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1.
International Immunopharmacology ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-689157

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly to more than 215 countries, with over 11 91 million reported cases and more than 540,000 deaths Rapid diagnosis remains a bottleneck for containing the epidemic We used an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay to detect serum IgM and IgG antibodies to the 2019-nCoV in 742 subjects, so as to observe the dynamic process of antibody production in COVID-19 disease and seroepidemiology in different populations Patients with COVID-19 were reactive (positive) for specific antibodies within 3-15 days after onset of symptoms Specific IgM and IgG levels increased with the progression of the disease The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for IgM and IgG were 0 984 and 1 000, respectively This antibody detection assay had good sensitivity and specificity The understanding of the dynamic serological changes of COVID-19 patients and the seroepidemiological situation of the population will be helpful to further control the epidemic of COVID-19

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 2993-3000, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679286

ABSTRACT

To scientifically evaluate the intervention effect of Chinese medicine preventive administration(combined use of Huo-xiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) on community population in the case of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), a large cohort, prospective, randomized, and parallel-controlled clinical study was conducted. Total 22 065 subjects were included and randomly divided into 2 groups. The non-intervention group was given health guidance only, while the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) intervention group was given two coordinated TCM in addition to health guidance. The medical instructions were as follows. Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid: oral before meals, 10 mL/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days. Jinhao Jiere Granules: dissolve in boiling water and take after meals, 8 g/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days, followed up for 14 days, respectively. The study found that with the intake of medication, the incidence rate of TCM intervention group was basically maintained at a low and continuous stable level(0.01%-0.02%), while the non-intervention group showed an overall trend of continuous growth(0.02%-0.18%) from 3 to 14 days. No suspected or confirmed COVID-19 case occurred in either group. There were 2 cases of colds in the TCM intervention group and 26 cases in the non-intervention group. The incidence of colds in the TCM intervention group was significantly lower(P<0.05) than that in the non-intervention group. In the population of 16-60 years old, the incidence rate of non-intervention and intervention groups were 0.01% and 0.25%, respectively. The difference of colds incidence between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05). In the population older than 60 years old, they were 0.04% and 0.21%, respectively. The incidence of colds in the non-intervention group was higher than that in the intervention group, but not reaching statistical difference. The protection rate of TCM for the whole population was 91.8%, especially for the population of age 16-60(95.0%). It was suggested that TCM intervention(combined use of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) could effectively protect community residents against respiratory diseases, such as colds, which was worthy of promotion in the community. In addition, in terms of safety, the incidence of adverse events and adverse reactions in the TCM intervention group was relatively low, which was basically consistent with the drug instructions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
3.
Building and Environment ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-670929

ABSTRACT

Reasonable equipment layout is essential for creating a healthy and safe environment, especially in a three-level biosafety laboratory with high potential risk factors of infection Since 2019, COVID-19, an emerging infection has swept the world and caused severe losses Biosafety laboratories are mandatory sites for detecting high-risk viruses, so related research is urgently needed to prevent further laboratory-acquired infections of operators This study investigated the effects of obstacles on exposure infection of staff in a biosafety laboratory with related experimental equipment The numerical simulation results are highly verified by the measured results The results indicate that although the equipment layout does not affect the bioaerosol removal time, nearly 17% of the pollutant particles in the actual laboratory cannot be discharged effectively compared with the ideal situation These particles lingered in the lower space under the influence of vortex, which would increase the respiratory risk of operators In addition, after the experiment a large part of bioaerosol particles would be captured by equipment and floor, and the deposition rate per unit area is 0 45%/m2 and 0 8%/m2, respectively Although the results show that the equipment layout could reduce the pollution on the floor, the disinfection is still an important link, especially on the surfaces of equipment Meanwhile, the result also indicates that the action should be light and slow when operating in BSL-3 laboratory, so as to avoid the secondary suspension pollution of bioaerosol particles on the equipment surface and floor

4.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; : 108351, 2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664109

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), also referred to as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is instigated by a novel coronavirus. The disease was initially reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Diabetes is a risk factor associated with adverse outcomes. Herein, our objective was to investigate the characteristics of laboratory findings of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This was a retrospective study and included 80 T2DM patients of Jinling Hospital from 2010-2020, as well as 76 COVID-19 patients without T2DM and 55 COVID-19 patients with T2DM who were treated at Huoshen hill Hospital from February 11 to March 18, 2020. We then compared the differences in laboratory test results between the three groups. RESULTS: The levels of lymphocytes, uric acid (UA), and globulin in the T2DM group were significantly higher. In contrast, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)levels were lower than those in the COVID-19 (p < 0.05) and COVID-19 + T2DM groups (p < 0.05). No considerable difference was observed regarding the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell (WBC), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the three groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: T2DM patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed decreased levels of body mass index (BMI), lymphocytes, UA, and albumin, and increased CRP levels. The decreased BMI, UA, and albumin levels may be associated with oxidative stress response and nutritional consumption. The decreased lymphocyte counts and increased CRP levels may be related to the infection.

5.
Open Access (OA) Online-First Publ. Res. Pap. COVID-19 ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-660854

ABSTRACT

A review on function of nutrition on enhancing immune ability during new coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in Guangdong Province Prevention and control guidelines and related patient nutrition on diagnosis and treatment recommended (first edition)

6.
Build Environ ; 179: 106991, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636853

ABSTRACT

Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) are defined as infections of laboratory staff by exposure to pathogenic microorganisms during an experimental procedure. For a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory with a high potential of exposure, reducing risks and threats relevant to LAIs has become a critical concern, especially after the recent outbreak of Novel Coronavirus causing COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. This study aimed to investigate the spatial-temporal characteristics of bioaerosol dispersion and deposition of two kinds of bioaerosols (Serratia marcescens and phage ΦX174). A combination of laboratory experiment and numerical simulation was adopted to explore bioaerosol removal. Three-dimensional concentration iso-surface mapping in conjunction with flow field analysis was employed to elucidate bioaerosol migration and deposition behavior. The total deposition number and unit area deposition ratio were calculated for different surfaces. The results indicate that bioaerosol concentration remains stable for up to 400 s after release, and that almost 70% of all bioaerosol particles become deposited on the surfaces of walls and equipment. Vortex flow regions and high-concentration regions were determined, and the most severely contaminated surfaces and locations were identified. Our results could provide the scientific basis for controlling the time interval between different experiments and also provide guidelines for a laboratory disinfection routine. Furthermore, future work regarding laboratory layout optimization and high efficiency air distribution for bioaerosol removal in a BSL-3 laboratory should be emphasized.

7.
Risk Manage. Healthc. Policy ; (13): 491-499, 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-617042

ABSTRACT

In recent years, respiratory infectious diseases had continued to attack China, threcent outbreak of COVID-19 pneumonia had attracted worldwide attention. Through study-ing the literature, interpreting official documents, analyzing medical and social managemendata, we summarized and compared some powerful measures taken by the Chinese govern-ment, such as declaring emergency state, blocking down the epidemic center, prohibiting crowd gathering activities, forcing residents to wear masks, and mobilizing medical staff and products. We found that these unconventional measures, on the one hand, controlled thspread of the epidemic in China, and on the other hand, exposed some of China’s short-comings in biosafety, food safety, public health input, and emergency system constructionThis paper also recommends that other countries should take strict isolation measures aearly as possible when fighting COVID-19 epidemics, and also mobilize citizens to strengthen self-protection.

8.
Cell ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-549043

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health. The development of a vaccine is urgently needed for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Here, we report the pilot-scale production of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate (BBIBP-CorV) that induces high levels of neutralizing antibodies titers in mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates (cynomolgus monkeys and rhesus macaques) to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2. Two-dose immunizations using 2 μg/dose of BBIBP-CorV provided highly efficient protection against SARS-CoV-2 intratracheal challenge in rhesus macaques, without detectable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. In addition, BBIBP-CorV exhibits efficient productivity and good genetic stability for vaccine manufacture. These results support the further evaluation of BBIBP-CorV in a clinical trial.Wang et al. report the development, characterization, and preclinical evaluation of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate for COVID-19 that safely induces high levels of neutralizing antibodies in multiple mammalian species and protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.

9.
Theranostics ; 10(14): 6372-6383, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-494062

ABSTRACT

Background: The risk factors for adverse events of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) have not been well described. We aimed to explore the predictive value of clinical, laboratory and CT imaging characteristics on admission for short-term outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective, observation study enrolled 703 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to 16 tertiary hospitals from 8 provinces in China between January 10, 2020 and March 13, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, CT imaging findings on admission and clinical outcomes were collected and compared. The primary endpoint was in-hospital death, the secondary endpoints were composite clinical adverse outcomes including in-hospital death, admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation support (IMV). Multivariable Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank test were used to explore risk factors related to in-hospital death and in-hospital adverse outcomes. Results: Of 703 patients, 55 (8%) developed adverse outcomes (including 33 deceased), 648 (92%) discharged without any adverse outcome. Multivariable regression analysis showed risk factors associated with in-hospital death included ≥ 2 comorbidities (hazard ratio [HR], 6.734; 95% CI; 3.239-14.003, p < 0.001), leukocytosis (HR, 9.639; 95% CI, 4.572-20.321, p < 0.001), lymphopenia (HR, 4.579; 95% CI, 1.334-15.715, p = 0.016) and CT severity score > 14 (HR, 2.915; 95% CI, 1.376-6.177, p = 0.005) on admission, while older age (HR, 2.231; 95% CI, 1.124-4.427, p = 0.022), ≥ 2 comorbidities (HR, 4.778; 95% CI; 2.451-9.315, p < 0.001), leukocytosis (HR, 6.349; 95% CI; 3.330-12.108, p < 0.001), lymphopenia (HR, 3.014; 95% CI; 1.356-6.697, p = 0.007) and CT severity score > 14 (HR, 1.946; 95% CI; 1.095-3.459, p = 0.023) were associated with increased odds of composite adverse outcomes. Conclusion: The risk factors of older age, multiple comorbidities, leukocytosis, lymphopenia and higher CT severity score could help clinicians identify patients with potential adverse events.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) broke out in Wuhan. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported, but the relationships between laboratory features and viral load has not been comprehensively described. METHODS: Adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with COVID-19 who underwent multiple (≥ 5 times) nucleic acid tests with nasal and pharyngeal swabs were recruited from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including general patients (n=70), severe patients (n=195) and critical patients (n=43). Laboratory data, demographic and clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. The fitted polynomial curve was used to explore the association between serial viral loads and illness severity. RESULTS: Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 peaked within the first few days (2-4 days) after admission, then decreased rapidly along with virus rebound under treatment. Critical patients had the highest viral loads, in contrast to the general patients showing the lowest viral loads. The viral loads were higher in sputum compared with nasal and pharyngeal swab (p=0.026). The positive rate of respiratory tract samples was significantly higher than that of gastrointestinal tract samples (p<0.001). The SARS-CoV-2 viral load was negatively correlated with portion parameters of blood routine and lymphocyte subsets, and was positively associated with laboratory features of cardiovascular system. CONCLUSIONS: The serial viral loads of patients revealed whole viral shedding during hospitalization and the resurgence of virus during the treatment, which could be used for early warning of illness severity, thus improve antiviral interventions.

12.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(5): 849-850, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-325447
13.
JMIR Ment Health ; 7(5): e19009, 2020 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health consequences of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, community-wide interventions, and social media use during a pandemic are unclear. The first and most draconian interventions have been implemented in Wuhan, China, and these countermeasures have been increasingly deployed by countries around the world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine risk factors, including the use of social media, for probable anxiety and depression in the community and among health professionals in the epicenter, Wuhan, China. METHODS: We conducted an online survey via WeChat, the most widely used social media platform in China, which was administered to 1577 community-based adults and 214 health professionals in Wuhan. Probable anxiety and probable depression were assessed by the validated Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (cutoff ≥3) and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (cutoff ≥3), respectively. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with probable anxiety and probable depression. RESULTS: Of the 1577 community-based adults, about one-fifth of respondents reported probable anxiety (n=376, 23.84%, 95% CI 21.8-26.0) and probable depression (n=303, 19.21%, 95% CI 17.3-21.2). Similarly, of the 214 health professionals, about one-fifth of surveyed health professionals reported probable anxiety (n=47, 22.0%, 95% CI 16.6-28.1) or probable depression (n=41, 19.2%, 95% CI 14.1-25.1). Around one-third of community-based adults and health professionals spent ≥2 hours daily on COVID-19 news via social media. Close contact with individuals with COVID-19 and spending ≥2 hours daily on COVID-19 news via social media were associated with probable anxiety and depression in community-based adults. Social support was associated with less probable anxiety and depression in both health professionals and community-based adults. CONCLUSIONS: The internet could be harnessed for telemedicine and restoring daily routines, yet caution is warranted toward spending excessive time searching for COVID-19 news on social media given the infodemic and emotional contagion through online social networks. Online platforms may be used to monitor the toll of the pandemic on mental health.

14.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2020 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-215615

ABSTRACT

The pandemic novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global concern in which respiratory system is not the only one involved. Previous researches have presented the common clinical manifestations including respiratory symptoms (i.e., fever and cough), fatigue and myalgia. However, there is limited evidence for neurological and psychological influences by SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the common neurological manifestations of COVID-19 including acute cerebrovascular disease (i.e., cerebral hemorrhage) and muscle ache. Possible viral transmission to the nervous system may occur via circulation, an upper nasal transcribrial route and/or conjunctival route. Also, we cannot ignore the psychological influence on the public, medical staff and confirmed patients. Dealing with public psychological barriers and performing psychological crisis intervention are an important part of public health interventions.

15.
Nature ; 583(7815): 286-289, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-210764

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses unprecedented challenges to global health1. The new coronavirus responsible for this outbreak-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-shares high sequence identity to SARS-CoV and a bat coronavirus, RaTG132. Although bats may be the reservoir host for a variety of coronaviruses3,4, it remains unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 has additional host species. Here we show that a coronavirus, which we name pangolin-CoV, isolated from a Malayan pangolin has 100%, 98.6%, 97.8% and 90.7% amino acid identity with SARS-CoV-2 in the E, M, N and S proteins, respectively. In particular, the receptor-binding domain of the S protein of pangolin-CoV is almost identical to that of SARS-CoV-2, with one difference in a noncritical amino acid. Our comparative genomic analysis suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may have originated in the recombination of a virus similar to pangolin-CoV with one similar to RaTG13. Pangolin-CoV was detected in 17 out of the 25 Malayan pangolins that we analysed. Infected pangolins showed clinical signs and histological changes, and circulating antibodies against pangolin-CoV reacted with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The isolation of a coronavirus from pangolins that is closely related to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that these animals have the potential to act as an intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2. This newly identified coronavirus from pangolins-the most-trafficked mammal in the illegal wildlife trade-could represent a future threat to public health if wildlife trade is not effectively controlled.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Eutheria/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , China , Chiroptera/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genomics , Host Specificity , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Malaysia , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombination, Genetic , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 954-955, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186555
17.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141629
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-41630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing epidemics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused serious concerns about its potential adverse effects on pregnancy. There are limited data on maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study to compare clinical characteristics, maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with and without COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: During January 24 to February 29, 2020, there were sixteen pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and eighteen suspected cases who were admitted to labor in the third trimester. Two had vaginal delivery and the rest took cesarean section. Few patients presented respiratory symptoms (fever and cough) on admission, but most had typical chest CT images of COVID-19 pneumonia. Compared to the controls, COVID-19 pneumonia patients had lower counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) on admission. Increased levels of WBC, neutrophils, eosinophils, and CRP were found in postpartum blood tests of pneumonia patients. There were three (18.8%) and three (16.7%) of the mothers with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 pneumonia had preterm delivery due to maternal complications, which were significantly higher than the control group. None experienced respiratory failure during hospital stay. COVID-19 infection was not found in the newborns and none developed severe neonatal complications. CONCLUSION: Severe maternal and neonatal complications were not observed in pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia who had vaginal delivery or caesarean section. Mild respiratory symptoms of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia highlight the need of effective screening on admission.

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