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1.
Nature ; 604(7904): 134-140, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671590

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 261 million people and has led to more than 5 million deaths in the past year and a half1 ( https://www.who.org/ ). Individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection typically develop mild-to-severe flu-like symptoms, whereas infection of a subset of individuals leads to severe-to-fatal clinical outcomes2. Although vaccines have been rapidly developed to combat SARS-CoV-2, there has been a dearth of antiviral therapeutics. There is an urgent need for therapeutics, which has been amplified by the emerging threats of variants that may evade vaccines. Large-scale efforts are underway to identify antiviral drugs. Here we screened approximately 18,000 drugs for antiviral activity using live virus infection in human respiratory cells and validated 122 drugs with antiviral activity and selectivity against SARS-CoV-2. Among these candidates are 16 nucleoside analogues, the largest category of clinically used antivirals. This included the antivirals remdesivir and molnupiravir, which have been approved for use in COVID-19. RNA viruses rely on a high supply of nucleoside triphosphates from the host to efficiently replicate, and we identified a panel of host nucleoside biosynthesis inhibitors as antiviral. Moreover, we found that combining pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors with antiviral nucleoside analogues synergistically inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in vivo against emerging strains of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting a clinical path forward.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Nucleosides , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Nucleosides/analogs & derivatives , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
2.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103803, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a great threat to global public health since 2020. Although the advance on vaccine development has been largely achieved, a strategy to alleviate immune overactivation in severe COVID-19 patients is still needed. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated with COVID-19 severity. However, the processes by which the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in COVID-19 disease remain unclear. METHODS: We infected THP-1 derived macrophages, NLRP3 knockout mice, and human ACE2 transgenic mice with live SARS-CoV-2 in Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory. We performed quantitative real-time PCR for targeted viral or host genes from SARS-CoV-2 infected mouse tissues, conducted histological or immunofluorescence analysis in SARS-CoV-2 infected mouse tissues. We also injected intranasally AAV-hACE2 or intraperitoneally NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 before SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice as indicated. FINDINGS: We have provided multiple lines of evidence that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the lungs. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuated the release of COVID-19 related pro-inflammatory cytokines in cell cultures and mice. The severe pathology induced by SARS-CoV-2 in lung tissues was reduced in Nlrp3-/- mice compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Finally, specific inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome by MCC950 alleviated excessive lung inflammation and thus COVID-19 like pathology in human ACE2 transgenic mice. INTERPRETATION: Inflammatory activation induced by SARS-CoV-2 is an important stimulator of COVID-19 related immunopathology. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome is a promising immune intervention against severe COVID-19 disease. FUNDING: This work was supported by grants from the Bureau of Frontier Sciences and Education, CAS (grant no. QYZDJ-SSW-SMC005 to Y.G.Y.), the key project of the CAS "Light of West China" Program (to D.Y.) and Yunnan Province (202001AS070023 to D.Y.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Macrophages , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , THP-1 Cells
3.
Mol Biomed ; 2(1): 29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515465

ABSTRACT

In the face of the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop a vaccine that can induce fast, effective, long-lasting and broad protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein vaccine candidate adjuvanted by PIKA, which can induce robust cellular and humoral immune responses. The results showed a high level of neutralizing antibodies induced by the vaccine was maintained for at least 400 days. In the study of non-human primates, PIKA adjuvanted S-trimer induced high SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers and protected from virus replication in the lung following SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In addition, the long-term neutralizing antibody response induced by S-trimer vaccine adjuvanted by PIKA could neutralize multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and there is no obvious different among the SARS- CoV-2 variants of interest or concern, including B.1.351, B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2 variants. These data support the utility of S-trimer protein adjuvanted by PIKA as a potential vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s43556-021-00054-z.

4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 328, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392810

ABSTRACT

Understanding the pathological features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in an animal model is crucial for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we compared immunopathological changes in young and old rhesus macaques (RMs) before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection at the tissue level. Quantitative analysis of multiplex immunofluorescence staining images of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection specifically induced elevated levels of apoptosis, autophagy, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)+ cells, and increased interferon α (IFN-α)- and interleukin 6 (IL-6)-secreting cells and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3)+ cells in lung tissue of old RMs. This pathological pattern, which may be related to the age-related pro-inflammatory microenvironment in both lungs and spleens, was significantly correlated with the systemic accumulation of CXCR3+ cells in lungs, spleens, and peripheral blood. Furthermore, the ratio of CXCR3+ to T-box protein expression in T cell (T-bet)+ (CXCR3+/T-bet+ ratio) in CD8+ cells may be used as a predictor of severe COVID-19. These findings uncovered the impact of aging on the immunopathology of early SARS-CoV-2 infection and demonstrated the potential application of CXCR3+ cells in predicting severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Lung/immunology , Receptors, CXCR3/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male
5.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 847-860, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387284

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. 2-E proteins were found to form a type of pH-sensitive cation channels in bilayer lipid membranes. As observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, heterologous expression of 2-E channels induced rapid cell death in various susceptible cell types and robust secretion of cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. Intravenous administration of purified 2-E protein into mice caused ARDS-like pathological damages in lung and spleen. A dominant negative mutation lowering 2-E channel activity attenuated cell death and SARS-CoV-2 production. Newly identified channel inhibitors exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and excellent cell protective activity in vitro and these activities were positively correlated with inhibition of 2-E channel. Importantly, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of the channel inhibitor effectively reduced both the viral load and secretion of inflammation cytokines in lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2). Our study supports that 2-E is a promising drug target against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Half-Life , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spleen/metabolism , Spleen/pathology , Viral Load , Virulence
6.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 847-860, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265947

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. 2-E proteins were found to form a type of pH-sensitive cation channels in bilayer lipid membranes. As observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, heterologous expression of 2-E channels induced rapid cell death in various susceptible cell types and robust secretion of cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. Intravenous administration of purified 2-E protein into mice caused ARDS-like pathological damages in lung and spleen. A dominant negative mutation lowering 2-E channel activity attenuated cell death and SARS-CoV-2 production. Newly identified channel inhibitors exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and excellent cell protective activity in vitro and these activities were positively correlated with inhibition of 2-E channel. Importantly, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of the channel inhibitor effectively reduced both the viral load and secretion of inflammation cytokines in lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2). Our study supports that 2-E is a promising drug target against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Half-Life , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spleen/metabolism , Spleen/pathology , Viral Load , Virulence
7.
Science ; 371(6536): 1374-1378, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255508

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continually poses serious threats to global public health. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a central role in viral replication. We designed and synthesized 32 new bicycloproline-containing Mpro inhibitors derived from either boceprevir or telaprevir, both of which are approved antivirals. All compounds inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.6 to 748.5 nM. The cocrystal structure of Mpro in complex with MI-23, one of the most potent compounds, revealed its interaction mode. Two compounds (MI-09 and MI-30) showed excellent antiviral activity in cell-based assays. In a transgenic mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, oral or intraperitoneal treatment with MI-09 or MI-30 significantly reduced lung viral loads and lung lesions. Both also displayed good pharmacokinetic properties and safety in rats.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Humans , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Oligopeptides , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication
8.
Sci Immunol ; 6(59)2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234281

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic, resulting millions of infections and deaths with few effective interventions available. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 evades interferon (IFN) activation in respiratory epithelial cells, resulting in a delayed response in bystander cells. Since pretreatment with IFNs can block viral infection, we reasoned that pharmacological activation of innate immune pathways could control SARS-CoV-2 infection. To identify potent antiviral innate immune agonists, we screened a panel of 75 microbial ligands that activate diverse signaling pathways and identified cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), canonical STING agonists, as antiviral. Since CDNs have poor bioavailability, we tested the small molecule STING agonist diABZI, and found that it potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection of diverse strains including variants of concern (B.1.351) by transiently stimulating IFN signaling. Importantly, diABZI restricts viral replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells and in mice in vivo. Our study provides evidence that activation of STING may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to control SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Interferons/immunology , Membrane Proteins/agonists , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Zool Res ; 42(3): 350-353, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231641

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has become an unprecedented global health emergency. At present, SARS-CoV-2-infected nonhuman primates are considered the gold standard animal model for COVID-19 research. Here, we showed that northern pig-tailed macaques ( Macaca leonina, NPMs) supported SARS-CoV-2 replication. Furthermore, compared with rhesus macaques, NPMs showed rapid viral clearance in lung tissues, nose swabs, throat swabs, and rectal swabs, which may be due to higher expression of interferon (IFN)-α in lung tissue. However, the rapid viral clearance was not associated with good outcome. In the second week post infection, NPMs developed persistent or even more severe inflammation and body injury compared with rhesus macaques. These results suggest that viral clearance may have no relationship with COVID-19 progression and SARS-CoV-2-infected NPMs could be considered as a critically ill animal model in COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Macaca nemestrina , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Interferon-alpha/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Nose/virology , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Cell Rep ; 35(1): 108959, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163484

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for antivirals to treat the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To identify new candidates, we screen a repurposing library of ∼3,000 drugs. Screening in Vero cells finds few antivirals, while screening in human Huh7.5 cells validates 23 diverse antiviral drugs. Extending our studies to lung epithelial cells, we find that there are major differences in drug sensitivity and entry pathways used by SARS-CoV-2 in these cells. Entry in lung epithelial Calu-3 cells is pH independent and requires TMPRSS2, while entry in Vero and Huh7.5 cells requires low pH and triggering by acid-dependent endosomal proteases. Moreover, we find nine drugs are antiviral in respiratory cells, seven of which have been used in humans, and three are US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, including cyclosporine. We find that the antiviral activity of cyclosporine is targeting Cyclophilin rather than calcineurin, revealing essential host targets that have the potential for rapid clinical implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vero Cells
12.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 161-169, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070034

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to impact countries worldwide. At present, inadequate diagnosis and unreliable evaluation systems hinder the implementation and development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Here, we conducted a horizontal and longitudinal study comparing the detection rates of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in different types of samples collected from COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2-infected monkeys. We also detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the above clinical and animal model samples to identify a reliable approach for the accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results showed that, regardless of clinical symptoms, the highest detection levels of viral nucleic acid were found in sputum and tracheal brush samples, resulting in a high and stable diagnosis rate. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies were not detected in 6.90% of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, integration of nucleic acid detection results from the various sample types did not improve the diagnosis rate. Moreover, dynamic changes in SARS-CoV-2 viral load were more obvious in sputum and tracheal brushes than in nasal and throat swabs. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection in sputum and tracheal brushes was the least affected by infection route, disease progression, and individual differences. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection using lower respiratory tract samples alone is reliable for COVID-19 diagnosis and study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/veterinary , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Disease Models, Animal , Haplorhini , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pharynx/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Specimen Handling , Sputum/virology
13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : 2002928, 2020 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-896621

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The models that can accurately resemble human-relevant responses to viral infection are lacking. Here, we create a biomimetic human disease model on chip that allows to recapitulate lung injury and immune responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 in vitro at organ level. This human alveolar chip reproduced the key features of alveolar-capillary barrier by co-culture of human alveolar epithelium, microvascular endothelium and circulating immune cells under fluidic flow in normal and disease. Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, the epithelium exhibited higher susceptibility to virus than endothelium. Transcriptional analyses showed activated innate immune responses in epithelium and cytokine-dependent pathways in endothelium at 3 days post-infection, revealing the distinctive responses in different cell types. Notably, viral infection caused the immune cell recruitment, endothelium detachment, and increased inflammatory cytokines release, suggesting the crucial role of immune cells involving in alveolar barrier injury and exacerbated inflammation. Treatment with remdesivir could inhibit viral replication and alleviate barrier disruption on chip. This organ chip model can closely mirror human-relevant responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is difficult to be achieved by in vitro models, providing a unique platform for COVID-19 research and drug development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Zool Res ; 41(5): 503-516, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709116

ABSTRACT

As of June 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has killed an estimated 440 000 people worldwide, 74% of whom were aged ≥65 years, making age the most significant risk factor for death caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To examine the effect of age on death, we established a SARS-CoV-2 infection model in Chinese rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) of varied ages. Results indicated that infected young macaques manifested impaired respiratory function, active viral replication, severe lung damage, and infiltration of CD11b + and CD8 + cells in lungs at one-week post infection (wpi), but also recovered rapidly at 2 wpi. In contrast, aged macaques demonstrated delayed immune responses with a more severe cytokine storm, increased infiltration of CD11b + cells, and persistent infiltration of CD8 + cells in the lungs at 2 wpi. In addition, peripheral blood T cells from aged macaques showed greater inflammation and chemotaxis, but weaker antiviral functions than that in cells from young macaques. Thus, the delayed but more severe cytokine storm and higher immune cell infiltration may explain the poorer prognosis of older aged patients suffering SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Age Factors , Aging/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/veterinary , Inflammation/virology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Monkey Diseases/immunology , Monkey Diseases/virology , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/veterinary , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Viral Load/immunology , Viral Load/veterinary , Virus Replication/immunology
15.
Zool Res ; 41(5): 517-526, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671953

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to pose a global threat to the human population. Identifying animal species susceptible to infection with the SARS-CoV-2/ HCoV-19 pathogen is essential for controlling the outbreak and for testing valid prophylactics or therapeutics based on animal model studies. Here, different aged Chinese tree shrews (adult group, 1 year old; old group, 5-6 years old), which are close relatives to primates, were infected with SARS-CoV-2. X-ray, viral shedding, laboratory, and histological analyses were performed on different days post-inoculation (dpi). Results showed that Chinese tree shrews could be infected by SARS-CoV-2. Lung infiltrates were visible in X-ray radiographs in most infected animals. Viral RNA was consistently detected in lung tissues from infected animals at 3, 5, and 7 dpi, along with alterations in related parameters from routine blood tests and serum biochemistry, including increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Histological analysis of lung tissues from animals at 3 dpi (adult group) and 7 dpi (old group) showed thickened alveolar septa and interstitial hemorrhage. Several differences were found between the two different aged groups in regard to viral shedding peak. Our results indicate that Chinese tree shrews have the potential to be used as animal models for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tupaiidae/physiology , Age Factors , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tupaiidae/virology , Virus Shedding/physiology
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