Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 118
Filter
1.
Computers in Human Behavior ; : 107295, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1778032

ABSTRACT

Misinformation has become prevalent since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. To understand why people believe and share misinformation, we conducted a nationwide survey during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. We found the indirect effects of COVID-19 risk on people's information accuracy judgment and associated information sharing intention through people's emotional states. People faced with a higher level of COVID-19 risk (measured by a 7-day moving average of daily new deaths or new cases) experienced weaker positive and stronger negative emotions, and heightened emotionality (both the positive and negative emotions) was associated with increased belief in and greater likelihood to share the COVID-19 information regardless of veracity. We also found that only the negative emotion mediated the relation between the COVID-19 risk and the truth discernment regarding accuracy judgment. However, the mediating effect of negative emotion disappeared among people with high analytic thinking ability. These findings suggest that the analytic thinking ability could moderate the destructive relationship between negative emotion and accuracy discernment. Based on a large sample, our findings provide actionable insights for the policymakers to respond to the spread of misinformation appropriately and promptly during the pandemic.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332344

ABSTRACT

Background: Care patterns and TCM constitution affects systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients’ emotion and health while the prevalence of covid-19 may aggravate this situation. Thus, we investigated depression and anxiety level in SSc patients during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify the correlation between care patterns, TCM constitution and patients' emotion. Methods: : This was a cross-sectional study. SSc patients and healthy individuals were surveyed through the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire and a modified care pattern questionnaire. Factors correlated with depression and anxiety were screened by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: : A total of 273 SSc patients and 111 healthy individuals were included. The median age was 45 years in both patient and healthy groups. 74.36% of SSc patients were in depression and 51.65% were in anxiety. 69.60% worked remotely and 50.92% experienced a decrease in income, which were both higher than in the healthy group (38.74%, 29.73%). The proportion of income reduction in the online group (56.19%) was higher than that in the hospital group (33.33%) (P = 0.001). 36.99% of SSc patients had disease progression during the pandemic. Yang-deficiency constitution (82.05%) was the TCM constitution characteristic of SSc patients, while Qi-deficiency(73.63%) and Blood-stasis constitution (57.14%) were also more common. TCM constitution of patients from different sources distributed roughly similar. Qi-deficiency (adjusted OR=2.250) and Qi-stagnation (adjusted OR= 3.824) constitution were significantly associated with depression. The major constitution of dampness-heat was associated with a decrease in depression (adjusted OR=0.160). Remote work during the outbreak (adjusted OR= 1.920), decreasing in income (adjusted OR=3.556), and disease progression (P=0.030) were associated with the occurrence of depression. Conclusion: Chinese SSc patients have a high prevalence of depression and anxiety. The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the care patterns of Chinese SSc patients in terms of work, income, and ways of getting medical support. Within the care patterns, work, income, disease and change of medications were correlates of depression or anxiety in SSc patients. Qi-stagnation and Qi-deficiency constitution were associated with depression, and Qi-stagnation constitution was associated with anxiety in SSc patients. Further research is needed. Trial registration: ChiCTR, ChiCTR2000038796, Registered 02 October 2020, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=62301

3.
Coatings ; 12(3):302, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760420

ABSTRACT

The flexible and wearable capacitive sensors have captured tremendous interest due to their enormous potential for healthcare monitoring, soft robotics, and human−computer interface. However, despite recent progress, there are still pressing challenges to develop a fully integrated textile sensor array with good comfort, high sensitivity, multisensing capabilities, and ultra-light detection. Here, we demonstrate a pressure and non-contact bimodal fabric-only capacitive sensor with highly sensitive and ultralight detection. The graphene nanoplatelets-decorated multidimensional honeycomb fabric and nickel-plated woven fabric serve as the dielectric layer and electrode, respectively. Our textile-only capacitive bimodal sensor exhibits an excellent pressure-sensing sensitivity of 0.38 kPa−1, an ultralow detection limit (1.23 Pa), and cycling stability. Moreover, the sensor exhibits superior non-contact detection performance with a detection distance of 15 cm and a maximum relative capacitance change of 10%. The sensor can successfully detect human motion, such as finger bending, saliva swallowing, etc. Furthermore, a 4 × 4 (16 units) textile-only capacitive bimodal sensor array was prepared and has excellent spatial resolution and response performance, showing great potential for the wearable applications.

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 807332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753361

ABSTRACT

In the early stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most cases are identified as mild or moderate illnesses. Approximately 20% of hospitalised patients become severe or critical at the middle or late stage of the disease. The predictors and risk factors for prognosis in those with mild or moderate disease remain to be determined. Of 694 patients with COVID-19, 231 patients with mild or moderate disease, who were hospitalised at 10 hospitals in Wenzhou and nearby counties in China, were enrolled in this retrospective study from 17 January to 20 March 2020. The outcomes of these patients included progression from mild/moderate illness to severe or critical conditions. Among the 231 patients, 49 (21.2%) had a poor prognosis in the hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher inflammation/coagulopathy/immunology responsive index (ICIRI=[c-reactive protein × fibrinogen × D-dimer]/CD8 T cell count) on admission (OR=345.151, 95% CI=23.014-5176.318) was associated with increased odds ratios for poor prognosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ICIRI predicting severe and critical condition progression was 0.65 (95% CI=0.519-0.782) and 0.80 (95% CI=0.647-0.954), with cut-off values of 870.83 and 535.44, respectively. Conversely, age, sex, comorbidity, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, CD8 T cell count, and c-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels alone at admission were not good predictors of poor prognosis in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. At admission, a novel index, ICIRI, tends to be the most promising predictor of COVID-19 progression from mild or moderate illness to severe or critical conditions.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Inflammation/virology , C-Reactive Protein , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , Humans , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736087

ABSTRACT

Anti-COVID-19 vaccination may have functional implications for immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment in patients with cancer. This study was undertaken to determine whether the safety or efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy is reduced in patients with cancer during COVID-19 vaccination. A large multicenter observational study was conducted in 83 Chinese hospitals between January 28, 2021 and September 30, 2021. A total of 3552 patients were screened and 2048 eligible patients with cancer receiving PD-1 inhibitor treatment were recruited. All enrolled patients had received camrelizumab treatment alone or in conjunction with other cancer therapies. Among these, 1518 (74.1%) patients received the BBIBP-CorV vaccine and were defined as the vaccinated subgroup. The remaining 530 (25.9%) patients did not receive anti-COVID-19 vaccination and were defined as the non-vaccinated subgroup. For all participants, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of camrelizumab treatment, respectively. Propensity score match analysis with the optimal pair matching was used to compare these criteria between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated subgroups. A total of 2048 eligible patients with cancer were included (median age 59 years, 27.6% female). Most patients (98.8%) had metastatic cancer of the lung, liver or intestinal tract. Aside from the PD-1 inhibitor treatment, 55.9% of patients received additional cancer therapies. 1518 (74.1%) patients received the BBIBP-CorV vaccine with only mild side effects reported. The remaining patients did not receive COVID-19 vaccination and had a statistically greater percentage of comorbidities. After matching for age, gender, cancer stage/types, comorbidity and performance status, 1060 patients (530 pairs) were selected for propensity score match analysis. This analysis showed no significant differences in overall response rate (25.3% vs 28.9%, p=0.213) and disease control rate (64.6% vs 67.0%, p=0.437) between vaccinated and non-vaccinated subgroups. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were reported in both subgroups after camrelizumab treatment. Among vaccinated patients who experienced irAEs, the median interval between the first dose of camrelizumab treatment and the first vaccine shot was ≤16 days. Compared with the non-vaccinated subgroup, irAEs in vaccinated patients were more frequently reported as mild (grade 1 or 2 irAEs; 33.8% vs 19.8%, p<0.001) and these patients were less likely to discontinue the PD-1 inhibitor treatment (4.2% vs 20.4%, p<0.001). Severe irAEs (grade 3 irAE or higher) related to camrelizumab treatment were reported, however no significant differences in the frequency of such events were observed between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated subgroups. The COVID-19 vaccine, BBIBP-CorV, did not increase severe anti-PD-1-related adverse events nor did it reduce the clinical efficacy of camrelizumab in patients with cancer. Thus, we conclude that patients with cancer need not suspend anti-PD-1 treatment during COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 178: 106174, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: From the beginning of 2020, our study team formulated a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription named Sanhanhuashi formula (SHHS) to treat COVID-19 patients. Then we conducted several studies to explore the effectiveness of SHHS formula and other influencing factors on prognosis of disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends of patients' characters from 2020 to 2021 based on two separate cohorts, and to explore the influencing factors on incidence of severe COVID-19 conditions, especially the contributions of timely treatment and higher compliance to SHHS formula. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Wuhan, Hubei province and Tonghua, Jilin province. Participants were hospitalized mild to moderate COVID-19 consecutive enrolled patients in Wuhan hospital of traditional Chinese and western medicine (from Feb 13, 2020 to March 8, 2020) and Tonghua central hospital (from Jan 17, 2021 to Feb 5, 2021). Age, sex, time waiting to be hospitalized, medical history, initial symptoms, concomitant medication, and severity of disease were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the associations between various exposures and the outcome, ie. the proportion of patients who were converted to severe status. E-values and its lower control limit (LCL) were calculated for sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Totally, 176 COVID-19 patients in two hospitals were enrolled. 81 patients were from Wuhan hospital of traditional Chinese and western medicine and 95 from Tonghua central hospital. 42 patients used SHHS formula arrival or exceed 7 days, and 2 (4.8%) progressed to severe condition. Among 134 patients who were exposed SHHS less than 7 days, 18 (13.4%) were converted to severe situation. Compared with those diagnosed in 2020, cases in 2021 were characterized as lower rates of initial symptoms (88.9% vs 35.8%, P < 0.001) and concomitant medications ever widely used, eg. antiviral medicine (71.6% vs 43.2%, P < 0.001), antibiotics (61.7% vs 13.7%, P < 0.001) and Chinese patent medicine (76.5% vs 44.2%, P < 0.001). They also waited less time for hospitalization (median: 12 vs 2 days, P < 0.001). The final multivariate logistic regression model showed that age (> 60 yrs) (OR: 3.943; 95% CI: 1.402-11.086; P = 0.009; E-value = 7.35, LCL:2.15), diagnosis year (OR: 0.165; 95% CI: 0.050-0.551; P = 0.003; E-value=11.6, LCL: 3.03) and SHHS exposure (OR: 0.118; 95% CI: 0.014-0.992; P = 0.049; E-value = 16.43, LCL:1.1) were independent risk factors for predicting severe status. CONCLUSIONS: The profile of COVID-19 patients has changed after one year. In addition to age, diagnosis year and SHHS exposure are two new factors to predict the prognosis of disease. The patients diagnosed in 2021 were mainly benefited from timely treatment. Subsequently, adhere to use SHHS formula a quite longer time reduced the number of severe cases. Therefore, both the current epidemic prevention and control measures and increasing compliance to traditional Chinese medicine are effective ways to reducing severe cases and improving public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(10): 2157-2165, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732348

ABSTRACT

Injuries to the central nervous system (CNS) such as stroke, brain, and spinal cord trauma often result in permanent disabilities because adult CNS neurons only exhibit limited axon regeneration. The brain has a surprising intrinsic capability of recovering itself after injury. However, the hostile extrinsic microenvironment significantly hinders axon regeneration. Recent advances have indicated that the inactivation of intrinsic regenerative pathways plays a pivotal role in the failure of most adult CNS neuronal regeneration. Particularly, substantial evidence has convincingly demonstrated that the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is one of the most crucial intrinsic regenerative pathways that drive axonal regeneration and sprouting in various CNS injuries. In this review, we will discuss the recent findings and highlight the critical roles of mTOR pathway in axon regeneration in different types of CNS injury. Importantly, we will demonstrate that the reactivation of this regenerative pathway can be achieved by blocking the key mTOR signaling components such as phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Given that multiple mTOR signaling components are endogenous inhibitory factors of this pathway, we will discuss the promising potential of RNA-based therapeutics which are particularly suitable for this purpose, and the fact that they have attracted substantial attention recently after the success of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination. To specifically tackle the blood-brain barrier issue, we will review the current technology to deliver these RNA therapeutics into the brain with a focus on nanoparticle technology. We will propose the clinical application of these RNA-mediated therapies in combination with the brain-targeted drug delivery approach against mTOR signaling components as an effective and feasible therapeutic strategy aiming to enhance axonal regeneration for functional recovery after CNS injury.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 301: 119027, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700515

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown, atmospheric PM2.5 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) showed the highest reduction in China, but the reasons, being a critical question for future air quality policy design, are not yet clear. In this study, we analyzed the relationships among gaseous precursors, secondary aerosols and atmospheric oxidation capacity in Shenzhen, a megacity in the PRD, during the lockdown period in 2020 and the same period in 2021. The comprehensive observational datasets showed large lockdown declines in all primary and secondary pollutants (including O3). We found that, however, the daytime concentrations of secondary aerosols during the lockdown period and normal period were rather similar when the corresponding odd oxygen (Ox≡O3+NO2, an indicator of photochemical processing avoiding the titration effect of O3 by freshly emitted NO) were at similar levels. Therefore, reduced Ox, rather than the large reduction in precursors, was a direct driver to achieve the decline in secondary aerosols. Moreover, Ox was also found to determine the spatial distribution of intercity PM2.5 levels in winter PRD. Thus, an effective strategy for winter PM2.5 mitigation should emphasize on control of winter O3 formation in the PRD and other regions with similar conditions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323573

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a significant threat to human health, but its clinical manifestations vary greatly among individuals. Early detection and treatment are important for severely ill patients to improve their prognosis and reduce the risk of death. Methods In the present study, serum markers were detected and analyzed in moderately ill and severely ill patients. Results The results found that there were statistically significant differences in age, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and Immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels between severely ill patients and moderately ill patients ( P  < 0.05). The cut-off of using KL-6 alone for the diagnosis of severely ill patients was 298.91 U/mL, with an AUC of 0.737, a sensitivity of 100%, and a specificity of 43%. When the diagnosis was performed using KL-6 in combination with Interleukin-6 (IL-6), an indicator of infection, the AUC was 0.776, with a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 69%, respectively. When the three above were used in combination for diagnosis, the AUC was 0.785, and the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 59%, respectively. After rehabilitation, the serum levels of KL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as antibodies, IgA, IgM and IgG, were significantly lower than those in the early stage of hospitalization. Conclusion In the present study, KL-6 and IgA were found to have some diagnostic efficacy for severely ill patients with COVID-19, but larger cohort studies are still needed for further confirmation, which in turn improves the diagnostic and therapeutic efficiency of severely ill patients.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319496

ABSTRACT

Traditional vaccines against viruses are designed to target their surface proteins, i.e., antigens, which can trigger the immune system to produce specific antibodies to capture and neutralize the viruses. However, viruses often evolve quickly, and their antigens are prone to mutations to avoid recognition by the antibodies (antigenic drift). This limitation of the antibody-mediated immunity could be addressed by the T-cell mediated immunity, which is able to recognize conserved viral HLA peptides presented on virus-infected cells. Thus, by targeting conserved regions on the genome of a virus, T-cell epitope-based vaccines are less subjected to mutations and may work effectively on different strains of the virus. Here we propose a personalized workflow to identify an optimal set of T-cell epitopes based on the HLA alleles and the immunopeptidome of an individual person. Specifically, our workflow trains a machine learning model on the immunopeptidome and then predicts HLA peptides from conserved regions of a virus that are most likely to trigger responses from the person T cells. We applied the workflow to identify T-cell epitopes for the SARS-COV-2 virus, which has caused the recent COVID-19 pandemic in more than 100 countries across the globe.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316850

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection is a global public health issue and has now affected more than 70 countries worldwide. Severe adult respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia is associated with high risk of mortality. However, prognostic factors assessing poor clinical outcomes of individual patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia remain unclear. Methods: : We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study of patients with SARS-CoV-2 who were admitted to four hospitals in Wuhan, China from December 2019 to February 2020. Mortality at the of end of follow up period was the primary outcome. Prognostic factors for mortality were also assessed and a prognostic model was developed, calibrated and validated. Results: : The study included 492 patients with SARS-CoV-2, which were divided into three cohorts, the training cohort (n=237), the validation cohort 1 (n=120), and the validation cohort 2 (n=135). Multivariate analysis showed that five clinical parameters were predictive of mortality at the end of follow up period, including age, odds ratio (OR), 1.1 / years increase (p<0.001);neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio OR, 1.14 (p<0.001), body temperature on admission OR, 1.53 / °C increase (p=0.005), increase of aspartate transaminase OR, 2.47 (p=0.019), and decrease of total protein OR, 1.69 (p=0.018).Furthermore, the prognostic model drawn from the training cohort was validated with the validation cohort 1 and 2 with comparable area under curve (AUC) at 0.912, 0.928, and 0.883, respectively. While individual survival probabilities were assessed, the model yielded a Harrell’s C index of 0.758 for the training cohort, 0.762 for the validation cohort 1, and 0.711 for the validation cohort 2, which were comparable among each other. Conclusions: : A validated prognostic model was developed to assist in determining the clinical prognosis for SARS- CoV-2 pneumonia. Using this established model, individual patients categorized in the high risk group were associated with an increased risk of mortality, whereas patients predicted in the low risk group had a high probability of survival.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316849

ABSTRACT

Background: Elderly patients infected with COVID-19 are reported to be facing a substantially increased risk of mortality. Clinical characteristics, treatment options, and potential survival factors remain under investigation. This study aimed to fill this gap and provide clinically relevant factors associated with survival of elderly patients with COVID-19.MethodsIn this multi-center study, elderly patients (age ≥65 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 4 Wuhan hospitals were included. The clinical end point was hospital discharge or deceased with last date of follow-up on Mar. 08, 2020. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were collected.Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to analyze survival and risk factors. A metabolic flux analysis using a large-scale molecular model was applied to investigate the pathogenesis of SARS- CoV-2 with regard to metabolism pathways.ResultsA total of 223 elderly patients infected with COVID-19 were included, 91 (40.8%) were discharged and 132 (59.2%) deceased. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) developed in 140 (62.8%) patients, 23 (25.3%) of these patients survived. Multivariate analysis showed that potential risk factors were D- Dimer (odds ratio: 1.13 [95% CI 1.04 - 1.22], p=.005), immune-related metabolic index (6.42 [95% CI 2.66 - 15.48], p<.001), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (1.08 [95% 1.03 - 1.13], p<.001). Elderly patients receiving interferon atmotherapy showed an increased probability of survival (0.29 [95% CI0.17 - 0.51], p<.001). Based on these factors, an algorithm (AlgSurv) was developed to predict survival for elderly patients. The metabolic flux analysis showed that 12 metabolic pathways including phenylalanine (odds ratio: 28.27 [95% CI 10.56 - 75.72], p<0.001), fatty acid (15.61 [95% CI 6.66 - 36.6], p<0.001), and pyruvate (12.86 [95% CI 5.85 - 28.28], p<0.001) showed a consistently lower flux in the surviving versus the deceased subgroup. This may reflect a key pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection.ConclusionAlthough a high mortality has been reported for elderly patients with COVID-19, in this analysis, several factors such as interferon atmotherapy and activity of metabolic pathways were found to be associated with survival of elderly patients. Based on these findings, the survival algorithm (AlgSurv) was developed to assist the clinical stratification for elderly patients. Deregulation of metabolic pathways revealed in this study may aid in the drug development against COVID-19.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315414

ABSTRACT

Background: Sub-health status (SHS) is an intermediate status between health and disease. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sub-health status among college students during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and analyze its influencing factors in order to provide basic information to increase the health level of college students. Methods: : College students were selected as subjects from Guangzhou Baiyun Technician College Business using convenience sampling. The inclusion criteria was informed consent, current college students who voluntarily participated in this survey. Exclusion criteria were students with chronic diseases or mental disorders. General data questionnaire, daily lifestyle questionnaire, and SHS measurement scale were used to survey college students. The SHS measurement scale consists of three subscales covering the physiological (1-14 items), psychological (16-27 items), and social (29-37 items) dimensions, with 39 items in total. The items 15, 28, 38 and 39 were used for the overall evaluation of the health status within each dimension and would not be taken into account for the score rating. A commonly used 5-point Likert scale was developed to incorporate the positive items, including questions 1-3, 13-19, and 26-39 with a scaled score equal to the raw score at 1-5;while negative items including questions 4-12 and 20-25 with a scaled score equal to 6 minus the raw score. For each subscale, the sum of all item scores was the raw score. The total raw score was calculated as the sum of raw scores derived from all 3 sub-scales. For any individual dimension, a lower score indicated higher severity of SHS. For sub-scales and the whole scale, raw scores were converted into percentile scores for statistical analysis. Converted score = (raw score - minimum theoretical score) / (maximum theoretical score – minimum theoretical score) × 100. The highest and lowest converted scores of the three subscales were 0 and 100 respectively. In this study, analysis of sub-health was performed using converted scores for all subscales and the whole scale. Based on the sub-health measurement scale, the health condition of subjects would be assessed as disease status (scored < 54), SHS (scored 54 to 79) and health status. From March 6 to 16, 2020, an online survey was conducted via wjx.cn (an online platform available for questionnaire sources). A total of 16,163 students filled out the questionnaire. Results: : During the COVID-19 pandemic, the detected prevalence of sub-health among college students was 64.4%.the total SHS score was 73.356 ± 11.115 points, the physiological SHS score was 81.284 ± 11.034 points, the psychological SHS score was 68.691 ± 12.559 points, and the social SHS score was 67.242 ± 17.112 points. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that eating irregular meals, exercising fewer times per week, sleeping fewer hours per night, sleeping after 11 PM more often, spending more time on electronic devices, exercising for fewer minutes each time, and skipping breakfast had the significant negative impact on the SHS scores of college students during the COVID-19 pandemic (P<0.05), while being the only child had a significant positive impact on the SHS scores of college students during the COVID-19 pandemic (P<0.05). Conclusions: : During the COVID-19 pandemic, the detected prevalence of sub-health was high among college students. Society and schools should pay more attention to the health of college students during the COVID-19 pandemic and take pertinence action to solve the problem base on influencing factors.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315260

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, many data analyses have been done. Some of them are based on the classical epidemiological approach that assumes an exponential growth, but a few studies report that a power-law scaling may provide a better fit to the currently available data. Hereby, we examine the data in China (01/20/2020--02/24/2020), and indeed find that the growth closely follows a power-law kinetics over a significantly wide time period. The exponents are $2.48(20)$, $2.21(6)$ and $4.26(12)$ for the number of confirmed infections, deaths and cured cases, respectively, indicating an underlying small-world network structure in the pandemic. While no obvious deviations from the power-law growth can be seen yet for the number of deaths and cured cases, negative deviations have clearly appeared in the number of infections, particularly that for the region outside Hubei. This suggests the beginning of the slowing-down of the virus spreading due to the huge containment effort. Meanwhile, we find that despite the dramatic difference in magnitudes, the growth kinetics of the infection number exhibits much similarity for Hubei province and the region outside Hubei. On this basis, in log-log plot, we rescale the infection number for the region outside Hubei such that it overlaps as much as possible with the total infection number in China, from which an approximate extrapolation yields the maximum of the pandemic around March 3, 2020, with the number of infections about $83,000$. Further, by analyzing the kinetics of the mortality in log-log scale, we obtains a rough estimate that near March 3, the death rate of COVID-19 would be about $4.7\%\thicksim 5.0\%$ for Hubei province and $0.7\%\thicksim1.0\%$ for the region outside Hubei. We emphasize that our predictions may be quantitatively unreliable, since the data analysis is purely empirical and various assumptions are used.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315259

ABSTRACT

Background: During the fight against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) has been widely applied to treat COVID-19 patients. Retrospective studies showed that QFPDD could improve clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Thus, it is necessary and interesting to explore the action mode of QFPDD for further application and development. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, QFPDD (n=9) and control (n=10) groups. They were parallelly treated for 12 days with QFPDD and warm distilled water, respectively. At the endpoint, the microRNA (miRNA or miR) profiles in serum were detected to identify differently expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Then, the action mode of QFPDD were explored via review of potential roles of DEMs and functional enrichment analysis of their targets (e.g., GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis), especially focusing on the aspects of immunity, inflammation, virus infection and pulmonary fibrosis. Core genes were identified based on KEGG pathway analysis. Metabolomics were detected in serum and significantly changed metabolites (SCMs), especially the metabolic substrates and products of enzyme of core gene were identified as biomarkers to validate the regulation of DEMs to enzyme activity of core gene through metabolomic analysis and linear correlation analysis between SCMs and DEMs. Results: 23 DEMs were identified in the serum between QFPDD and control groups, with 1636 predicted genes. Reported evidence has showed that both the DEMs and their target genes involve regulation of immunity, inflammation, virus infection and pulmonary fibrosis. Phospholipase C, gamma 1 (Plcg1) was identified as a core gene and predicted to be upregulated attributed to downregulation of novel-89-mature. The levels of three SCMs, PC(P-18:1(11Z)/22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)), PC(22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)/P-18:0) and PC(16:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)), which were the metabolic substrates of phospholipase C, were significantly reduced in QFPDD group, in addition, PC(P-18:1(11Z)/22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)) and PC(22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)/P-18:0) presented positively linear correlation with the expression level of novel-89-mature. The level of phosphorylcholine, a product of PCs metabolized by phospholipase C, was significantly elevated in QFPDD group. Conclusion: QFPDD can induce modification of miRNAs profile, and subsequently multi-regulate the immunity, inflammation, virus infection and pulmonary fibrosis in vivo, playing an important role for the positive outcomes of COVID-19 patients treated by QFPDD in China.

16.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 12(1): 4, 2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682152

ABSTRACT

The most recent outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus, named as COVID-19, caused pneumonia epidemic in Wuhan with 2121 deaths cases as of February 20th 2020. Identification of effective antiviral agents to combat the novel coronavirus is urgently needed. Citrus fruit peel or wild citrus are rich in flavonoids, and clinically documented for roles in relief of cough and promotion of digestive health. Therefore, citrus fruits are assumed to possess antivirus activities or enhance the host immunity. A previous study found that hesperetin could act as a high potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV 3CLpro. We determined six flavonoid compounds' content in three citrus species by using LC-MS technique. The content of naringin and naringenin was at higher levels in pummelo. Hesperetin and hesperidin were highly accumulated in mandarin and sweet orange. The subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that naringin could inhibit the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines (COX-2, iNOS, IL-1ß and IL-6) induced by LPS in Raw macrophage cell line, and may restrain cytokine through inhibiting HMGB1 expression in a mouse model. The results revealed that naringin may have a potential application for preventing cytokine storm. We simulated molecular docking to predict the binding affinity of those flavonoids to bind Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), which is a receptor of the coronavirus. Consideration of the potential anti-coronavirus and anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids, the citrus fruit or its derived phytochemicals are promising in the use of prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 27, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: People with lower levels of health literacy are likely to report engaging in information avoidance. However, health information avoidance has been overlooked in previous research on responses to viral outbreaks. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey study was to assess the relationship between health literacy and COVID-19 information avoidance. Students (n = 561) at a university in the south central region of the U.S. completed our online survey conducted from April to June 2020 using simple random sampling. We measured information avoidance and the degree to which people opt not to learn about COVID-19 when given the choice. We assessed participants' health literacy level using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS), and All Aspect of Health Literacy Scale (AAHLS). RESULTS: Those with lower health literacy were more likely to avoid information about COVID-19. This negative association between health literacy and information avoidance was consistent across all types of health literacy measures: NVS scores (b = - 0.47, p = 0.033), eHEALS scores (b = - 0.12, p = 0.003), functional health literacy (b = - 0.66, p = 0.001), communicative health literacy (b = - 0.94, p < 0.001), information appraisal (b = - 0.36, p = 0.004), and empowerment (b = - 0.62, p = 0.027). The double burden of low health literacy and high information avoidance is likely to lead to a lack of knowledge about COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Telemedicine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Comput Biol Med ; 143: 105241, 2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, the value of natural products has been extensively considered because these resources can potentially be applied to prevent and treat coronavirus pneumonia 2019 (COVID-19). However, the discovery of nature drugs is problematic because of their complex composition and active mechanisms. METHODS: This comprehensive study was performed on flavonoids, which are compounds with anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, to show drug discovery and active mechanism from natural products in the treatment of COVID-19 via a systems pharmacological model. First, a chemical library of 255 potential flavonoids was constructed. Second, the pharmacodynamic basis and mechanism of action between flavonoids and COVID-19 were explored by constructing a compound-target and target-disease network, targets protein-protein interaction (PPI), MCODE analysis, gene ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. RESULTS: In total, 105 active flavonoid components were identified, of which 6 were major candidate compounds (quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), luteolin, fisetin, wogonin, and licochalcone A). 152 associated targets were yielded based on network construction, and 7 family proteins (PTGS, GSK3ß, ABC, NOS, EGFR, and IL) were included as central hub targets. Moreover, 528 GO items and 178 KEGG pathways were selected through enrichment of target functions. Lastly, molecular docking demonstrated good stability of the combination of selected flavonoids with 3CL Pro and ACEⅡ. CONCLUSION: Natural flavonoids could enable resistance against COVID-19 by regulating inflammatory, antiviral, and immune responses, and repairing tissue injury. This study has scientific significance for the selective utilization of natural products, medicinal value enhancement of flavonoids, and drug screening for the treatment of COVID-19 induced by SARS-COV-2.

20.
Sustainability ; 14(3):1121, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625431

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has unexpectedly affected the educational process worldwide, forcing teachers and students to transfer to an online teaching and learning format. Compared with the traditional face-to-face teaching methods, teachers’professional role, career satisfaction level, and digital literacy have been challenged in the COVID-19 health crisis. To conduct a systematic review, we use critical appraisal tools from the University of the West of England Framework We removed the irrelevant and lower-quality results to refine the results and scored each selected paper to get high-quality studies with STARLITE. The number of finally included studies is 21. We used the PICO mnemonic to structure the four components of a clinical question, i.e., the relevant patients or population groups, the intervention (exposure or diagnostic procedure) of interest, as well as against whom the intervention is being compared and considered appropriate (outcomes). We formulated five research questions regarding teachers’professional role, satisfaction, digital literacy, higher educational practice, and sustainable education. The study found that teachers’professional roles changed complicatedly. Moreover, they were assigned more tasks during the online teaching process, which also implicated a decline in teachers’satisfaction. After the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to conduct a blended teaching model in educational institutes. Teachers should have adequate digital literacy to meet the new needs of the currently innovative educational model in the future. In addition, the study reveals that teachers’digital literacy level, career satisfaction, and professional role are significantly correlated. We measured to what degree the three factors affected the online teaching and learning process. Ultimately, the study may provide some suggestions for methodological and educational strategies.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL