Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 80
Filter
1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 172, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878517

ABSTRACT

The increased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) breakthrough cases pose the need of booster vaccination. We conducted a randomised, double-blinded, controlled, phase 2 trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the heterologous prime-boost vaccination with an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) followed by a recombinant protein-based vaccine (NVSI-06-07), using homologous boost with BBIBP-CorV as control. Three groups of healthy adults (600 individuals per group) who had completed two-dose BBIBP-CorV vaccinations 1-3 months, 4-6 months and ≥6 months earlier, respectively, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either NVSI-06-07 or BBIBP-CorV boost. Immunogenicity assays showed that in NVSI-06-07 groups, neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) against the prototype SARS-CoV-2 increased by 21.01-63.85 folds on day 28 after vaccination, whereas only 4.20-16.78 folds of increases were observed in control groups. For Omicron variant, the neutralizing antibody GMT elicited by homologous boost was 37.91 on day 14, however, a significantly higher neutralizing GMT of 292.53 was induced by heterologous booster. Similar results were obtained for other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VOCs), including Alpha, Beta and Delta. Both heterologous and homologous boosters have a good safety profile. Local and systemic adverse reactions were absent, mild or moderate in most participants, and the overall safety was quite similar between two booster schemes. Our findings indicated that NVSI-06-07 is safe and immunogenic as a heterologous booster in BBIBP-CorV recipients and was immunogenically superior to the homologous booster against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also VOCs, including Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1877112

ABSTRACT

Green innovation investments have rapidly grown since 2000. Green innovation indexes play important roles and are typically constructed by screening and indexing. However, Nobel Laureate Markowitz emphasizes portfolio selection instead of security selection and accentuates that “A good portfolio is more than a long list of good stocks.” Moreover, the screening-indexing strategies ignore that investors can take green innovation as an additional objective and thus gain additional utility. We consequently construct 3-objective portfolio selection for green innovation in addition to variance and expected return. An efficient frontier of portfolio selection then extends to an efficient surface which is a panorama of the optimal variance, expected return, and expected green innovation. Investors thus fully envisage the trade-offs and enjoy the freedom of choosing preferred portfolios on the surface. In contrast, the screening-indexing strategies inflexibly leave investors with only one point (i.e., the green innovation index). As the originality, we prove in a theorem that there typically exists a curve on the efficient surface so all portfolios on the curve dominate the green innovation index. We test the dominance by component stocks of China Securities Index 300 and obtain affirmative results out of sample. The results still hold in robustness tests. At last, we classify green innovation into categories, further model the categories by general k-objective portfolio selection, and still illustrate the dominance. Consequently, investors can consider and control each category.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875461

ABSTRACT

Ivermectin (IVM) could cause potential neurotoxicity; however, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study explores the cytotoxicity of IVM in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results show that IVM treatment (2.5-15 µM) for 24 h could induce dose-dependent cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Compared to the control, IVM treatment significantly promoted the production of ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell apoptosis. IVM treatment also promoted mitophagy and autophagy, which were charactered by the decreased expression of phosphorylation (p)-Akt and p-mTOR proteins, increased expression of LC3II, Beclin1, ATG5, PINK, and Pakin1 proteins and autophagosome formation. N-acetylcysteine treatment significantly inhibited the IVM-induced production of ROS and cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Autophagy inhibitor (e.g., 3-methyladenine) treatment significantly inhibited IVM-induced autophagy, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. Taken together, our results reveal that IVM could induce autophagy and apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells, which involved the production of ROS, activation of mitochondrial pathway, and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway. Autophagy inhibition improved IVM-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. This current study provides new insights into understanding the molecular mechanism of IVM-induced neurotoxicity and facilitates the discovery of potential neuroprotective agents.

4.
Education Sciences ; 12(5):317, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871124

ABSTRACT

HE’s pandemic-driven shift to online platforms has increased social and learning disconnection amongst students. In online group work/teamwork, many are reluctant to switch on their cameras to be more present to others. Compassion in group work/teamwork is defined as noticing, not normalizing, one’s own and/or others’ distress or disadvantaging and taking wise action to prevent or reduce this. This notion of compassion is being assessed in the HE sector using filmed task-focused in-class group work meetings to identify levels of both inclusivity and criticality around the team. This study investigates the use and outcomes of using the compassionate communications strategies (that were developed in and for the offline classroom) in online team meetings. In this mixed-methods study, two groups of four international STEM students, each from a sample of five UK universities, were video-recorded in task-focused group work meetings (TGMs) before and after an online interactive 90-min training session (‘the intervention’) on the Cognitive Skills of Compassionate Communications (CSCC) in teams. A comparison of the (pre and post CSCC intervention) quantitative and qualitative data results indicated, post-intervention, a significant increase in students’ screen gaze attentiveness to each other, and reasons why students’ motivation to switch on their cameras had changed.

5.
J Cell Biol ; 221(6)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830915

ABSTRACT

ß-coronaviruses reshape host cell endomembranes to form double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) for genome replication and transcription. Ectopically expressed viral nonstructural proteins nsp3 and nsp4 interact to zipper and bend the ER for DMV biogenesis. Genome-wide screens revealed the autophagy proteins VMP1 and TMEM41B as important host factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we demonstrated that DMV biogenesis, induced by virus infection or expression of nsp3/4, is impaired in the VMP1 KO or TMEM41B KO cells. In VMP1 KO cells, the nsp3/4 complex forms normally, but the zippered ER fails to close into DMVs. In TMEM41B KO cells, the nsp3-nsp4 interaction is reduced and DMV formation is suppressed. Thus, VMP1 and TMEM41B function at different steps during DMV formation. VMP1 was shown to regulate cross-membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) distribution. Inhibiting PS synthesis partially rescues the DMV defects in VMP1 KO cells, suggesting that PS participates in DMV formation. We provide molecular insights into the collaboration of host factors with viral proteins to remodel host organelles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Replication Compartments , Autophagy/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Organelles/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
6.
Anal Chem ; 94(18): 6703-6710, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815468

ABSTRACT

Ratiometric assays of label-free dual-signaling reporters with enzyme-free amplification are intriguing yet challenging. Herein, yellow- and red-silver nanocluster (yH-AgNC and rH-AgNC) acting as bicolor ratiometric emitters are guided to site-specifically cluster in two template signaling hairpins (yH and rH), respectively, and originally, both of them are almost non-fluorescent. The predesigned complement tethered in yH is recognizable to a DNA trigger (TOC) related to SARS-CoV-2. With the help of an enhancer strand (G15E) tethering G-rich bases (G15) and a linker strand (LS), a switchable DNA construct is assembled via their complementary hybridizing with yH and rH, in which the harbored yH-AgNC close to G15 is lighted-up. Upon introducing TOC, its affinity ligating with yH is further implemented to unfold rH and induce the DNA construct switching into closed conformation, causing TOC-repeatable recycling amplification through competitive strand displacement. Consequently, the harbored rH-AgNC is also placed adjacent to G15 for turning on its red fluorescence, while the yH-AgNC is retainable. As demonstrated, the intensity ratio dependent on varying TOC is reliable with high sensitivity down to 0.27 pM. By lighting-up dual-cluster emitters using one G15 enhancer, it would be promising to exploit a simpler ratiometric biosensing format for bioassays or clinical theranostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA , Fluorescence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
7.
Environ Pollut ; 305: 119308, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796874

ABSTRACT

Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between outdoor air pollution and increased risks for cancer, infection, and cardiopulmonary diseases. However, very few studies have investigated the potential health effects of coexposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) and bioaerosols through the transmission of infectious agents, particularly under the current circumstances of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to identify urinary metabolite biomarkers that might serve as clinically predictive or diagnostic standards for relevant diseases in a real-time manner. We performed an unbiased gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/LC-MS) approach to detect urinary metabolites in 92 samples from young healthy individuals collected at three different time points after exposure to clean air, polluted ambient, or purified air, as well as two additional time points after air repollution or repurification. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles between the two time points using an integrated analysis, along with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes-enriched pathway and time-series analysis. We identified 33 and 155 differential metabolites (DMs) associated with PM and bioaerosol exposure using GC/LC-MS and follow-up analyses, respectively. Our findings suggest that 16-dehydroprogesterone and 4-hydroxyphenylethanol in urine samples may serve as potential biomarkers to predict or diagnose PM- or bioaerosol-related diseases, respectively. The results indicated apparent differences between PM- and bioaerosol-associated DMs at five different time points and revealed dynamic alterations in the urinary metabolic profiles of young healthy humans with cyclic exposure to clean and polluted air environments. Our findings will help in investigating the detrimental health effects of short-term coexposure to airborne PM and bioaerosols in a real-time manner and improve clinically predictive or diagnostic strategies for preventing air pollution-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Young Adult
8.
Acta Math Appl Sin ; 38(2): 235-253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782829

ABSTRACT

The traditional approaches to false discovery rate (FDR) control in multiple hypothesis testing are usually based on the null distribution of a test statistic. However, all types of null distributions, including the theoretical, permutation-based and empirical ones, have some inherent drawbacks. For example, the theoretical null might fail because of improper assumptions on the sample distribution. Here, we propose a null distribution-free approach to FDR control for multiple hypothesis testing in the case-control study. This approach, named target-decoy procedure, simply builds on the ordering of tests by some statistic or score, the null distribution of which is not required to be known. Competitive decoy tests are constructed from permutations of original samples and are used to estimate the false target discoveries. We prove that this approach controls the FDR when the score function is symmetric and the scores are independent between different tests. Simulation demonstrates that it is more stable and powerful than two popular traditional approaches, even in the existence of dependency. Evaluation is also made on two real datasets, including an arabidopsis genomics dataset and a COVID-19 proteomics dataset.

9.
Mathematics ; 10(6):975, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760760

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study the global dynamics of a delayed virus dynamics model with apoptosis and both virus-to-cell and cell-to-cell infections. When the basic reproduction number R0>1, we obtain the uniform persistence of the model, and give some explicit expressions of the ultimate upper and lower bounds of any positive solution of the model. In addition, by constructing the appropriate Lyapunov functionals, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the global attractivity of the disease-free equilibrium and the chronic infection equilibrium of the model. Our results extend existing related works.

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329783

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with immune escape ability raises the urgent need for developing cross-neutralizing vaccines against the virus. NVSI-06-08 is a potential broad-spectrum recombinant COVID-19 vaccine that integrates the antigens from multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains into a single immunogen. Here, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-08 as a heterologous booster dose in adults previously vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, phase 2 trial conducted in the United Arab Emirates ( NCT05069129 ). Three groups of healthy adults over 18 years of age (600 participants per group) who had administered two doses of BBIBP-CorV 4-6-month, 7-9-month and >9-month earlier, respectively, were vaccinated with either a homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV or a heterologous booster of NVSI-06-08. The primary outcome was immunogenicity and safety of booster vaccinations. The exploratory outcome was cross-reactive immunogenicity against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VOCs). The incidence of adverse reactions was low in both booster vaccinations, and the overall safety profile of heterologous boost was quite similar to that of homologous boost. Heterologous NVSI-06-08 booster was immunogenically superior to homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV. Both Neutralizing and IgG antibodies elicited by NVSI-06-08 booster were significantly higher than by the booster of BBIBP-CorV against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also multiple VOCs. Especially, the neutralizing activity induced by NVSI-06-08 booster against the immune-evasive Beta variant was no less than that against the prototype strain, and a considerable level of neutralizing antibodies against Omicron (GMT: 367.67;95%CI, 295.50-457.47) was induced by heterologous booster, which was substantially higher than that boosted by BBIBP-CorV (GMT: 45.03;95%CI, 36.37-55.74). Our findings showed that NVSI-06-08 was safe and immunogenic as a booster dose following two doses of BBIBP-CorV, which was immunogenically superior to homologous boost with another dose of BBIBP-CorV. Our study also indicated that the design of hybrid antigen may provide an effective strategy for broad-spectrum vaccine developments.

11.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328391

ABSTRACT

This article was migrated. The article was marked as recommended. Background: Healthcare professionals are playing an important role in the recent COVID-19 outbreak. It is crucial that the health systems maintain their ability to train students and residents during this time. However, there is a paucity of literature on the measures taken by higher education institutions to ensure academic continuity. The aim of this article is to share the systematic measures that were taken during the COVID-19 pandemic by Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore. Methods: We discussed our multi-faceted approach to protect students, staff and patients/ standardized patients during the COVID-19 outbreak that occurred during a pivotal time in the school's academic calendar. Results: Our approach to ensuring academic continuity and quality were based on best practices in the following areas: 1) A coordinated leadership and management process 2) Prioritising safety for all stakeholders 3) Dissemination of information amongst the stakeholders in a transparent and efficient way, and 4) Maintaining the rigour and quality of training. Conclusion: The initiatives were implemented as we leveraged on the available infrastructure and the collective team efforts of all involved. Further research will be done to evaluate the usefulness of these measures. We hope that this article would be a useful reference for other schools as they evaluate their pandemic preparedness in the event that the COVID-19 outbreak affects their country or similar crisis event in the future.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325513

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all sectors of the economy and society. To understand the impact of the pandemic on firms in China and suggest responding public policies, we investigated firms in Guangdong Province (a Province with the highest Gross Domestic Product in China). Methods: The survey sample included 524 firms in 15 cities in Guangdong Province. We chose these firms from list published by the government, considering the industrial characteristics of Guangdong province and firm size. The questionnaire comprised of four categories and included 17 questions was developed based on previous studies carried out by OECD. The executives of firms were contacted by phone or WeChat, and were invited to answer self-administered questionnaires through an on-line survey platform. The data was analyzed by SPSS. Results: The following findings are worth to be noticed: (1) 48.7% of firms maintained stability, and 35.1% of the firms experienced a halt in operation or faced closure;(2) Nearly 70%-90% of the firms are or are willing to transform to online marketing, remote office work, and digital operations. (3) 46% of firms believe that there will be a certain loss this year, and 83.5% expected a decreasing trend of the city's GDP growth. Conclusions: firms in Guangdong Province have faced great challenges in the epidemic. The firms’ production and operation activities are limited, and risks are faced. It is necessary to effectively implement supporting policies to profoundly lower production costs for firms, and help firms survive the difficult period, and even gradually transit to normal business operation status.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322743

ABSTRACT

Background: Towards the end of December 2019, the Wuhan health commission declared an outbreak of clusters of pneumonia in patients. Sequencing indicated that this disease (COVID-19) was caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The outbreak of COVID-19 is currently still underway. Methods We recruited 75 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients admitted to the Center of Infectious Disease division 2 of Beijing Ditan Hospital from Jan 20 to Mar 20, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, radiological features, laboratory data were analyzed. Results Of the 75 patients, 42(56%) patients were male and 33(44%) patients were female. The mean age of all patients was 41.5 ± 19.4 years. Male patients were more likely to become severe. There were 9 family clusters accounted for 44 patients. Patients classified as being severe had a higher frequency of fever upon admission than patients classified as moderate cases. For moderate patients, the median duration of viral shedding was 25(9.5, 42) days (range 1–63 days) from the first positive nucleic acid test compared to 14(9, 21.25) days (range 2–62 days) for severe cases. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.041). Cox regression analyses indicated that disease status and CRP were the factors that affect the duration of viral shedding. Virus clearance was significantly faster in severe patients compared to moderate patients(p = 0.011), and patients with CRP range in 2–10 times higher than upper limit of normal value had longer duration of viral shedding(p = 0.012). CRP and CD4 + T lymphocyte was negative correlated, and the relationship between CRP and CD4 + T lymphocyte was statistically significant (P = 0.003), with a correlation coefficient of -0.564. During the second week following the onset of illness, severe cases had higher WBC, NEU and CRP, but lower LYM, MON and EOS as compared with moderate cases (all P < 0.05). Severe cases still had lower lymphocyte counts and higher CRP than moderate cases in the third week. Conclusions Viral clearance was significantly prolonged in moderate patients, and those CRP in 2–10 times higher than upper limit of normal value. Immune response may affect the duration of viral shedding. Severe cases had a persistence lower lymphocyte count and higher CRP than moderate cases.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321501

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the role of regional poverty on the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S.A. It also verifies if the effects differ with the concentration of ethnic minorities. We find that poverty is a significant and consistent determinant of higher COVID-19 infections and fatalities. The prevalent poverty areas experienced higher infections due to its economic structures that require hypermobility - more physical human-to-human contacts and experienced higher deaths due to limited access to health services. These are also regions where minority groups are concentrated, and thus, the disproportionate infections and fatalities occurred within the black, Hispanic, and Asian population. Our evidence is robust to state fixed effects that capture local COVID-19 mitigation policies, multi-level hierarchical modeling, and large sets of county-level health, social, and economic factors. This paper contributes to the literature on health and economic disparities and their resulting consequences for infectious diseases.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321486

ABSTRACT

A pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronaviruses detected in horseshoe bats is spreading across the world and impacting the healthcare systems and global economy 1,2 . A suitable small animal model is urgently needed to support the development of vaccines and antiviral treatments against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of the SARS-CoV-2 in the golden Syrian hamster model. The SARS-CoV-2 virus replicated in the epithelial cells of respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigens in the areas of lung consolidation on day 2 and 5 post- inoculation, followed by rapid viral clearance and tissue repairing on day 7. Viral antigen was also detected in the epithelial cells of duodenum without apparent inflammatory response on day 2. Notably, we observed that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted efficiently from the inoculated hamsters to co-housed naïve contact hamsters. The inoculated hamsters and naturally-infected hamsters lost greater than 10% of the body weight, and all animals recovered with the detection of neutralizing antibodies within 14 days. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden Syrian hamsters resemble features found in human patients with mild infections.Authors Sin Fun Sia, Li-Meng Yan, and Alex WH Chin contributed equally to this work.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312169

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a comparison of the COVID-19 infections between a select pair of neighboring states and their border county regions where the policies of the Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPI) such as Lockdown/Stay-at-Home differ. These analyses use a Difference-in-Differences (Diff-in Diff) model to test the effectiveness of NPI in mitigating COVID-19 infections at the state and border county regions between these states. The counties are in the states on the Iowa and Illinois border, the Dakotas (North and South) and Minnesota border and the Arkansas and Mississippi border. In each case the policies on each side of the border differ and the border is clearly designated by a river separation. Based on the Diff-in-Diff model output, state policies appear to make a significant difference in some of these specific border regions, at least early in the pandemic (April-June 2020). State level results are mixed reflecting spatial heterogeneity across the inter-state system.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310721

ABSTRACT

Background: There are growing evidence demonstrating that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is companied by acute myocardial injury. However, the association of SARS-CoV-2-induced myocardial injury with death risk of COVID-19 is unclear. Methods: : This prospective case-cohort study analyzed 355 COVID-19 patients from two hospitals in different regions. Clinical and demographic information were collected. Myocardial injury was evaluated and its prognosis was followed up. Results: Of 355 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 213 were mild, 90 severe and 52 critically ill patients. On admission, 220 (62.0%) patients were with myocardial injury. Myocardial injury was more popular in critically ill patients. Using multivariate logistic regression, male, older age and comorbidity with hypertension were three crucial independent risk factors predicting myocardial injury of COVID-19 patients. Among 220 COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury, 33 (15.0%) died on mean 10.9 day after hospitalization. Mortality was increased among COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury (15.0% vs 1.74%, RR =8.625, P <0.001). Follow-up study observed that at least one myocardial index of 21.3% patients remained abnormal 14 days after discharge. Conclusion: Myocardial injury at early stage elevates mortality of COVID-19 patients. Male elderly patients with hypertension are more vulnerable to myocardial injury. SARS-CoV-2-induced myocardial injury has not completely recovered 14 days after discharge.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305572

ABSTRACT

Background: Hokkaido is the northernmost, least populous, and coldest of the Japanese islands. It was the first prefecture to be affected by COVID-19, while Kanagawa is home to one of the most populous areas of Japan, namely the Tokyo metro area. The Japanese government responded early during the pandemic by identifying infected patients, contact tracing, and performing PCR analysis on anyone who was suspected of having been exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The government has also been publishing information about each individual who tested positive for the virus. Both Hokkaido and Kanagawa started recording COVID-19 cases in the winter of 2020 and have detailed records of thousands of patients, thus providing an invaluable resource for the transmission and behavior of the virus. Methods The current study analyzed the COVID-19 registry data from the Hokkaido and Kanagawa prefectures. The Hokkaido registry contained 1,269 cases (674 (53%) females and 595 (47%) males) recorded between February 14 and July 22, 2020. The Kanagawa registry had 3,123 cases (1,346 (43%) females and 1,777 (57%) males. The final data contained a total of 4,392 cases (2,020 (46%) females and 2,372 (54%) males). By leveraging the information on viral transmission paths available in the registry data, we performed exponential random graph model (ERGM) network analysis to examine demographic and symptomological homophilies of the SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission networks. Results We observed age, symptomatic, and asymptomatic homophilies in both prefectures. Furthermore, those patients who contracted the virus through secondary or tertiary contacts were more likely to be asymptomatic than those who contracted it from primary infection cases. The transmission networks showed that transmission occurred significantly in healthcare settings, as well as in families, although the size of the networks was small in the latter. Most of the transmissions stopped at the primary and secondary levels and no transmission beyond quaternary was observed. We also observed a higher level of asymptomatic transmission in Kanagawa than in Hokkaido. Conclusions Symptom homophilies are an important component of COVID-19 and suggest that nuanced genetic differences in the virus may affect its epithelial cell type range and can thus result in the diversity of symptoms seen in individuals infected by SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, environmental variables such as temperature and humidity may also be playing an important role in the overall pathogenesis of the virus.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315266

ABSTRACT

During the pre-vaccine period, the success of containing the spread of COVID-19 depends upon how communities respond to non-pharmaceutical mitigation policies such as social distancing, wearing of masks, retail and dining constraints, crowd limitation, and shelter-in-place orders. Of these policies, shelter-in-place and social distancing are of central importance. By using county-level mobility data as a measure of a community’s voluntary compliance with social distancing policies, this study found that counties who received strong state social distancing policy directives and who had a high pro-social character showed lower mobility (better social distancing) after states reopened from shelter-in-place orders. Counties that experienced a longer duration of shelter-in-place orders showed higher mobility (less social distancing), implying that the duration of the shelter-in-place order deteriorated social distancing response after reopening. This may be because reopening sent a “safe” signal to these counties or resulted in a response to the pent-up demand inducing higher mobility. The results indicate that implementing shelter-in-place and social distancing policies to slow down the transmission of COVID-19 were not necessarily effective in motivating a county to reduce mobility voluntarily. A county’s pro-social character and the duration of shelter-in-place order should be considered when designing COVID-19 mitigation policies.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315184

ABSTRACT

Background: Numerous epidemiological studies showed close relationships of outdoor air pollution with increased risk of cancer, infection, and cardiopulmonary diseases. However, a very limited number of studies investigate the potential biomarkers of the co-exposures of particle matters (PM) and bioaerosols, especially under current circumstances of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the present study, we aimed to identify metabolic candidate biomarkers that are associated with co-exposure to PM and bioaerosols.Methods: We performed an unbiased gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/LC-MS) approach to detect urinary metabolites of 92 samples from young healthy individuals collected at three different time points with exposure to clean, polluted ambient, and purified air , followed by a cycling test after air re-pollution and re-purification with two additional time points. Subsequently, we compared metabolomic profiles in between two-time points via an integrated analysis, plus KEGG enriched pathway and time series analysis.Findings: We identified 33 and 155 differential metabolites (DMs) associated with PM and bioaerosol exposure, respectively. The results from KEGG data and time series analysis indicated significantly enriched pathways and dynamic alterations of metabolomic profiles, respectively. 16-Dehydroprogesterone and 4-Hydroxyphenylethanol in urine might be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of PM- or bioaerosol-relevant diseases.Interpretation: The present studies revealed dynamic alterations in urinary metabolites of young healthy humans with the cycling of the clean and polluted air environment. Our findings help to investigate detrimental health effects of airborne PM and bioaerosols in a real-time manner and improve clinically diagnostic tools for PM- and bioaerosol-related diseases.Funding Information: This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [NSFC Grant no. 81673958, 82074262, and 81828010];CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences [CIFMS 2016-I2M-3-013];The Drug Innovation Major Project of China [2018ZX09711001-007-002].Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work.Ethics Approval Statement: Our study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Guang'anmen Hospital. All recruited subjects provided written informed consent.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL