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1.
Heliyon ; : e12890, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2179047

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has already posed serious threats and impacts on the health of the population and the country's economy. Therefore, it is of great theoretical significance and practical application value to better understand the process of COVID-19 infection and develop effective therapeutic drugs. It is known that the receptor-binding structural domain (SARS-CoV-2 RBD) on the spike protein of the novel coronavirus directly mediates its interaction with the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and thus blocking SARS-CoV-2 RBD–ACE2 interaction is capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. Firstly, the interaction mechanism between SARS-CoV-2RBD-ACE2 was explored using molecular dynamics simulation (MD) coupled with molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) free energy calculation method. The results of energy analysis showed that the key residues R403, R408, K417, and Y505 of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and the key residues D30, E37, D38, and Y41 of ACE2 were identified. Therefore, according to the hotspot residues of ACE2 and their distribution, a short peptide library of high-affinity SARS-CoV-2 RBD was constructed. And by using molecular docking virtual screening, six short peptides including DDFEDY, DEFEDY, DEYEDY, DFVEDY, DFHEDY, and DSFEDY with high affinity for SARS-CoV-2 RBD were identified. The results of MD simulation further confirmed that DDFEDY, DEYEDY, and DFVEDY are expected to be effective inhibitors. Finally, the allergenicity, toxicity and solubility properties of the three peptide inhibitors were validated.

2.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; 50(10):1083-1087, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2168217

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological, clinical and imaging characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection caused by Omicron variant.

3.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 33, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is widely employed in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) patients. However, the techniques for predicting HFNC outcome remain scarce. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched until April 20, 2021. We included the studies that evaluated the potential predictive value of ROX (respiratory rate-oxygenation) index for HFNC outcome. This meta-analysis determined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic score, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and pooled area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. RESULTS: We assessed nine studies with 1933 patients, of which 745 patients experienced HFNC failure. This meta-analysis found that sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, diagnostic score, and DOR of ROX index in predicting HFNC failure were 0.67 (95% CI 0.57-0.76), 0.72 (95% CI 0.65-0.78), 2.4 (95% CI 2.0-2.8), 0.46 (95% CI 0.37-0.58), 1.65(95% CI 1.37-1.93), and 5.0 (95% CI 4.0-7.0), respectively. In addition, SROC was 0.75 (95% CI 0.71-0.79). Besides, our subgroup analyses revealed that ROX index had higher sensitivity and specificity for predicting HFNC failure in COVID-19 patients, use the cut-off value > 5, and the acquisition time of other times after receiving HFNC had a greater sensitivity and specificity when compared to 6 h. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that ROX index could function as a novel potential marker to identify patients with a higher risk of HFNC failure. However, the prediction efficiency was moderate, and additional research is required to determine the optimal cut-off value and propel acquisition time of ROX index in the future. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021240607.


Subject(s)
Catheterization , Nasal Cavity , Oximetry , Respiratory Rate , Animals , Catheterization/adverse effects , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
5.
Vaccines ; 11(1):188, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200956

ABSTRACT

To obtain more insight into IgM in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity a prospective cohort study was carried out in 32 volunteers to longitudinally profile the kinetics of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM response induced by administration of a three-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine regimen at 19 serial time points over 456 days. The first and second doses were considered primary immunization, while the third dose was considered secondary immunization. IgM antibodies showed a low secondary response that was different from the other three antibodies (neutralizing, total, and IgG antibodies). There were 31.25% (10/32) (95% CI, 14.30-48.20%) of participants who never achieved a positive IgM antibody conversion over 456 days after vaccination. The seropositivity rate of IgM antibodies was 68.75% (22/32) (95% CI, 51.80-85.70%) after primary immunization. Unexpectedly, after secondary immunization the seropositivity response rate was only 9.38% (3/32) (95% CI, 1.30-20.10%), which was much lower than that after primary immunization (p = 0.000). Spearman's correlation analysis indicated a poor correlation of IgM antibodies with the other three antibodies. IgM response in vaccinees was completely different from the response patterns of neutralizing, total, and IgG antibodies following both the primary immunization and the secondary immunization and was suppressed by pre-existing immunity induced by primary immunization.

6.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 20(1):594, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166490

ABSTRACT

The minimal case fatality rate (CFR) is one of the essential fundaments for the establishment of a diverse national response strategy against the COVID-19 epidemic, but cannot be quantitatively predicted. The aim of the present study was to explore the applicable quantitative parameters labeling integrating responding capacity from national daily CFR curves, and whether the minimal CFR during initial emerging epidemic outbreaks can be predicted. We analyzed data from 214 nations and regions during the initial 2020 COVID-19 epidemic and found similar falling zones marked with two turning points within a fitting three-day-moving CFR curve which occurred for many nations and regions. The turning points can be quantified with parameters for the day duration (T1, T2, and deltaT) and for the three-day moving arithmetic average CFRs (CFR1, CFR2, and deltaCFR) under wave theory for 71 nations and regions after screening. Two prediction models of minimal CFR were established with multiple linear regressions (M1) and multi-order curve regressions (M2) after internal and external evaluation. Three kinds of falling zones could be classified in the other 71 nations and regions. Only the minimal CFR showed significant correlations with nine independent national indicators in 65 nations and regions with CFRs less than 7%. Model M1 showed that logarithmic population, births per 1000 people, and household size made significant positive contributions, and logarithmic GDP, percentage of population aged 65+ years, domestic general government health expenditure, physicians per 1000 people, nurses per 1000 people, and body mass index made negative contributions to the minimal CFR against COVID-19 epidemics for most nations and regions. The spontaneous minimal CFR was predicted well with model M1 for 57 nations and regions based on the nine national indicators (R2 = 0.5074), or with model M2 for 59 nations and regions based on the nine national indicators (R2 = 0.8008) at internal evaluation. The study confirmed that national spontaneous minimal CFR could be predicted with models successfully for most nations and regions against COVID-19 epidemics, which provides a critical method to predict the essential early evidence to evaluate the integrating responding capacity and establish national responding strategies reasonably for other emerging infectious diseases in the future.

7.
Applied Sciences ; 13(2):732, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166214

ABSTRACT

Face recognition (FR) has matured with deep learning, but due to the COVID-19 epidemic, people need to wear masks outside to reduce the risk of infection, making FR a challenge. This study uses the FaceNet approach combined with transfer learning using three different sizes of validated CNN architectures: InceptionResNetV2, InceptionV3, and MobileNetV2. With the addition of the cosine annealing (CA) mechanism, the optimizer can automatically adjust the learning rate (LR) during the model training process to improve the efficiency of the model in finding the best solution in the global domain. The mask face recognition (MFR) method is accomplished without increasing the computational complexity using existing methods. Experimentally, the three models of different sizes using the CA mechanism have a better performance than the fixed LR, step and exponential methods. The accuracy of the three models of different sizes using the CA mechanism can reach a practical level at about 93%.

8.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 324:600-606, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165459

ABSTRACT

Background Studying the role of psychological resilience in self-perceived stress and mental disorders among family members of medical workers can help us understand its importance in mental health care and guide us to develop psychological intervention strategies for family members of medical workers. Methods A total of 671 family members of medical workers were enrolled. Self-perceived stress, resilience, depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were measured in our research. Results The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms among relatives of medical workers were 49.0 %, 12.2 %, and 20.3 % respectively during the COVID-19 epidemic. According to the Multivariate regression model, compared with family members of doctor, family members of nurse and medical technologists were more likely to report anxiety symptoms. Female members of medical staff were more likely to have PTSD symptoms than male counterparts;and family members of medical technologist appeared to less likely have PTSD symptoms than family members of either doctor or nurse. The mediation analysis confirmed that mental resilience mediated the relationship between self-perceived stress and anxiety symptoms. Limitations Single cross-sectional study design without the follow-up comparative analysis, only self-reported measurements were adopted, and inadequate pre-set demographic variables. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, our study firstly demonstrated the risk of psychological distress present in the family members of medical providers during the COVID-19 epidemic. Meanwhile, our findings highlighted the importance of mental resilience in family members of frontline medical workers as it mediated the relationship between self-perceived stress and anxiety symptoms.

9.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2449452.v1

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study explored the changes in biomarkers indicators and prognosis in COVID-19 patients with mental disorders (n = 60) from the author’ Hospital between 2/13/2020 and 4/15/2020. Significant differences before and after negative conversion were observed in lymphocytes, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ApoA1 (all P < 0.05). Compared with the patients who had a negative conversion within 3 weeks, those who did not turn negative within 3 weeks had a higher frequency of cardiovascular diseases (27.3% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.040), a higher lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (median, 4.72 vs. 3.35, P = 0.003), and higher total bilirubin levels (median, 12.0 vs. 8.6 µmol/L, P = 0.031). The results present the changes in laboratory parameters in COVID-19 patients with a mental disorder. Cardiovascular diseases and higher lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and total bilirubin levels could be associated with the amount of time required for negative conversion.

10.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159177

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study aimed to investigate the risk factors surrounding an increase in both burnout levels and depression amongst healthcare professionals in Taiwan through use of a longitudinal study design. Design This is a 2-year observational study which took place from January 2019 to December 2020. Setting and Participants Data amongst healthcare professionals was extracted from the Overload Health Control System of a tertiary medical center in central Taiwan. Methods Burnout was measured through use of the Chinese version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (C-CBI), while depression was ascertained by the Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire. Each participant provided both burnout and depression measurements during a non-pandemic period (2019), as well as during the COVID pandemic era (2020). Risk factors surrounding an increase in burnout levels and depression were analyzed through a multivariate logistic regression model with adjusting confounding factors. Results Two thousand nineteen (2,019) participants completed the questionnaire over two consecutive years, including 132 visiting doctors, 105 resident doctors, 1,371 nurses and 411 medical technicians. After adjustments, sleeplessness, daily working hours >8, and stress due to one's workload were all found to be risk factors for an increase in depression levels, while sleeplessness, lack of exercise, and stress due to one's workload were all found to be risk factors for an increase in personal burnout level. Being a member of the nursing staff, at a younger age, sleeplessness, and lack of exercise were all risk factors for an increase in work-related burnout levels. Conclusions and Implications Poor sleep, lack of exercise, long working hours and being a member of the nursing staff were risk factors regarding an increase in person burnout level, work-related burnout and depression amongst healthcare professionals. Leaders within the hospital should investigate the working conditions and personal habits of all medical staff regularly and systematically during the COVID-19 pandemic and take any necessary preventive measures, such as improving resilience for nursing staff, in order to best care for their employees.

11.
Obesity ; 30:240-241, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2157174

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has thrust the obesity epidemic into the spotlight, revealing that obesity is no longer a disease that harms in the long run, but one that can have acutely devastating effects. Studies have suggested that obesity not only increases your risk of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation and death but increases your risk of becoming infected. Rapid data collection started in late 2019 as the COVID-19 spread from its site of origination, Wuhan, China. Initial observational studies noted that Hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease were the most common comorbid conditions in patients with more severe complications. Although data was collected in China regarding BMI, it was not until April 2020 when the editors of the American published Obesity medical journal stated that obesity would likely prove to be independent risk factor for more severe disease. This observation was likely yet to be realized in the Chinese data given the significantly lower rates of obesity than the United States. In 2019, the overall rate of obesity among Chinese adults was 13.58%. The rate of obesity in the United States in 2017-2018, the last reported data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, was 42.4%. COVID-19 also revealed conspicuous health care disparities that have been documented for decades with little national spotlight until July 2021. Federal data reported that the Black American life expectancy decreased almost 3 years from 2019 to 2020 compared to 1.2 years for White Americans. In our study we examine the association of four clinical complications from COVID-19 infection among Black/African American and White/Caucasian patients with overweight and obesity while controlling for co-morbid conditions. Our aim is to identify if different risk exists between ethnicity groups in overweight and obese patients, controlling for additional comorbidities. We hypothesize that racial disparities in COVID outcomes persist. Methods: A random sample of 3,000 records was extracted from the COVID19 DataMart through the University of Virginia Health System EMR. This included patients who tested positive by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 using swab specimens between March 2020 and July 2021. We limited this study to Black/African American or White/ Caucasian patients age > 18 with a BMI >25, for a total of 1,904 patients. Measurements Four clinical outcomes from COVID-19 were examined;hospitalization, length of hospital stay (LOS), ventilator dependence and mortality. LOS was measured by an indicator constructed within the EMR calculating the difference between admission and discharge dates. Ventilator dependence and mortality were binary indicators related to COVID-19. Race was dichotomized as Black/ African American or White/Caucasian. We controlled for comorbidies with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), which accounts for 17 conditions. Patients were divided into four groups based on the CCI score. CCI score and corresponding weighted category were computed using the "comorbidity" package in R. Based on patients' BMI, we computed a variable indicating BMI category: 25< and <30;>30 and <35;>35. Sex and age were controlled. Sample Size Calculation We used the "pwr" package in R to compute the minimum required sample size that would offer 80% power and significance level of 0.05 to detect a small effect size. This was attainable in our analysis. Statistical Analysis Means and standard deviations were applied to continuous variables. We ran bivariate comparisons between the four outcomes of interest and race. Unadjusted odds ratios with corresponding 95% Confidence intervals (CI) are presented for hospitalized, ventilation required and mortality. A t-test is presented for mean comparisons of LOS by race. Four regression models were constructed for each respective outcome of interest while controlling for race, CCI category, BMI category, age and sex. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of hospitalization, ventilation dependence and mortality, and a linear model to estimate effe ts of covariate on LOS. All hypothesis tests were 2-sided with a significance level of 5%. R version 4.1.1 was used for all analyses. As a sensitivity analysis, we replicated these models in a sub-sample of patients who were infected between March 2020 and February 2021 (n = 756). Results: 1,904 patients were included in the main cohort and 756 in the sensitivity cohort. The mean age was 45.7 and 46.3 in the sensitivity cohort. Females comprised 58.5% and 81% of the sensitivity cohort. Average LOS was significantly greater for Black patients than WHITE patients. Hospitalization rates for White patients were significantly lower than those for Black patients. Ventilation did not differ significantly between White and Black patients. Mortality rates were lower for White patients compared to Black patients. In the regression model White patients had significantly shorter LOS compared to Black patients. Patients with low and mild CCI risk had significantly shorter LOS compared to patients in the severe risk category. Patients with a BMI category or >35 had shorter LOS compared to those with BMI <30;males had significantly longer LOS compared to females. Race did not have a significant effect on hospitalization after controlling for CCI category, sex, BMI category and age. Patients with low and mild CCI had significantly lower odds of being hospitalized. Males had significantly greater odds of being hospitalized compared to females. Race did not have a significant effect on ventilation. Male patients had significantly higher odds of needing ventilation. Patients with low CCI risk had significantly lower odds of needing ventilation. Increase in age was associated with increased odds of needing ventilation. Race was significantly associated with mortality. White patients had significantly lower odds of death compared to Black patients. Patients in the low and mild CCI risk had lower odds of death. White patients had significantly shorter LOS compared to Black patients. Patients with low and mild CCI risk had significantly shorter LOS compared to patients in the severe risk category. Race did not have a significant effect on hospitalization. Patients with low and mild CCI risk had significantly lower odds of being hospitalized. Race did not have a significant effect on ventilation. Patients with low and moderate CCI risk had significantly lower odds of needing ventilation. Increase in age was associated with increased odds of needing ventilation. Race was associated with mortality after controlling for CCI category, sex, BMI category and age at a p value = 0.05. White patients had lower odds of death compared to Black patients. Conclusions: Our findings emphasize that racial differences persist when we look at only patients that have overweight and obesity. The racial disparities are not due to just obesity and its common co-morbidities. There are other factors contributing to these outcomes. These factors are likely multifactorial. It could be due to a combination of social and environmental factors that prevent or delay these patients from receiving care. Furthermore there may be differences in the care these patients receive once in the health care system. Further examination of these socioeconomic factors are just as important as mechanistic causes in order to decrease healthcare disparities.

12.
Biology ; 11(12):1793, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2154884

ABSTRACT

ARDS is a potentially lethal syndrome. HLA-DR expression in monocytes reflects their activation and antigen-presenting capacity. However, the correlation between clinical outcomes and HLA-DR expression in alveolar monocytes/macrophages in patients with pneumonia-related ARDS remains unclear. Thus, we determined the trends of HLA-DR and cytokine expressions in alveolar monocytes using repeated measurements to answer this question. Thirty-one pneumonia patients with respiratory failure and ARDS without coronavirus disease 2019 between November 2019 and November 2021 were enrolled in our intensive care unit and three without complete data were excluded. Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and HLA-DR expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) monocytes were determined on days one and eight. Monocyte HLA-DR expression (mHLA-DR) and CD4 T lymphocytes percentages in BAL cells of survivors increased remarkably after seven days. Monocyte IL-10 expression and monocytes percentages in BAL cells of survivors decreased substantially after seven days. The mHLA-DR was negatively correlated with disease severity scores on day one and eight. In conclusion, serial increases in HLA-DR expression and decreases in IL-10 expression were observed in BAL monocytes of survivors of pneumonia-related ARDS. More studies are needed to confirm this point of view, and then development of a therapeutic agent restoring mHLA-DR and preventing IL-10 production can be considered.

13.
Journal of Clinical Virology ; : 105354, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150032

ABSTRACT

Background : Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the main pathogens that causes acute lower respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in infants. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, although strict interventions have been implemented, RSV infection has not decreased. Objectives : To study the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of RSV circulating in Hangzhou after the peak of COVID-19. Methods : A total of 1225 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients with ARTIs from July 2021 to January 2022 in The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Results : A total of 267 (21.79%) of the 1225 samples were RSV positive. There was no gender bias. However, an obvious age preference for infection was observed, and children aged 3-6 years were more susceptible, which was very different from previous RSV pandemic seasons. Phylogenetic analysis of 115 sequenced RSV isolates showed that all the RSV-A viruses belong to the ON1 subtype, which could be clustered into three clusters. While all the RSV-B viruses belong to BA9. Further analysis of the mutations highlights the fixation of ten mutations, which should be given extra attention regarding their biological properties. Conclusion : The incidence of RSV infection in preschool children reported in this study is high. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the subtype A ON1 genotype was the dominant strain in Hangzhou from July 2021 to January 2022.

14.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147421

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has tremendously affected many industries in the world, including higher education. To cope with changes in the pandemic, online learning has become a prevalent means for university students to receive education. Based on the expectation-confirmation model (ECM) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study aims to develop an integrated model, consisting of confirmation, perceived usefulness, satisfaction, perceived enjoyment, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and continuance intention instruments, to predict Chinese university students’ continuance intention toward online learning. Using convenience sampling, we enrolled full-time university students who have used online-learning platforms in November 2020. Data collected from 493 Chinese university students were analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation model (SEM) to test the model and hypotheses. All measurements of constructs used in this study are adapted by previous studies. The results show that perceived satisfaction, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were significantly associated with the continuance intention of online learning. Furthermore, the two components of the expectation–confirmation model (ECM), perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment, have a significant impact on the satisfaction of online learning. Notably, although confirmation of expectations had no direct impact on satisfaction, it was positively associated with perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. Implications and limitations were discussed.

15.
Journal of Agricultural Big Data ; 4(1):69-76, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2145868

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic broke out globally, and cold-chain food has become the key point of the task to prevent the coronavirus from spreading within the city/region or beyond. Using information tools like establishing a national cold-chain traceability management platform to control the risk of imported cold-chain food has become an important topic at present. The paper focuses on the technology used by provinces and cities in cold-chain traceability, and combined with the actual needs, analyzes the advantages of heterogeneous identification technology. This paper starts from the present situation, introducing the technical roadmap selecting of traceability of imported cold-chain food and elaborating the data circulation structure of traceability of imported cold-chain food. Based on that, this paper introduces the national traceability platform of imported cold-chain food and its core functions based on heterogeneous identification. Through the construction of a three-level framework with the national cold-chain traceability management platform, to make sure the cold chain food can be traceable and be manageable. Meanwhile, through the two applications of inter-provincial confirmation and data verification, the national management effect of imported cold chain food is improved. [Outlook] Currently, the platform mainly focuses on imported livestock, poultry and aquatic products. In the future, the traceability scope may be gradually expanded to help improve the management effect. Establishing the imported cold-chain food traceability platform has a good effect on improving the information management level and promoting the traceability efficiency of problematic food, which is conducive to ensuring food safety.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2200070, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic-related disruptions in health care delivery might have affected end-of-life care in patients with cancer. We examined changes in place of death and hospice support for Medicaid and commercially insured patients during the pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We linked Washington State cancer registry records with claims from Medicaid and two commercial insurers for patients with solid tumor age 18-64 years. The study included 322 Medicaid and 162 commercial patients who died between March 2017 and June 2019 (pre-COVID-19), along with 90 Medicaid and 47 commercial patients who died between March and June 2020 (COVID-19). Place of death was categorized as hospital, hospice (home or nonhospital facility), and home without hospice. Place of death was compared using adjusted multinomial logistic regressions stratified by payer and time period (pre-COVID-19 v COVID-19). The clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with dying at home without hospice were examined, and adjusted marginal effects (ME) are reported. RESULTS: In the adjusted pre-COVID-19 analysis, Medicaid patients were more likely than commercially insured patients to die in hospital (48% v 36%; adjusted ME, 11%; P = .02). In the pre-COVID-19/COVID-19 analysis, Medicaid patients' place of death shifted from hospital (48% v 32%; ME, -16%; P < .01) to home without hospice (19.9% v 38.0%; ME, 16.5%; P < .01). However, there were no statistically significant changes pre-COVID-19/COVID-19 for commercial patients. As a result, during COVID-19, Medicaid patients were more likely than commercial patients to die at home without hospice (38% v 22%; ME, 16%; P = .04) as were male versus female patients (ME, 16%; P < .01). CONCLUSION: The pandemic might have disproportionately worsened the end-of-life experience for Medicaid enrollees with cancer. Attention should be paid to societal and health system factors that decrease access to care for Medicaid patients.

17.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 800, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the application effect of the clinical basic integration teaching mode constructed by case studies and the MOOC platform in obstetrics and gynecology internship teaching in the face of public health emergencies. METHODS: One hundred ten clinical medical students of grade 2020 were selected as the experimental group, and 110 clinical medical students of grade 2021 were selected as the control group. The experimental group adopted the online teaching mode combined with case studies and the MOOC platform, while the control group adopted the offline traditional probation teaching method. Comprehensive test and questionnaire were used to evaluate and compare the teaching effect of the two groups of students. RESULTS: The experimental group was found to be superior to the control group in the quality assessment of complete medical record writing and the ability assessment of diagnosis and analysis of typical obstetrics and gynecology cases (P < 0. 05). However, the score of professional knowledge was lower than that of the control group (P < 0. 05). The results of questionnaire survey showed that the satisfaction of the experimental group in stimulating learning interest, enhancing problem solving ability, enhancing communication and clinical thinking ability, enhancing team cooperation awareness and independent innovation ability was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01). The satisfaction of teacher-student interaction was also better (P < 0.05). However, in terms of strengthening theoretical understanding, the satisfaction of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group, but with no significant difference (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: During the epidemic period, we designed a new online teaching mode, which can be applied to the probation teaching of obstetrics and gynecology. In our study, compared with traditional offline teaching, the new online teaching mode could improve students' ability of case writing and case analysis. However, more teaching practice is needed to complete this online teaching mode.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance , Gynecology , Internship and Residency , Obstetrics , Students, Medical , Humans , Gynecology/education , Learning , Obstetrics/education
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2131, 2022 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination reduces the overall burden of COVID-19, while its allocation procedure may introduce additional health inequality, since populations characterized with certain social vulnerabilities have received less vaccination and been affected more by COVID-19. We used structural equation modeling to quantitatively evaluate the extent to which vaccination disparity would amplify health inequality, where it functioned as a mediator in the effect pathways from social vulnerabilities to COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: We used USA nationwide county (n = 3112, 99% of the total) level data during 2021 in an ecological study design. Theme-specific rankings of social vulnerability index published by CDC (latest data of 2018, including socioeconomic status, household composition & disability, minority status & language, and housing type & transportation) were the exposure variables. Vaccination coverage rate (VCR) during 2021 published by CDC was the mediator variable, while COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR) during 2021 published by John Hopkinson University, the outcome variable. RESULTS: Greater vulnerabilities in socioeconomic status, household composition & disability, and minority status & language were inversely associated with VCR, together explaining 11.3% of the variance of VCR. Greater vulnerabilities in socioeconomic status and household composition & disability were positively associated with CFR, while VCR was inversely associated with CFR, together explaining 10.4% of the variance of CFR. Our mediation analysis, based on the mid-year data (30th June 2021), found that 37.6% (mediation/total effect, 0.0014/0.0037), 10% (0.0003/0.0030) and 100% (0.0005/0.0005) of the effects in the pathways involving socioeconomic status, household composition & disability and minority status & language, respectively, were mediated by VCR. As a whole, the mediation effect significantly counted for 30.6% of COVID-19 CFR disparity. Such a mediation effect was seen throughout 2021, with proportions ranging from 12 to 32%. CONCLUSIONS: Allocation of COVID-19 vaccination in the USA during 2021 led to additional inequality with respect to COVID-19 mortality. Viable public health interventions should be taken to guarantee an equitable deployment of healthcare recourses across different population groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19 Vaccines , Social Vulnerability , Vaccination
19.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0394922, 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137484

ABSTRACT

More than 100 arboviruses, almost all of which have an RNA genome, cause disease in humans. RNA viruses are causing unprecedented health system challenges worldwide, many with little or no specific therapies or vaccines available. Certain species of mosquito can carry dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), where co-infection of these viruses has occurred. Here, we found that purified synthetic defective interfering particles (DIPs) derived from DENV type 2 (DENV-2) strongly suppressed replication of the aforementioned viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and also the novel emerging virus SARS-CoV-2 in human cells. DENV DIPs produced in bioreactors, purified by column chromatography, and concentrated are virus-like particles that are about half the diameter of a typical DENV particle, but with similar ratios of the viral structural proteins envelope and capsid. Overall, DIP-treated cells inhibited DENV, ZIKV, YFV, RSV, and SARS-CoV-2 by at least 98% by mechanisms which included interferon (IFN)-dependent cellular antiviral responses. IMPORTANCE DIPs are spontaneously derived virus mutants with deletions in genes that block viral replication. DIPs play important roles in modulation of viral disease, innate immune responses, virus persistence and virus evolution. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of highly purified synthetic DIPs derived from DENV, which were produced in bioreactors. DENV DIPs purified by column chromatography strongly inhibited five different RNA viruses, including DENV, ZIKV, YFV, RSV, and SARS-CoV-2 in human cells. DENV DIPs inhibited virus replication via delivery of a small, noninfectious viral RNA that activated cellular innate immunity, resulting in robust type 1 interferon responses. The work here presents a pathway for DIP production which is adaptable to Good Manufacturing Practice, so that their preclinical testing should be suitable for evaluation in subjects.

20.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125393

ABSTRACT

Development of safe and efficient vaccines is still necessary to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we reported that yeast-expressed recombinant RBD proteins either from wild-type or Delta SARS-CoV-2 were able to elicit immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. The wild-type RBD (wtRBD) protein was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, and the purified protein was used as the antigen to immunize mice after formulating an aluminium hydroxide (Alum) adjuvant. Three immunization programs with different intervals were compared. It was found that the immunization with an interval of 28 days exhibited the strongest immune response to SARS-CoV-2 than the one with an interval of 14 or 42 days based on binding antibody and the neutralizing antibody (NAb) analyses. The antisera from the mice immunized with wtRBD were able to neutralize the Beta variant with a similar efficiency but the Delta variant with 2~2.5-fold decreased efficiency. However, more NAbs to the Delta variant were produced when the Delta RBD protein was used to immunize mice. Interestingly, the NAbs may cross react with the Omicron variant. To increase the production of NAbs, the adjuvant combination of Alum and CpG oligonucleotides was used. Compared with the Alum adjuvant alone, the NAbs elicited by the combined adjuvants exhibited an approximate 10-fold increase for the Delta and a more than 53-fold increase for the Omicron variant. This study suggested that yeast-derived Delta RBD is a scalable and an effective vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

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