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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 813087, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775746

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an acute respiratory disease with systemic complications. Therapeutic strategies for COVID-19, including repurposing (partially) developed drugs are urgently needed, regardless of the increasingly successful vaccination outcomes. We characterized two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional models (3D) to establish a physiologically relevant airway epithelial model with potential for investigating SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. Human airway basal epithelial cells maintained in submerged 2D culture were used at low passage to retain the capacity to differentiate into ciliated, club, and goblet cells in both air-liquid interface culture (ALI) and airway organoid cultures, which were then analyzed for cell phenotype makers. Airway biopsies from non-asthmatic and asthmatic donors enabled comparative evaluation of the level and distribution of immunoreactive angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 and transmembrane serine proteinase 2 (TMPRSS2) mRNA were expressed in ALI and airway organoids at levels similar to those of native (i.e., non-cultured) human bronchial epithelial cells, whereas furin expression was more faithfully represented in ALI. ACE2 was mainly localized to ciliated and basal epithelial cells in human airway biopsies, ALI, and airway organoids. Cystic fibrosis appeared to have no influence on ACE2 gene expression. Neither asthma nor smoking status had consistent marked influence on the expression or distribution of ACE2 in airway biopsies. SARS-CoV-2 infection of ALI cultures did not increase the levels of selected cytokines. Organotypic, and particularly ALI airway cultures are useful and practical tools for investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and evaluating the clinical potential of therapeutics for COVID-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325244

ABSTRACT

Objective: Based on differences in populations and prevention and control measures, the spread of new coronary pneumonia in different countries and regions also differs. This study aimed to calculate the transmissibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures to control the disease in Jilin Province, China. Methods: : The data of reported COVID-19 cases were collected, including imported and local cases from Jilin Province as of March 14, 2019. A Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious–Asymptomatic–Recovered (SEIAR) model was developed to fit the data, and the effective reproduction number ( R eff ) was calculated at different stages in the province. Finally, the effectiveness of the countermeasures was assessed. Results: : A total of 97 COVID-19 infections were reported in Jilin Province, among which 45 were imported infections (including one asymptomatic infection) and 52 were local infections (including three asymptomatic infections). The model fit well with the reported data ( R 2 = 0.593, P < 0.001). The R eff of COVID-19 before and after February 1, 2020 was 1.64 and 0.05, respectively. Without the intervention taken on February 1, 2020, the predicted cases would reach a peak of 177,011 on October 22, 2020 (284 days from the first case). The projected number of cases until the end of the outbreak (on October 9, 2021) would be 17,129,367, with a total attack rate of 63.66%. Based on the comparison between the predicted incidence of the model and the actual incidence, the comprehensive intervention measures implemented in Jilin Province on February 1 reduced the incidence of cases by 99.99%. Therefore, according to the current measures and implementation efforts, Jilin Province can achieve good control of the virus’s spread. Conclusions: : COVID-19 has a moderate transmissibility in Jilin Province, China. The interventions implemented in the province had proved effective, increasing social distancing and a rapid response by the prevention and control system will help control the spread of the disease.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 245, 2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on differences in populations and prevention and control measures, the spread of new coronary pneumonia in different countries and regions also differs. This study aimed to calculate the transmissibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to evaluate the effectiveness of measures to control the disease in Jilin Province, China. METHODS: The data of reported COVID-19 cases were collected, including imported and local cases from Jilin Province as of March 14, 2019. A Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Asymptomatic-Recovered/Removed (SEIAR) model was developed to fit the data, and the effective reproduction number (Reff) was calculated at different stages in the province. Finally, the effectiveness of the measures was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 97 COVID-19 infections were reported in Jilin Province, among which 45 were imported infections (including one asymptomatic infection) and 52 were local infections (including three asymptomatic infections). The model fit the reported data well (R2 = 0.593, P < 0.001). The Reff of COVID-19 before and after February 1, 2020 was 1.64 and 0.05, respectively. Without the intervention taken on February 1, 2020, the predicted cases would have reached a peak of 177,011 on October 22, 2020 (284 days from the first case). The projected number of cases until the end of the outbreak (on October 9, 2021) would have been 17,129,367, with a total attack rate of 63.66%. Based on the comparison between the predicted incidence of the model and the actual incidence, the comprehensive intervention measures implemented in Jilin Province on February 1 reduced the incidence of cases by 99.99%. Therefore, according to the current measures and implementation efforts, Jilin Province can achieve good control of the virus's spread. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has a moderate transmissibility in Jilin Province, China. The interventions implemented in the province had proven effective; increasing social distancing and a rapid response by the prevention and control system will help control the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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