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1.
Journal of Personalized Medicine ; 11(11):1106, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1488658

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of myocarditis/pericarditis incidences has been reported after coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccination in adolescents and young adults. This study was designed to investigate the incidence rate of—and risk for—myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination in the United States according to age and vaccine type. This study used the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) from 11 December 2020 to 13 August 2021. A population-based data mining approach was performed based on the reporting odds ratio (ROR). Adverse events of myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination were rare, with an incidence rate of 5.98 (95% CI = 5.73–6.24) cases per million doses administered. The incidence rate was higher in adolescents and after the administration of the second dose of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. Overall, two mRNA vaccines were significantly associated with increased risks for myocarditis/pericarditis (mRNA-1273 (Moderna): ROR = 2.91, 95% CI = 2.21–3.83;BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech): ROR = 5.37, 95% CI = 4.10–7.04) compared to all other vaccines from VAERS. The viral vector vaccine of Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) was not associated with signals of myocarditis/pericarditis (ROR = 1.39;95% CI = 0.99–1.97). This study found increased risks for myocarditis/pericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. For patients at high risk for myocarditis/pericarditis or with myocardial injuries, the viral vector vaccine may be an alternative for consideration.

2.
J Pers Med ; 11(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438652

ABSTRACT

Data from the early stage of a novel infectious disease outbreak provide vital information in risk assessment, prediction, and precise disease management. Since the first reported case of COVID-19, the pattern of the novel coronavirus transmission in Wuhan has become the interest of researchers in epidemiology and public health. To thoroughly map the mechanism of viral spreading, we used the patterns of data at the early onset of COVID-19 from seven countries to estimate the time lag between peak days of cases and deaths. This study compared these data with those of Wuhan and estimated the natural history of disease across the infected population and the time lag. The findings suggest that comparative analyses of data from different regions and countries reveal the differences between peaks of cases and deaths caused by COVID-19 and the incomplete and underestimated cases in Wuhan. Different countries may show different patterns of cases peak days, deaths peak days, and peak periods. Error in the early COVID-19 statistics in Brazil was identified. This study provides sound evidence for policymakers to understand the local circumstances in diagnosing the health of a population and propose precise and timely public health interventions to control and prevent infectious diseases.

3.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 95:311-315, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409680

ABSTRACT

Objectives: As a global pandemic is inevitable, real-time monitoring of transmission is vital for containing the spread of COVID-19. The main objective of this study was to report the real-time effective reproduction numbers (R(t)) and case fatality rates (CFR) in Europe.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397041

ABSTRACT

Many studies have evaluated factors that influence the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in different countries. This multicountry study assessed the influence of democracy and other factors on the case fatality rate of COVID-19 during the early stage of the pandemic. We accessed the World Health Organization, World Bank, and the Democracy Index 2019 databases for data from the 148 countries. Multiple analyses were conducted to examine the association between the Democracy Index and case fatality rate of COVID-19. Within 148 countries, the percentage of the population aged 65 years and above (p = 0.0193), and health expenditure as a percentage of GDP (p = 0.0237) were positively associated with countries' case fatality rates. By contrast, hospital beds per capita helped to reduce the case fatality rates. In particular, the Democracy Index was positively associated with case fatality rates in a subgroup of 47 high-income countries. This study suggests that enhancing the health system with increased hospital beds and healthcare workforce per capita should reduce case fatality rate. The findings suggest that a higher Democracy Index is associated with more deaths from COVID-19 at the early stage of the pandemic, possibly due to the decreased ability of the government.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 700014, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344274

ABSTRACT

Background: Two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have received emergency use authorizations in the U.S. However, the safety of these vaccines in the real-world remains unknown. Methods: We reviewed adverse events (AEs) following COVID-19 vaccination among adults in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from December 14, 2020, through January 22, 2021. We compared the top 10 AEs, serious AEs, along with office and emergency room (ER) visits by age (18-64 years, ≥65 years) and gender (female, male). Results: There were age and gender disparities among adults with AEs following COVID-19 vaccination. Compared to younger adults aged between 18 and 64 years, older adults were more likely to report serious AEs, death, permanent disability, and hospitalization. Males were more likely to report serious AEs, death, and hospitalization compared to females. Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccines are generally safe but possible age and gender disparities in reported AEs may exist.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 700072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295661

ABSTRACT

Objective: As schools are preparing for onsite learning, it is urgently needed to characterize the extent of pandemic worry and to examine predictors of adopting preventive health behaviors of hand washing, face mask wearing, and maintaining social distance among student pharmacists. Methods: An online survey was sent to 326 student pharmacists in the United States. Pandemic worry was measured using a seven-point Likert scale ranging from extremely not afraid of, to extremely afraid of getting COVID-19. The health belief model (HBM) was the theoretical framework of this study. Preventive health behaviors and components of the HBM were also measured using seven-point Likert scales (one indicated extremely unlikely; seven indicated extremely likely). Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify predictors of each behavior. Results: A medium level of pandemic worry (M = 4.2, SD = 1.92) was identified and females reported a higher pandemic worry. Respondents reported that they were extremely likely to wash their hands (M = 6.8, SD = 0.48) and maintain social distance (M = 6.6, SD = 0.92), but were moderately unlikely to wear face masks (M = 2.2, SD = 1.51). Determinants of face mask wearing included pandemic worry, perceived benefits, cue to action, self-efficacy, and being of an Asian American. Perceived barriers were negatively associated with face mask wearing. Conclusion: Strategies should be implemented to reduce the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic among student pharmacists. Predictors identified in this study should be incorporated in efforts to improve face mask wearing. Continued monitoring of pandemic worry and preventive health behaviors is of great significance when universities and colleges are for onsite learning.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 673187, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285311

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding knowledge and behavioral responses to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important for appropriate public health interventions. Objectives: To assess knowledge of COVID-19 and to examine determinants associated with the adoption of preventive health behaviors among future health care providers. Methods: An anonymous online survey was sent out to pharmacy students in high and low-endemic areas of COVID-19 in China. Based on recommendations from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, preventive health behaviors examined in this study included washing hands, wearing a face mask, and maintaining social distancing. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used and measured by a seven-point Likert scale (one as extremely unlikely; seven as extremely likely). Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine predictors of preventive health behaviors. Results: Among 203 respondents who finished the survey, a medium level of knowledge (4.41 ± 0.95) of COVID-19 was reported. Respondents were extremely likely to wear a face mask (6.85 ± 0.60), but only moderately likely to engage in washing hands (5.95 ± 1.38) and maintaining social distancing (6.19 ± 1.60). Determinants of washing hands were cue to action, self-efficacy, knowledge, and gender; wearing a face mask were cue to action, self-efficacy, knowledge, and ethnicity; and maintaining social distancing were cue to action and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Public health interventions should consider incorporating cue to action, self-efficacy, and knowledge as factors to potentially improve the adoption of face mask-wearing, hand washing, and social distancing as appropriate individual preventive measures, especially if local and regional authorities are considering reopening schools sometime in future.

8.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 3640-3649, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272373

ABSTRACT

Severity prediction of COVID-19 remains one of the major clinical challenges for the ongoing pandemic. Here, we have recruited a 144 COVID-19 patient cohort, resulting in a data matrix containing 3,065 readings for 124 types of measurements over 52 days. A machine learning model was established to predict the disease progression based on the cohort consisting of training, validation, and internal test sets. A panel of eleven routine clinical factors constructed a classifier for COVID-19 severity prediction, achieving accuracy of over 98% in the discovery set. Validation of the model in an independent cohort containing 25 patients achieved accuracy of 80%. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 0.70, 0.99, 0.93, and 0.93, respectively. Our model captured predictive dynamics of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) while their levels were in the normal range. This model is accessible at https://www.guomics.com/covidAI/ for research purpose.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 670370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247878

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergency use authorization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines brought both hopes and concerns to the Americans and others. We aimed to estimate the mortality rate of COVID-19 vaccination and presented characteristics of deaths following COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: Data on deaths following COVID-19 vaccination were obtained from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from December 11, 2020 through January 8, 2021. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID Data Tracker was used to identify the total number of people receiving COVID-19 vaccines during the same period to estimate the mortality rate. Stratified analysis was conducted by the location of vaccination. Results: As of January 8, 2021, 55 deaths were reported, and the mortality rate of COVID-19 vaccination was 8.2 per million population. A total of 37 deaths were reported among long-term care facility residents, and the mortality rate was 53.4 per million population. Top reported comorbidities associated with deaths included hypertension, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, and heart failure. In addition, dementia was more likely to be associated with deaths vaccinated at long-term care facilities than at other locations. Conclusion: The benefits of COVID-19 vaccines outweigh the potential risks in older frail populations, and our findings do not support actions to exclude older adults from being vaccinated. However, continued monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination is still warranted.

10.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 8(2): 131-140, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological agents, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, have been promoted for COVID-19 treatment or pre-exposure prophylaxis. However, no comprehensive evaluation of the safety of these possible agents is available, and is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risks of cardiac adverse events associated with the possible pharmacotherapies for COVID-19, including certain antimalarial, antiviral, and antibiotic drugs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conduced retrospective pharmacovigilance analyses of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System database. The reporting odds ratio (ROR), a data mining algorithm commonly used in pharmacovigilance assessment, was generated to quantify the detection signal of adverse events. RESULTS: Among individuals without coronavirus infection from 2015 Q1 to 2020 Q1, increased risks for cardiac disorders were found for antiviral agents such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (ROR: 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-1.70), lopinavir/ritonavir (ROR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.39-1.66), and antibiotics such as azithromycin (ROR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.30-1.44) and ceftriaxone (ROR: 1.92; 95% CI 1.80-2.05). Increased serious cardiac adverse events, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and cardiac arrest, were also reported for these drugs. Further analyses of individuals with coronavirus infections revealed that 40% of individuals receiving chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine reported serious cardiac adverse events. Two cases resulted in QT prolongations and one case resulted in cardiac arrest. Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin contributed to all the QT prolongation and cardiac arrest cases. CONCLUSIONS: The current pharmacotherapies for COVID-19 are associated with increased risks of cardiac adverse events. Variations in the cardiac safety profiles of these pharmacotherapies were also observed. Clinicians should closely monitor patients with COVID-19, especially those at high risk, using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.

11.
Macau Journal of Nursing ; 19(2):14-18, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-994111

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explore the Macao residents' perceived risk of being infected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), their preventing behaviors, and their psychological health status during the epidemic. Method: An online survey was conducted with 3,236 Macao residents from February 6 to 14, 2020. Results: The respondents were worried about being infected but had confidence in the outbreak control in Macao. Most of them were aware of the importance in taking prevention measures and actively followed the prevention guide suggested by the government. Such psychological symptoms as "sad" and "anxious" were relatively common among the respondents, but few of them felt "helpless". Those respondents who were more worried about the risk of being infected than others were more likely to have the prevention behaviors. Meanwhile, the more worried they were, the more likely they were to show psychological symptoms. Those who had "irrational panic-buying" behaviors were most likely to have psychological symptoms. Conclusion: Macao residents' psychological symptoms are associated with their prevention behaviors. Excessive worry and irrational behaviors affect residents' psychological health and their daily life. The worrying residents need to relax and adjust properly to maintain physical and psychological health.

12.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153403, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, countries are struggling with a shortage of medical capacities. It would be essential if the risk for preventable comorbidities, such as the common cold, can be reduced or prevented, so that the scarce medical resources and facilities can be focused on COVID-19. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of two herbal medicines (Jinhaoartemisia antipyretic granules and Huoxiangzhengqi oral liquids) in reducing the risk of the common cold in community-dwelling residents in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective open-label, parallel-group, cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT), was conducted in Chengdu, China. METHODS: A total of 22,065 participants from 11 communities were recruited during a period of one month. The trial started on 30 January and participants were followed up till 29 February 2020. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a five-day herbal medicine therapy plus a reference manual or a reference manual only if they were allocated to the control group. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of patient-reported common cold symptoms. The secondary endpoint was the time in days from the receipt of herbal drugs/reference manual and the occurrence of the common cold symptoms. RESULTS: Use of herbal medicine reduced the risk of the common cold by 89.6% (95% CI, 52.9% to 97.7%) in all community-dwelling residents, and by 94.0% (95% CI, 52.1% to 99.2%) in residents aged between 16 and 59 years old. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. CONCLUSION: This community-based RCT found that the use of a herbal medicine therapy (Jinhaoartemisia antipyretic granules and Huoxiangzhengqi oral liquids) could significantly reduce the risks of the common cold among community-dwelling residents, suggesting that herbal medicine may be a useful approach for public health intervention to minimize preventable morbidity during COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 311-315, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17667

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As a global pandemic is inevitable, real-time monitoring of transmission is vital for containing the spread of COVID-19. The main objective of this study was to report the real-time effective reproduction numbers (R(t)) and case fatality rates (CFR) in Europe. METHODS: Data for this study were obtained mainly from the World Health Organization website, up to March 9, 2020. R(t) were estimated by exponential growth rate (EG) and time-dependent (TD) methods. 'R0' package in R was employed to estimate R(t) by fitting the existing epidemic curve. Both the naïve CFR (nCFR) and adjusted CFR (aCFR) were estimated. RESULTS: With the EG method, R(t) was 3.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.17-3.38) for Italy, 6.32 (95% CI 5.72-6.99) for France, 6.07 (95% CI 5.51-6.69) for Germany, and 5.08 (95% CI 4.51-5.74) for Spain. With the TD method, the R value for March 9 was 3.10 (95% CI 2.21-4.11) for Italy, 6.56 (95% CI 2.04-12.26) for France, 4.43 (95% CI 1.83-7.92) for Germany, and 3.95 (95% CI 0-10.19) for Spain. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides important findings on the early outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe. Due to the recent rapid increase in new cases of COVID-19, real-time monitoring of the transmissibility and mortality in Spain and France is a priority.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Outbreaks , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
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