here we aimed to examine the associations between IFG and diabetes at admission with risks of complications and mortality among patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 312 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 5 hospitals in Wuhan from Jan 1 to Mar 17, 2020. Clinical information, laboratory findings, complications, treatment regimens, and mortality status were collected. The associations between hyperglycemia and diabetes status at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: The median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range 38-66), and 172 (55%) were women. At the time of hospital admission, 84 (27%) had diabetes (and 36 were new-diagnosed), 62 (20%) had IFG, and 166 (53%) had normal fasting glucose (NFG) levels. Compared to patients with NFG, patients with IFG and diabetes developed more primary composite end-point events (9 [5%], 11 [18%], 26 [31%]), including receiving mechanical ventilation (5 [3%], 6 [10%], 21 [25%]), and death (4 [2%], 9 [15%], 20 [24%]). Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed diabetes was associated increased risks of primary composite end-point events (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 1.48-8.40) and mortality (6.25; 1.91-20.45), and IFG was associated with an increased risk of mortality (4.11; 1.15-14.74), after adjusting for age, sex, hospitals and comorbidities. Conclusion: IFG and diabetes at admission were associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes among patients with COVID-19.

4.
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering ; 17(4):3710-3720, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-688913

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus pneumonia (WHO named COVID-19) swept across China In Shanxi Province, the cumulative confirmed cases finally reached 133 since the first confirmed case appeared on January 22 2020, and most of which were imported cases from Hubei Province Reasons for this ongoing surge in Shanxi province, both imported and autochthonous infected cases, are currently unclear and demand urgent investigation In this paper, we developed a SEIQR difference-equation model of COVID-19 that took into account the transmission with discrete time imported cases, to perform assessment and risk analysis Our findings suggest that if the lock-down date in Wuhan is earlier, the infectious cases are fewer Moreover, we reveal the effects of city lock-down date on the final scale of cases: if the date is advanced two days, the cases may decrease one half (67, 95% CI: 66-68);if the date is delayed for two days, the cases may reach about 196 (95% CI: 193-199) Our investigation model could be potentially helpful to study the transmission of COVID-19, in other provinces of China except Hubei Especially, the method may also be used in countries with the first confirmed case is imported

5.
Chinese Medicine ; 15(1):78-78, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-688856

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new global public health emergency The therapeutic benefits of Cold‒Damp Plague Formula (CDPF) against COVID-19, which was used to treat “cold‒dampness stagnation in the lung” in Trial Versions 6 and 7 of the “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19”, have been demonstrated, but the effective components and their mechanism of action remain unclear In this study, a network pharmacology approach was employed, including drug-likeness evaluation, oral bioavailability prediction, protein‒protein interaction (PPI) network construction and analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation, and virtual docking, to predict the bioactive components, potential targets, and molecular mechanism of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment The active compound of herbs in CDPF and their candidate targets were obtained through database mining, and an herbs—ingredients—targets network was constructed Subsequently, the candidate targets of the active compounds were compared to those relevant to COVID-19, to identify the potential targets of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment Subsequently, the PPI network was constructed, which provided a basis for cluster analysis and hub gene screening The seed targets in the most significant module were selected for further functional annotation GO enrichment analysis identified four main areas: (1) cellular responses to external stimuli, (2) regulation of blood production and circulation, (3) free radical regulation, (4) immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects KEGG pathway analysis also revealed that CDPF could play pharmacological roles against COVID-19 through “multi components‒multi targets‒multi pathways” at the molecular level, mainly involving anti-viral, immune-regulatory, and anti-inflammatory pathways;consequently, a “CDPF—herbs—ingredients—targets—pathways—COVID-19” network was constructed In hub target analysis, the top hub target IL6, and ACE2, the receptor via which SARS-CoV-2 typically enters host cells, were selected for molecular docking analyses, and revealed good binding activities This study revealed the active ingredients and potential molecular mechanism by which CDPF treatment is effective against COVID-19, and provides a reference basis for the wider application and further mechanistic investigations of CDPF in the fight against COVID-19

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20998, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-683656

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic inflammatory disease. Standard imaging features of KD include interstitial and lobular inflammatory lesions in the lungs, while KD shock syndrome (KDSS), complicated with substantial consolidation and atelectasis in the lung, is rarely reported. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Herein, we report a single case of a 5-year-old female patient who manifested KDSS on the seventh day of the course of KD. Chest enhanced computed tomography indicated large-area consolidation in the lower lobes of the bilateral lungs. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with KDSS complicated with non-infective lung consolidation. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received human intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and aspirin (30-50 mg/kgd), methylprednisolone, a vasoactive agent, and albumin. Infective factors were excluded. OUTCOMES: The consolidation in the lower lobe of the bilateral lungs was completely recovered after 3 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Children with KDSS may present with pulmonary lesions such as substantial consolidation and atelectasis; thus, infective factors should be excluded. If there is no etiological evidence, antibiotics should be used with caution.


Subject(s)
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Shock/etiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Atelectasis/therapy , Shock/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 130: 110529, 2020 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679604

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to identify the clinical efficacy of glucocorticoid therapy on the treatment of patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Clinical and laboratory parameters were collected from 308 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from the fever clinic of Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China) between January 14, 2020 and February 9, 2020, of which 216 patients received low-dose (equivalent of methylprednisolone 0.75-1.5 mg/kg/d) glucocorticoid treatment. The effect of glucocorticoid on imaging progress, adverse events, nucleic acid results and the outcomes were investigated. Lymphocyte count and C-reactive protein (CRP) significantly differed between the glucocorticoid therapy and non-glucocorticoid therapy groups. Compared with the non-glucocorticoid therapy group, glucocorticoid therapy did not significantly influence the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia, including imaging progress and the time duration for negative transformation of nucleic acid. Glucocorticoid therapy did not significantly influence the outcomes nor the adverse events of COVID-19 pneumonia. For the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia, systemic and in-depth investigation is needed to determine the timing and dosage of glucocorticoids needed to inhibit overwhelming inflammatory response and not the protective immune response to COVID-19 pneumonia.

9.
Front. Pharmacol. ; (11)20200624.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-646238

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 to May 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 6 million people worldwide. Due to its sudden and rapid outbreak, effective treatment for COVID-19 is scarce. Based on national clinical trials of novel treatments, China, Italy, Germany, and other countries and organizations have published multiple guidelines for COVID-19 and advised many medicines, such as chloroquine and tocilizumab. In this paper, we summarize the pharmacotherapy for COVID-19 according to those guidelines, highlight updates of the pharmacotherapy guidelines, and review the efficacy and safety of the indicated anti-COVID-19 drugs.

10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-645171

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term pulmonary function and related physiological characteristics of COVID-19 survivors have not been studied in depth, thus many aspects are not understood. Methods: COVID-19 survivors were recruited for high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax, lung function and serum levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody tests 3 months after discharge. The relationship between the clinical characteristics and the pulmonary function or CT scores were investigated. Findings: Fifty-five recovered patients participated in this study. SARS-CoV-2 infection related symptoms were detected in 35 of them and different degrees of radiological abnormalities were detected in 39 patients. Urea nitrogen concentration at admission was associated with the presence of CT abnormalities (P = 0.046, OR 7.149, 95% CI 1.038 to 49.216). Lung function abnormalities were detected in 14 patients and the measurement of D-dimer levels at admission may be useful for prediction of impaired diffusion defect (P = 0.031, OR 1.066, 95% CI 1.006 to 1.129). Of all the subjects, 47 of 55 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in serum, among which the generation of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in female patients was stronger than male patients in infection rehabilitation phase. Interpretation: Radiological and physiological abnormalities were still found in a considerable proportion of COVID-19 survivors without critical cases 3 months after discharge. Higher level of D-dimer on admission could effectively predict impaired DLCO after 3 months discharge. It is necessary to follow up the COVID-19 patients to appropriately manage any persistent or emerging long-term sequelae. Funding: Key Scientific Research Projects of Henan Higher Education Institutions

11.
Theranostics ; 10(16): 7231-7244, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640066

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Given the rapid spread of COVID-19, an updated risk-stratify prognostic tool could help clinicians identify the high-risk patients with worse prognoses. We aimed to develop a non-invasive and easy-to-use prognostic signature by chest CT to individually predict poor outcome (death, need for mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission) in patients with COVID-19. Methods: From November 29, 2019 to February 19, 2020, a total of 492 patients with COVID-19 from four centers were retrospectively collected. Since different durations from symptom onsets to the first CT scanning might affect the prognostic model, we designated the 492 patients into two groups: 1) the early-phase group: CT scans were performed within one week after symptom onset (0-6 days, n = 317); and 2) the late-phase group: CT scans were performed one week later after symptom onset (≥7 days, n = 175). In each group, we divided patients into the primary cohort (n = 212 in the early-phase group, n = 139 in the late-phase group) and the external independent validation cohort (n = 105 in the early-phase group, n = 36 in the late-phase group) according to the centers. We built two separate radiomics models in the two patient groups. Firstly, we proposed an automatic segmentation method to extract lung volume for radiomics feature extraction. Secondly, we applied several image preprocessing procedures to increase the reproducibility of the radiomics features: 1) applied a low-pass Gaussian filter before voxel resampling to prevent aliasing; 2) conducted ComBat to harmonize radiomics features per scanner; 3) tested the stability of the features in the radiomics signature by several image transformations, such as rotating, translating, and growing/shrinking. Thirdly, we used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to build the radiomics signature (RadScore). Afterward, we conducted a Fine-Gray competing risk regression to build the clinical model and the clinic-radiomics signature (CrrScore). Finally, performances of the three prognostic signatures (clinical model, RadScore, and CrrScore) were estimated from the two aspects: 1) cumulative poor outcome probability prediction; 2) 28-day poor outcome prediction. We also did stratified analyses to explore the potential association between the CrrScore and the poor outcomes regarding different age, type, and comorbidity subgroups. Results: In the early-phase group, the CrrScore showed the best performance in estimating poor outcome (C-index = 0.850), and predicting the probability of 28-day poor outcome (AUC = 0.862). In the late-phase group, the RadScore alone achieved similar performance to the CrrScore in predicting poor outcome (C-index = 0.885), and 28-day poor outcome probability (AUC = 0.976). Moreover, the RadScore in both groups successfully stratified patients with COVID-19 into low- or high-RadScore groups with significantly different survival time in the training and validation cohorts (all P < 0.05). The CrrScore in both groups can also significantly stratify patients with different prognoses regarding different age, type, and comorbidities subgroups in the combined cohorts (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: This research proposed a non-invasive and quantitative prognostic tool for predicting poor outcome in patients with COVID-19 based on CT imaging. Taking the insufficient medical recourse into account, our study might suggest that the chest CT radiomics signature of COVID-19 is more effective and ideal to predict poor outcome in the late-phase COVID-19 patients. For the early-phase patients, integrating radiomics signature with clinical risk factors can achieve a more accurate prediction of individual poor prognostic outcome, which enables appropriate management and surveillance of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235134, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the computed tomography (CT) characteristics and diagnostic value of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP or COVID-19) in pregnancy. METHODS: This study included ten pregnant women infected with COVID-19, treated in the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 20, 2020 to February 6, 2020. Clinical and chest CT data were collected and clinical symptoms, laboratory indicators, and CT images were analyzed to explore CT characteristics and diagnostic value for COVID-19 during pregnancy. RESULTS: Laboratory examination showed that white blood cell count was normal in nine patients, and slightly higher in one patient (10.23 × 109). The lymphocyte ratio decreased in two patients by 12% and 14%, respectively. The levels of C-reactive protein was elevated in seven patients (range, 21.16-60.3 mg/L) and the levels of D-dimer was increased in eight patients (range, 507-2141 ng/mL). Six patients had low levels of total protein (range, 35.3-56.5 mg/L). Two patients showed small patchy ground glass opacity (GGO) involving single lung, while eight patients showed multilobe GGO in both the lungs, with partial consolidation. Peripheral and non-peripheral lesion distributions were seen in ten (100%) and four (40%) patients, respectively. There were four patients who had signs of intra-bronchial air-bronchogram, six patients had small bilateral pleural effusions, while none had lymphadenopathy. Dynamic observations were performed in four patients after COVID-19 treatment. Among these four patients, one patient showed normal on the initial examination, and new lesions were observed after 3 days; 1 patient showed progression after 7 days of treatment, with expansion of the lesion area; and the other 2 patients showed improvement after 14 days of treatment, with reduction in the density and area of lesions and appearance of linear opacity. CONCLUSIONS: The CT characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy were mainly observed in early and progressive stages, and multiple new lesions were common. And there were consolidations of varying sizes and degrees within the lesion. Moreover, the original ground glass lesions could be fused or partially absorbed. Six patients had small bilateral pleural effusion. In summary, CT scans can play an important role in early screening, dynamic observation, and efficacy evaluation of suspected or confirmed cases of pregnant women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 80, 2020 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is well established that obesity is a disease of sustained low-grade inflammation. However, it is currently unknown if obesity plays a role in the clinical manifestations and prognosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether obesity played a role in clinical manifestations and prognosis in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This is a retrospective multicenter clinical study. A total of 96 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled from Dongguan People's Hospital, Nanfang hospital and the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University between 23 January and 14 February 2020. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from medical records. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) ≤ 300 mmHg. We grouped patients through the body mass index (BMI). Associations were examined using the t test, χ2 test and multivariate logistic forward regression test. RESULTS: Patients with BMI <  24 were significantly younger (P = 0.025) with lower creatine kinase (P = 0.013), lower diastolic pressure blood (P = 0.035), lower serum creatinine (P = 0.012), lower lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.001) and higher platelet count (P = 0.002). The BMI level was 20.78 ± 3.15 in patients without pneumonia compared with the patients with pneumonia (23.81 ± 3.49, P = 0.001). For patients without ARDS, an average BMI level of 22.65 ± 3.53 was observed, significantly lower than patients with ARDS (24.57 ± 3.59, P = 0.022). The mean BMI was 22.35 ± 3.56 in patients experienced with relieving the clinical symptoms or stable condition by radiographic tests, lower than patients with disease exacerbation with 24.89 ± 3.17 (P = 0.001). In addition, lymphocyte count (r = - 0.23, P = 0.027) and platelet count (r = - 0.44, P < 0.001) were negatively correlated with BMI. While hemoglobin (r = 0.267, P = 0.008), creatine kinase (r = 0.331, P = 0.001), serum creatinine (r = 0.424, P < 0.001) and lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.343, P = 0.001) were significantly positive correlated with BMI. Multivariate analysis showed that older age (OR = 1.046, P = 0.009) and BMI ≥ 24 (OR = 1.258, P = 0.005) were independent risk factors associated ICU admission while BMI ≥ 24 (OR = 4.219, P = 0.007) was independent risk factor associated with radiographic disease exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found BMI was significantly associated with clinical manifestations and prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. For patients with increased risk, clinicians should intervene promptly to avoid disease progression.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Obesity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
15.
Nonlinear Dyn ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-612712

ABSTRACT

Due to the strong infectivity of COVID-19, it spread all over the world in about three months and thus has been studied from different aspects including its source of infection, pathological characteristics, diagnostic technology and treatment. Yet, the influences of control strategies on the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 are far from being well understood. In order to reveal the mechanisms of disease spread, we present dynamical models to show the propagation of COVID-19 in Wuhan. Based on mathematical analysis and data analysis, we systematically explore the effects of lockdown and medical resources on the COVID-19 transmission in Wuhan. It is found that the later lockdown is adopted by Wuhan, the fewer people will be infected in Wuhan, and nevertheless it will have an impact on other cities in China and even the world. Moreover, the richer the medical resources, the higher the peak of new infection, but the smaller the final scale. These findings well indicate that the control measures taken by the Chinese government are correct and timely.

16.
Contact Dermatitis ; 83(2): 115-121, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, cases of adverse skin reactions related to the wearing of masks have been observed. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the short-term effects of N95 respirators and medical masks, respectively, on skin physiological properties and to report adverse skin reactions caused by the protective equipment. METHODS: This study used a randomized crossover design with repeated measurements. Twenty healthy Chinese volunteers were recruited. Skin parameters were measured on areas covered by the respective masks and on uncovered skin 2 and 4 hours after donning, and 0.5 and 1 hour after removing the masks, including skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, pH, and sebum secretion. Adverse reactions were clinically assessed, and perceived discomfort and non-compliance measured. RESULTS: Skin hydration, TEWL, and pH increased significantly with wearing the protective equipment. Erythema values increased from baseline. Sebum secretion increased both on the covered and uncovered skin with equipment-wearing. There was no significant difference in physiological values between the two types of equipment. More adverse reactions were reported following a N95 mask use than the use of a medical mask, with a higher score of discomfort and non-compliance. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that skin biophysical characters change as a result of wearing a mask or respirator. N95 respirators were associated with more skin reactions than medical masks.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Erythema/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Pain/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pruritus/etiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/adverse effects , Skin , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Male , Middle Aged , Sebum , Young Adult
19.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(3): 467-472, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-583030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Jinhua Qinggan granules in the treatment of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). METHODS: Eighty cases of COVID-19 diagnosed from January 24 to February 17, 2020 in Beijing YouAn Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University were retrospectively analyzed. All 80 patients received symptomatic and supportive treatment. Among them, 44 patients took Jinhua Qinggan granules (treatment group) within 24 h of admission, and the remaining 36 patients either did not take Jinhua Qinggan granules or took the granules for less than 2 d (control group). In this study, we compared the duration of viral nucleic acid detection and of pneumonia absorption improvement between the two groups. RESULTS: Among the 80 cases, 37 were male (46%) and 43 were female (54%) with age ranging from 15 to 86 years, with an average age of 51.19 years. The average duration of viral nucleic acid detection was (7 ± 4) d in the Jinhua Qinggan administration group and (10 ± 4) d for the control group (P = 0.010), following which, nucleic acid tests were negative. Of the two groups, 56.82% in the Jinhua Qinggan treatment group and 27.78% in the control group demonstrated negative nucleic acid tests within 7 d or less. The 7-day viral clearance rate was significantly higher in the Jinhua Qinggan group compared with the control group (P = 0.009). Furthermore, the pneumonia recovery time indicated by chest CT was (8 ± 4) d in the Jinhua Qinggan group, which was significantly shorter than the control group, at (10 ± 5) d (P = 0.021). No adverse reactions were found in the treatment group after taking this medicine. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19, Jinhua Qinggan granules can effectively shorten the duration of nucleic acid detection and promote the absorption of pneumonia inflammatory exudate without obvious adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Beijing/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phytotherapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Clin Chim Acta ; 510: 1-4, 2020 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619589

ABSTRACT

This study mainly focused on the very serious COVID-19 epidemic situation at present and provided a new insight for the treatment and monitor of patients with COVID-19. Through this meta-analysis, we could draw a conclusion that less expression of blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells count might reflect the severity of infection and often accompanied by a poor prognosis. Hence, we inferred blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells count could be a promising biomarker for disease assessment and monitor of patients with COVID-19.

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