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1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862916

ABSTRACT

Background. Interferon is a marker of host antiviral immunity, which is disordered in COVID-19 patients. ERV can affect the secretion of interferon through the cGAS-STING pathway. In this study, we explored whether IFN-I and HERV-K (HML-2) were activated in COVID-19 patients and whether there was an interaction between them. Methods. We collected blood samples from COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. We first detected the expression of HERV-K (HML-2) gag, env, and pol genes and IFN-I-related genes between patients and healthy people by qPCR, synchronously detected VERO cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. Then, the chromosome distributions of highly expressed HERV-K (HML-2) gag, env, and pol genes were mapped by the next-generation sequencing results, and GO analysis was performed on the related genes. Results. We found that the HERV-K (HML-2) gag, env, and pol genes were highly expressed in COVID-19 patients and VERO cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. The interferon-related genes IFNB1, ISG15, and IFIT1 were also activated in COVID-19 patients, and GO analysis showed that HERV-K (HML-2) can regulate the secretion of interferon. Conclusions. The high expression of HERV-K (HML-2) might activate the increase of interferon in COVID-19 patients, proving that HERV-K does not only play a negative role in the human body.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endogenous Retroviruses , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Humans , Interferons/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
2.
Viruses ; 14(5):1072, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857538

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has frequently produced more highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Omicron, which has produced sublineages. It is a challenge to tell apart high-risk Omicron sublineages and other lineages of SARS-CoV-2 variants. We aimed to build a fine-grained deep learning (DL) model to assess SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, updating our former coarse-grained model, with the training/validating data of early-stage SARS-CoV-2 variants and based on sequential Spike samples. Sequential amino acid (AA) frequency was decomposed into serially and slidingly windowed fragments in Spike. Unsupervised machine learning approaches were performed to observe the distribution in sequential AA frequency and then a supervised Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was built with three adaptation labels to predict the human adaptation of Omicron variants in sublineages. Results indicated clear inter-lineage separation and intra-lineage clustering for SARS-CoV-2 variants in the decomposed sequential AAs. Accurate classification by the predictor was validated for the variants with different adaptations. Higher adaptation for the BA.2 sublineage and middle-level adaptation for the BA.1/BA.1.1 sublineages were predicted for Omicron variants. Summarily, the Omicron BA.2 sublineage is more adaptive than BA.1/BA.1.1 and has spread more rapidly, particularly in Europe. The fine-grained adaptation DL model works well for the timely assessment of the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants, facilitating the control of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

3.
Gigascience ; 112022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) acts as an intermediate host of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which caused SARS, and transfered this virus from bats to humans. Additionally, P. larvata has the potential to carry a variety of zoonotic viruses that may threaten human health. However, genome resources for P. larvata have not been reported to date. FINDINGS: A chromosome-level genome assembly of P. larvata was generated using PacBio sequencing, Illumina sequencing, and Hi-C technology. The genome assembly was 2.44 Gb in size, of which 95.32% could be grouped into 22 pseudochromosomes, with contig N50 and scaffold N50 values of 12.97 Mb and 111.81 Mb, respectively. A total of 21,582 protein-coding genes were predicted, and 95.20% of the predicted genes were functionally annotated. Phylogenetic analysis of 19 animal species confirmed the close genetic relationship between P. larvata and species belonging to the Felidae family. Gene family clustering revealed 119 unique, 243 significantly expanded, and 58 significantly contracted genes in the P. larvata genome. We identified 971 positively selected genes in P. larvata, and one known human viral receptor gene PDGFRA is positively selected in P. larvata, which is required for human cytomegalovirus infection. CONCLUSIONS: This high-quality genome assembly provides a valuable genomic resource for exploring virus-host interactions. It will also provide a reliable reference for studying the genetic bases of the morphologic characteristics, adaptive evolution, and evolutionary history of this species.


Subject(s)
Genome , Viverridae , Animals , Chromosomes , Genomics , Phylogeny , Viverridae/genetics
5.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119468, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851031

ABSTRACT

The Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to evaluate the air quality in the coastal city of Kannur, India, during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown. From the Pre1 (March 1-24, 2020) period to the Lock (March 25-April 19, 2020) and Tri (April 20-May 9, 2020) periods, the Kerala state government gradually imposed a strict lockdown policy. Both the simulations and observations showed a decline in the PM2.5 concentrations and an enhancement in the O3 concentrations during the Lock and Tri periods compared with that in the Pre1 period. Integrated process rate (IPR) analysis was employed to isolate the contributions of the individual atmospheric processes. The results revealed that the vertical transport from the upper layers dominated the surface O3 formation, comprising 89.4%, 83.1%, and 88.9% of the O3 sources during the Pre1, Lock, and Tri periods, respectively. Photochemistry contributed negatively to the O3 concentrations at the surface layer. Compared with the Pre1 period, the O3 enhancement during the Lock period was primarily attributable to the lower negative contribution of photochemistry and the lower O3 removal rate by horizontal transport. During the Tri period, a slower consumption of O3 by gas-phase chemistry and a stronger vertical import from the upper layers to the surface accounted for the increase in O3. Emission and aerosol processes constituted the major positive contributions to the net surface PM2.5, accounting for a total of 48.7%, 38.4%, and 42.5% of PM2.5 sources during the Pre1, Lock, and Tri periods, respectively. The decreases in the PM2.5 concentrations during the Lock and Tri periods were primarily explained by the weaker PM2.5 production from emission and aerosol processes. The increased vertical transport rate of PM2.5 from the surface layer to the upper layers was also a reason for the decrease in the PM2.5 during the Lock periods.

6.
JCI Insight ; 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846629

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there is limited data comparing vaccine versus infection-induced nAb to COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines (from December 2020 through August 2021) were matched with 30 naturally infected women (from March 2020 through January 2021) by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the five SARS-CoV-2 Spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped Spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared to wild type Spike, these nAbs were less effective against the Delta and Mu Spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher cord nAb levels at delivery than infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared to infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level/maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicit effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that is impacted by gestational time of exposure.

7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821186

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has evolved into four sub-lineages-BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3-with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide. We and others have reported antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparisons of Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are necessary. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we report that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of an inactivated whole-virion vaccine shows weak to no neutralization activity, while homologous or heterologous boosters markedly improve neutralization titers against all Omicron sub-lineages. We also present neutralization profiles against a 20 mAb panel, including 10 authorized or approved, against the Omicron sub-lineages, along with mAb mapping against single or combinatorial spike mutations. Most mAbs lost neutralizing activity, while some demonstrate distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting antigenic differences. Collectively, our results suggest the Omicron sub-lineages threaten the neutralization efficacy of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820246

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is significantly affecting the mental health of healthcare workers worldwide. This study aims to investigate the mental health outcomes of healthcare workers in a health system located in southeastern US during the first peak of the pandemic and examine the association of specific factors on the mental well-being of healthcare workers. A cross-sectional survey of 388 healthcare workers was conducted. Data were collected using a 79-item questionnaire, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) instrument, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and general distress, respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. Accordingly, 30.1%, 28.7%, and 39.4% of respondents reported depression, anxiety, and distress symptoms, respectively. Younger workers and females reported higher mental symptomologies. We identified significant, nontraditional factors associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers: healthcare procedure change, concern of exposing family to COVID-19, number of missed shifts, and access to psychological resources/services. These findings emphasize the importance of providing the proper training to reduce concerns of exposing family members and psychological interventions to promote mental health well-being for healthcare workers during the stressful COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Life Style , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Journal of Global Health ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1801608

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions to the functioning of societies and their health systems. Prior to the pandemic, health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) were particularly stretched and vulnerable. The International Society of Global Health (ISoGH) sought to systematically identify priorities for health research that would have the potential to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs. Methods The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) method was used to identify COVID-19-related research priorities. All ISoGH members were invited to participate. Seventy-nine experts in clinical, translational, and population research contributed 192 research questions for consideration. Fifty-two experts then scored those questions based on five pre-defined criteria that were selected for this exercise: 1) feasibility and answerability;2) potential for burden reduction;3) potential for a paradigm shift;4) potential for translation and implementation;and 5) impact on equity. Results Among the top 10 research priorities, research questions related to vaccination were prominent: health care system access barriers to equitable uptake of COVID-19 vaccination (ranked 1st), determinants of vaccine hesitancy (4th), development and evaluation of effective interventions to decrease vaccine hesitancy (5th), and vaccination impacts on vulnerable population/s (6th). Health care delivery questions also ranked highly, including: effective strategies to manage COVID-19 globally and in LMICs (2nd) and integrating health care for COVID-19 with other essential health services in LMICs (3rd). Additionally, the assessment of COVID-19 patients’ needs in rural areas of LMICs was ranked 7th, and studying the leading socioeconomic determinants and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs using multi-faceted approaches was ranked 8th. The remaining questions in the top 10 were: clarifying paediatric case-fatality rates (CFR) in LMICs and identifying effective strategies for community engagement against COVID-19 in different LMIC contexts. Interpretation Health policy and systems research to inform COVID-19 vaccine uptake and equitable access to care are urgently needed, especially for rural, vulnerable, and/or marginalised populations. This research should occur in parallel with studies that will identify approaches to minimise vaccine hesitancy and effectively integrate care for COVID-19 with other essential health services in LMICs. ISoGH calls on the funders of health research in LMICs to consider the urgency and priority of this research during the COVID-19 pandemic and support studies that could make a positive difference for the populations of LMICs.

10.
Comput Human Behav ; 133: 107295, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778032

ABSTRACT

Misinformation has become prevalent since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. To understand why people believe and share misinformation, we conducted a nationwide survey during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. We found the indirect effects of COVID-19 risk on people's information accuracy judgment and associated information sharing intention through people's emotional states. People faced with a higher level of COVID-19 risk (measured by a 7-day moving average of daily new deaths or new cases) experienced weaker positive and stronger negative emotions, and heightened emotionality (both the positive and negative emotions) was associated with increased belief in and greater likelihood to share the COVID-19 information regardless of veracity. We also found that only the negative emotion mediated the relation between the COVID-19 risk and the truth discernment regarding accuracy judgment. However, the mediating effect of negative emotion disappeared among people with high analytic thinking ability. These findings suggest that the analytic thinking ability could moderate the destructive relationship between negative emotion and accuracy discernment. Based on a large sample, our findings provide actionable insights for the policymakers to respond to the spread of misinformation appropriately and promptly during the pandemic.

11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332033

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has been partitioned into four sub-lineages designated BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3, with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide recently by outcompeting BA.1 and BA.1.1. We and others have reported the striking antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparison of susceptibility of all the major Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are urgently needed. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we found that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines (BBIBP-CorV) showed very weak to no neutralization activity, while a homologous inactivated vaccine booster or a heterologous booster with protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) markedly improved the neutralization titers against all Omicron variants. The comparison between sub-lineages indicated that BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3 had comparable or even greater antibody resistance than BA.1. We further evaluated the neutralization profile of a panel of 20 mAbs, including 10 already authorized or approved, against these Omicron sub-lineages as well as viruses with different Omicron spike single or combined mutations. Most mAbs lost their neutralizing activity completely or substantially, while some demonstrated distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting their antigenic difference. Taken together, our results suggest all four Omicron sub-lineages threaten the efficacies of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters to combat the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

12.
Pharmacol Res ; 179: 106201, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768452

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had grounded the world to a standstill. As the disease continues to rage two years on, it is apparent that effective therapeutics are critical for a successful endemic living with COVID-19. A dearth in suitable antivirals has prompted researchers and healthcare professionals to investigate existing and developmental drugs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although some of these drugs initially appeared to be promising for the treatment of COVID-19, they were ultimately found to be ineffective. In this review, we provide a retrospective analysis on the merits and limitations of some of these drugs that were tested against SARS-CoV-2 as well as those used for adjuvant therapy. While many of these drugs are no longer part of our arsenal for the treatment of COVID-19, important lessons can be learnt. The recent inclusion of molnupiravir and Paxlovid™ as treatment options for COVID-19 represent our best hope to date for endemic living with COVID-19. Our viewpoints on these two drugs and their prospects as current and future antiviral agents will also be provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information ; 11(4):229, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762454

ABSTRACT

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global pandemic, but the prevention and control of the disease in various countries have also entered the normalization stage. To achieve economic recovery and avoid a waste of resources, different regions have developed prevention and control strategies according to their social, economic, and medical conditions and culture. COVID-19 disparities under the interaction of various factors, including interventions, need to be analyzed in advance for effective and precise prevention and control. Considering the United States as the study case, we investigated statistical and spatial disparities based on the impact of the county-level social vulnerability index (SVI) on the COVID-19 infection rate. The county-level COVID-19 infection rate showed very significant heterogeneity between states, where 67% of county-level disparities in COVID-19 infection rates come from differences between states. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) was adopted to examine the moderating effects of state-level social distancing policies on the influence of the county-level SVI on COVID-19 infection rates, considering the variation in data at a unified level and the interaction of various data at different levels. Although previous studies have shown that various social distancing policies inhibit COVID-19 transmission to varying degrees, this study explored the reasons for the disparities in COVID-19 transmission under various policies. For example, we revealed that the state-level restrictions on the internal movement policy significantly attenuate the positive effect of county-level economic vulnerability indicators on COVID-19 infection rates, indirectly inhibiting COVID-19 transmission. We also found that not all regions are suitable for the strictest social distancing policies. We considered the moderating effect of multilevel covariates on the results, allowing us to identify the causes of significant group differences across regions and to tailor measures of varying intensity more easily. This study is also necessary to accomplish targeted preventative measures and to allocate resources.

14.
Advanced Intelligent Systems ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1756545

ABSTRACT

Plasma‐based biomedical applications rely on the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated in cold atmospheric plasmas, where complex chemical kinetic schemes occur. The optimization of plasma medicine is thus required for each specific biomedical purpose. In the view of pharmacology, it is to optimize the active pharmaceutical ingredients. This work is thus the first attempt of such a complex task utilizing the recent development of machine learning technologies. Herein, a general method of passive plasma chemical diagnostics and optimization in real time is proposed. Based on spontaneous emission spectroscopy, an artificial neural network provides the gas chemical compositions along with other information such as temperatures. The information further passes through the second neural network which outputs the adjustments of external control inputs including energy, gas injections, and extractions to optimize the plasma chemistry.

15.
World wide web ; : 1-16, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743840

ABSTRACT

Every epidemic affects the real lives of many people around the world and leads to terrible consequences. Recently, many tweets about the COVID-19 pandemic have been shared publicly on social media platforms. The analysis of these tweets is helpful for emergency response organizations to prioritize their tasks and make better decisions. However, most of these tweets are non-informative, which is a challenge for establishing an automated system to detect useful information in social media. Furthermore, existing methods ignore unlabeled data and topic background knowledge, which can provide additional semantic information. In this paper, we propose a novel Topic-Aware BERT (TABERT) model to solve the above challenges. TABERT first leverages a topic model to extract the latent topics of tweets. Secondly, a flexible framework is used to combine topic information with the output of BERT. Finally, we adopt adversarial training to achieve semi-supervised learning, and a large amount of unlabeled data can be used to improve inner representations of the model. Experimental results on the dataset of COVID-19 English tweets show that our model outperforms classic and state-of-the-art baselines.

16.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330220

ABSTRACT

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in wastewater has been highly informative in estimating the approximate number of infected individuals in the surrounding communities. Recent developments in wastewater monitoring to determine community prevalence of COVID-19 further extends into identifying SARS-CoV-2 variants, including those being monitored for having enhanced transmissibility. We sequenced genomic RNA derived from wastewater to determine the variants of coronaviruses circulating in the communities. Wastewater samples were collected from Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Facility (TMWRF) from November 2021 to June 2021 were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 variants and were compared with the variants detected in the clinical specimens (nasal/nasopharyngeal swabs) of infected individuals during the same period. The comparison was found to be conclusively in agreement. Therefore, wastewater monitoring for SARS-CoV-2 variants in the community is a feasible strategy both as a complementary tool to clinical specimen testing and in the latter's absence.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 817: 152958, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712970

ABSTRACT

In this study, wastewater-based surveillance was carried out to establish the correlation between SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA concentrations in wastewater and the incidence of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from clinical testing. The influent wastewater of three major water reclamation facilities (WRFs) in Northern Nevada, serving a population of 390,750, was monitored for SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA gene markers, N1 and N2, from June 2020 through September 2021. A total of 614 samples were collected and analyzed. The SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in wastewater were observed to peak twice during the study period. A moderate correlation trend between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence data from clinical testing and SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA concentrations in wastewater was observed (Spearman r = 0.533). This correlation improved when using weekly average SARS-CoV-2 marker concentrations of wastewater and clinical case data (Spearman r = 0.790), presumably by mitigating the inherent variability of the environmental dataset and the effects of clinical testing artifacts (e.g., reporting lags). The research also demonstrated the value of wastewater-based surveillance as an early warning signal for early detection of trends in COVID-19 incidence. This was accomplished by identifying that the reported clinical cases had a stronger correlation to SARS-CoV-2 wastewater monitoring data when they were estimated to lag 7-days behind the wastewater data. The results aided local decision makers in developing strategies to manage COVID-19 in the region and provide a framework for how wastewater-based surveillance can be applied across localities to enhance the public health monitoring of the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genetic Markers , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information ; 11(3):152, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1704039

ABSTRACT

Exploring the spatial patterns of COVID-19 transmission and its key determinants could provide a deeper understanding of the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of this study is to investigate the spatial patterns of COVID-19 transmission in different periods in Singapore, as well as their relationship with demographic and built-environment factors. Based on reported cases from 23 January to 30 September 2020, we divided the research time into six phases and used spatial autocorrelation analysis, the ordinary least squares (OLS) model, the multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model, and dominance analysis to explore the spatial patterns and influencing factors in each phase. The results showed that the spatial patterns of COVID-19 cases differed across time, and imported cases presented a random pattern, whereas local cases presented a clustered pattern. Among the selected variables, the supermarket density, elderly population density, hotel density, business land proportion, and park density may be particular fitting indicators explaining the different phases of pandemic development in Singapore. Furthermore, the associations between determinants and COVID-19 transmission changed dynamically over time. This study provides policymakers with valuable information for developing targeted interventions for certain areas and periods.

19.
Radiology ; 302(3): 709-719, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702660

ABSTRACT

Background The chest CT manifestations of COVID-19 from hospitalization to convalescence after 1 year are unknown. Purpose To assess chest CT manifestations of COVID-19 up to 1 year after symptom onset. Materials and Methods Patients were enrolled if they were admitted to the hospital because of COVID-19 and underwent CT during hospitalization at two isolation centers between January 27, 2020, and March 31, 2020. In a prospective study, three serial chest CT scans were obtained at approximately 3, 7, and 12 months after symptom onset and were longitudinally analyzed. The total CT score of pulmonary lobe involvement, ranging from 0 to 25, was assessed (score of 1-5 for each lobe). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to explore independent risk factors for residual CT abnormalities after 1 year. Results A total of 209 study participants (mean age, 49 years ± 13 [standard deviation]; 116 women) were evaluated. CT abnormalities had resolved in 61% of participants (128 of 209) at 3 months and in 75% of participants (156 of 209) at 12 months. Among participants with chest CT abnormalities that had not resolved, there were residual linear opacities in 25 of the 209 participants (12%) and multifocal reticular or cystic lesions in 28 of the 209 participants (13%). Age 50 years or older, lymphopenia, and severe or aggravation of acute respiratory distress syndrome were independent risk factors for residual CT abnormalities at 1 year (odds ratios = 15.9, 18.9, and 43.9, respectively; P < .001 for each comparison). In 53 participants with residual CT abnormalities at 12 months, reticular lesions (41 of 53 participants [77%]) and bronchial dilation (39 of 53 participants [74%]) were observed at discharge and were persistent in 28 (53%) and 24 (45%) of the 53 participants, respectively. Conclusion One year after COVID-19 diagnosis, chest CT scans showed abnormal findings in 53 of the 209 study participants (25%), with 28 of the 209 participants (13%) showing subpleural reticular or cystic lesions. Older participants with severe COVID-19 or acute respiratory distress syndrome were more likely to develop lung sequelae that persisted at 1 year. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Lee and Wi et al in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328552

ABSTRACT

Background: Methamphetamine use could jeopardize the current efforts to address opioid use disorder and HIV infection. Evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBI) are effective in reducing methamphetamine use. However, evidence on optimal combinations of EBI is limited. This protocol presents a Type-1 effectiveness-implementation hybrid design to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness of adaptive methamphetamine use interventions and their implementation barriers in Vietnam. Method: Design: Participants will be first randomized into two frontline interventions for 12 weeks. They will then be placed or randomized to three adaptive strategies for another 12 weeks. An economic evaluation and an ethnographic evaluation will be conducted alongside the interventions. Participants We will recruit 600 participants in 20 methadone clinics. Eligibility criteria: 1) age 16+, 2) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) scores 10 or more for methamphetamine use or confirmed methamphetamine use with urine drug screening;3) willing to provide three pieces of contact information;4) having a cell phone. Outcomes Outcomes are measured at 13-, 26- and 49-week and throughout the interventions. Primary outcomes include: (1) increase in HIV viral suppression;(2) reduction in HIV risk behaviors;and (3) reduction in methamphetamine use. COVID-19 response We developed a response plan for interruptions caused by COVID-19 lockdowns to ensure data quality and intervention fidelity. Discussion: This study will provide important evidence for scale-up of EBIs for methamphetamine use among methadone patients in limited-resource settings. As the EBIs will be delivered by methadone providers, they can be readily implemented if the trial demonstrates effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Trial registration NCT04706624. Registered 13 January 2021. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04706624

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